Free Sample: Computer Integrated Manufacturing paper example for writing essay

Computer Integrated Manufacturing - Essay Example

Ninja and A-Store (1993) states that the manufacturing industries have become the most important contributors to prosperity for the industrialized nations. Computer technology in conjunction with software technology, has made available to the manufacturer tools which can greatly improve their reaction to a new market situation, speeding tools which can greatly improve their reaction to a new market situation, speeding up the design of products, improving process planning, mangling resource scheduling and streamlining production flow through factories.

When the computer has become a major component of a manufacturing system and helps to plan and operate it, we call it Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CAM). Joseph Harrington Jar. (1973) mentions that the development of computer aids to other manufacturing process began to move forward. Computer aided design, numerically controlled Inspection and equipment assembly. Computerized test gear, and computer controlled materials-handling and storage systems all vied for center-stage attention.

Jean-Baptists Walden (1990) illuminates that CAM has become the key concept in future company strategy. Because it is sometimes referred to as an integrated system of production, the field of CAM has appeared to be restricted literally to factory production alone. In fact, the objective of CAM Is much more extensive: It alms to help with all business functions, not only with production, and to establish close. Systematic and frequent relationships between the various functional units by the optimum use of one of the basic resources of business: information.

David Betroth, Mark R. Henderson and Philip M. Wolfe (1991) explains that CAM is a major key to improve manufacturing as it ensures to reduce design-to-prototype lead times, fewer problems with engineering design change implementations ,flexible manufacturing capabilities, maximum production rates commensurate with reduced reduction costs, and many other needed production attributes. Alan Weather (1988) states that CAM is generally agreed to be a fundamental strategic issue that will effect everyone in a manufacturing company.

Some observers see CAM as providing an opportunity for the Western nations to recapture Jobs and wealth from the Far East. CAM Is therefore very Important. The business objectives of CAM are described, from analysis of the business environment to cost Justification Rank (1985) are the business data processing system which provides the financial, organizational and data processing foundation, integrated CAD and CAM offer imputer assistance in design, analysis, NC/CNN part programming, robot programming, etc. And FM systems are there to execute the established plans and schedules in a flexible way.

It must be emphasized that although CAM must be tailored to each individual business and/or organization a major part of it is common from the system design point of view to many industries. P. Corruption (1992) mentions that the larger companies which used mainframe computing to accomplish the functions of computer assisted design and manufacture had the advantage of several years to absorb the stages of steadily advancing automation, changing the organization gradually. Genesis, Nil;fear and Eosin, Mural (2004) mentions Communication acts a central role in computer-integrated manufacturing (CAM).

The choice of communication system widely determines the capability and productivity of a factory as a whole. Moreover, in the implementation of CAM systems, the costs associated with the interconnection of the individual CAM components are very important. In CAM, communication is largely used to control programmable manufacturing equipment. Lee, Teethe (1990) states that Computer-integrated manufacturing (CAM) helps maintain the integrity of al phases of an automated manufacturing system. The CAM environment needs Just- in-time TIT) production to avoid overproduction. Ronald P.

Mansard (1995) explains that the hope that profitability can be increased or maximized with automation has been the driving force for computer integrated manufacturing (CAM). The CAM concept is a combination of all production-related activities to be completely integrated by means of computer-supported systems. Knight Ray, Knight Lee and Denote Patrick (1991) states that CAM is a manufacturing automation goal whereby such systems as manufacturing resource planning, imputer-aided drafting and design, computer-aided engineering, and computer- aided manufacturing are integrated into one shared resource.

Paul G. Rank (1985) illustrates that the technology applied in CAM makes intensive use of distributed computer networks and data processing techniques, Artificial Intelligence and Database Management Systems. Ralston and Mutton Tony (1987) remarks that CAD/ CAM alone is not CAM, but engineering data lies at the heart of CAM. Ronald P. Mansard (1995) clarifies CAM has become an even more vital strategic weapon for many industries including pharmaceuticals, electronics, clothing and food in cent years, in reducing industrial processing times, improving quality and lowering costs.

While once thought to be primarily used by large operations, small and mid- size manufacturers are “bullish” on automating. In the past few years, there have been major improvements in CAM concepts and utilization in terms of a truly integrated systems. CAM can be and is used for improved quality, for lower cost, for business speed, to be competitive, and for increased profit. U. Remold, B. O. Ninja and A. Store (1993): “Computer Integrated Manufacturing and Engineering”. Boston: Addison Wesley. P. Xv-xix.

Free Sample: Computer integrated manufacturing paper example for writing essay

Computer integrated manufacturing - Essay Example

The third sequence is presented by letter and identify the production operation type and sequence. To create an Pipit coding system to code a common ball pen, the table 1 was used. According to the data from the table 1, the primary coding to the ball pen Illustrated at figure 1 should be 30100. The first number Is related with the part class. The analyses pen has 14 centimeter of length and 0. 5 centimeter of diameter, resulting In L/D> 3. The following number represents external shape and external shape elements.

In the case study, the ball pen does not have shape elements resulting in umber O. The next number is 1, because the ball pen is smooth and one end and does not have shape elements. The ball pen does not have surface machine, so the next number is O. The last number is related to auxiliary holes and gear teeth, which are thing that the ball pen studied does not have, resulting in a number O. Figure 1: Ball Pen Table 1: Pipit Coding System 1. 2 Working Cell 1. 2. Binary Coded Algorithm A work cell group was formed using Binary Coded Algorithm. Firstly, a table was created relating the products with the required machines. When a machine is squired to produce a product, the number 1 was added at the table. If the machine is not required, the number O was added. Once the table was completed, the Binary Coded Algorithm was calculated, as can be seen at table 2. Thus, the table was reorganized In a crescent order and groped In two families. However, there were 7 constraints, as can be seen at table 3.

Table 3: work cell Machine AK AD AC Number 811 569 276 79 52 35 28 26 14 7 3 1. 2. 2 Similarity Coefficient As the Binary coded algorithm does not consider the production volume, a new work cell was organized using a similarity coefficient. Similarity coefficient is defined according to the figure 2 expression, where Xiii is the operation on part k performed both machines I & J; Yak the operation on part k performed Just on machine l; k is the operation on part k performed on machine J; and Vs. is the production volume of part k.

Figure 2: Similarity Coefficient The similarity coefficient was calculate to every possible par of machines and the results are displayed at table 4. Once the Similarity coefficient was calculated, the machines were groped considering its similarities. For example, the two machines hat have the highest similarity coefficient is A and B and machines B, F and C have the lowest coefficient. Thus, the machines A and B were positioned together. The figure 3 displays the new work cell.

Question 2 a) Make to Stock: This strategy is based on the fact that the customer demand is well known and predictable, which lead the company to work with few production options and to create inventories to respond it, decreasing therefore, the lead time. Assembly to Stock: This strategy is similar to Make to Stock. However, since the company offers a range of different options to its customers, who are not willing to wait when they make an order, sub-assemblies are built and stored in order to educe the lead time, which is higher than the Make to Stock.

Make to Order: At a Make to Order Strategy, products are customized according to customers’ requirements. Company offers a wide range of options, which are only manufactured after receiving a customer’ order. Since the available goods are customized, and this away, the customer is willing to wait, use of big inventories is no longer necessary. Engineering to Order: This strategy offers a high level of customization to its customization, which lead company to work with low inventories and long lead time. B)