Ninja and A-Store (1993) states that the manufacturing industries have become the most important contributors to prosperity for the industrialized nations. Computer technology in conjunction with software technology, has made available to the manufacturer tools which can greatly improve their reaction to a new market situation, speeding tools which can greatly improve their reaction to a new market situation, speeding up the design of products, improving process planning, mangling resource scheduling and streamlining production flow through factories.
When the computer has become a major component of a manufacturing system and helps to plan and operate it, we call it Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CAM). Joseph Harrington Jar. (1973) mentions that the development of computer aids to other manufacturing process began to move forward. Computer aided design, numerically controlled Inspection and equipment assembly. Computerized test gear, and computer controlled materials-handling and storage systems all vied for center-stage attention.
Jean-Baptists Walden (1990) illuminates that CAM has become the key concept in future company strategy. Because it is sometimes referred to as an integrated system of production, the field of CAM has appeared to be restricted literally to factory production alone. In fact, the objective of CAM Is much more extensive: It alms to help with all business functions, not only with production, and to establish close. Systematic and frequent relationships between the various functional units by the optimum use of one of the basic resources of business: information.
David Betroth, Mark R. Henderson and Philip M. Wolfe (1991) explains that CAM is a major key to improve manufacturing as it ensures to reduce design-to-prototype lead times, fewer problems with engineering design change implementations ,flexible manufacturing capabilities, maximum production rates commensurate with reduced reduction costs, and many other needed production attributes. Alan Weather (1988) states that CAM is generally agreed to be a fundamental strategic issue that will effect everyone in a manufacturing company.
Some observers see CAM as providing an opportunity for the Western nations to recapture Jobs and wealth from the Far East. CAM Is therefore very Important. The business objectives of CAM are described, from analysis of the business environment to cost Justification Rank (1985) are the business data processing system which provides the financial, organizational and data processing foundation, integrated CAD and CAM offer imputer assistance in design, analysis, NC/CNN part programming, robot programming, etc. And FM systems are there to execute the established plans and schedules in a flexible way.
It must be emphasized that although CAM must be tailored to each individual business and/or organization a major part of it is common from the system design point of view to many industries. P. Corruption (1992) mentions that the larger companies which used mainframe computing to accomplish the functions of computer assisted design and manufacture had the advantage of several years to absorb the stages of steadily advancing automation, changing the organization gradually. Genesis, Nil;fear and Eosin, Mural (2004) mentions Communication acts a central role in computer-integrated manufacturing (CAM).
The choice of communication system widely determines the capability and productivity of a factory as a whole. Moreover, in the implementation of CAM systems, the costs associated with the interconnection of the individual CAM components are very important. In CAM, communication is largely used to control programmable manufacturing equipment. Lee, Teethe (1990) states that Computer-integrated manufacturing (CAM) helps maintain the integrity of al phases of an automated manufacturing system. The CAM environment needs Just- in-time TIT) production to avoid overproduction. Ronald P.
Mansard (1995) explains that the hope that profitability can be increased or maximized with automation has been the driving force for computer integrated manufacturing (CAM). The CAM concept is a combination of all production-related activities to be completely integrated by means of computer-supported systems. Knight Ray, Knight Lee and Denote Patrick (1991) states that CAM is a manufacturing automation goal whereby such systems as manufacturing resource planning, imputer-aided drafting and design, computer-aided engineering, and computer- aided manufacturing are integrated into one shared resource.
Paul G. Rank (1985) illustrates that the technology applied in CAM makes intensive use of distributed computer networks and data processing techniques, Artificial Intelligence and Database Management Systems. Ralston and Mutton Tony (1987) remarks that CAD/ CAM alone is not CAM, but engineering data lies at the heart of CAM. Ronald P. Mansard (1995) clarifies CAM has become an even more vital strategic weapon for many industries including pharmaceuticals, electronics, clothing and food in cent years, in reducing industrial processing times, improving quality and lowering costs.
While once thought to be primarily used by large operations, small and mid- size manufacturers are “bullish” on automating. In the past few years, there have been major improvements in CAM concepts and utilization in terms of a truly integrated systems. CAM can be and is used for improved quality, for lower cost, for business speed, to be competitive, and for increased profit. U. Remold, B. O. Ninja and A. Store (1993): “Computer Integrated Manufacturing and Engineering”. Boston: Addison Wesley. P. Xv-xix.