It is not possible to achieve this ideal as a clear specification of a robber is often not available and developing an algorithm from specifications requires subject knowledge and expertise. In actual practice, a detailed algorithm to solve a problem Is the starting point and It Is expressed as a program In a programming language. A large number of languages, over a thousand, exist each catering to a different class of applications.
All modern programming languages (with one exception) are designed to be machine independent. In other words, the structure of the programming language would not depend upon the internal structure of a specified computer; one should be able to execute a program written n the programming language on any computer regardless of who manufactured It or what model It Is. Programming Language Is a set of Instructions (codes) that controls a computer to perform some processing function or combination of functions.
For the instructions to be carried out, a computer must execute a program, that is, the computer reads the program, and then follows the steps encoded in the program in a precise order until completion. A program can be executed many different times, with each execution yielding a potentially different result depending upon the options and data that the user gives the computer. It can also be simply defined as the process of specifying objects and the ways In which those objects Interact to solve a problem.
A computer is not intelligent. It cannot analyses a problem and come up with a solution. A human (the programmer) must analyses the problem, develop the objects and instructions for solving the problem, and then have the computer carry out the instructions, synonymously it means the computer is garbage in garbage out’ device. Programming languages are adopted in various fields of life due to Its efficient and effective utilization to maximize ones performance.
A program Is prepared by first formulating a task and then expressing it in an appropriate computer language, presumably one suited to the application. The specification thus rendered is translated, commonly in several stages, into a coded program directly executable by the computer on which the task is to be run. Computer programming goes beyond software development. The profession also extends to the adaptation of software for Internal use, and the Insertion of code that allows a program to be modified for a function that Is unique to a given environment.
When this Is the case, he computer programmer may be employed with a company that wishes to use existing software as the foundation for a customized platform that will be utilized as part of the company intranet. Summarily, computer programming is all about developing, adapting, and maintaining all the programs that many of us rely upon for both work and play. Programmers are constantly In demand for all of these three ways to make use of computer technology for all sorts of tasks.
With this in mind, computer programming is a very stable profession to enter and provides many different possibilities of employment opportunities. A programming language is symbolization for writing programs, which are description of a computation or algorithm. Some, but not all times, the term “programming language” are restricted to those languages that can express all possible algorithms. Programming languages differ from natural languages in that natural languages are only used for interaction between people, while programming languages also allow humans to communicate instructions to machines.
Attributes often considered essential for what constitutes a programming language include: Function and target: A computer programming language is a language used to write imputer programs, which involve a computer performing some kind of computation or algorithm and possibly control external devices such as printers, disk drive robots and so on. For example PostScript programs are frequently created by another program to control a computer printer or display. More generally, a programming language may describe computation on some, possibly abstract, machine.
It is generally accepted that a complete specification for a programming language includes a description, possibly idealized, of a machine or processor for that language. In most practical contexts, a programming language involves a computer; inconsequently, programming languages are usually defined and studied this way. Programming languages differ from natural language in that natural languages are only used for interaction between people, while programming languages also allow humans to communicate instructions to machines. Abstractions: Programming languages usually contain abstractions for defining and manipulating data structures or controlling the flow of execution. The practical necessity that a programming language support adequate abstractions is expressed by the abstraction principle; this principle is sometimes formulated as recommendation to the programmer to cake proper use of such abstractions. 0 Expressive power: The theory of computation classifies languages by the computations they are capable of expressing. All Turning complete languages can implement the same set of algorithms.
The points below are systematic process a programmer can embrace to write a good program; 0 Defining the problem (Analyses Requirement). It entails familiarize with the challenge concise and good understanding of the problem so as to proffer solution easily and correctly. Planning the solution (Design Solution). After the problem has been established, previous understanding will enable the programmer to be able to tackle and counter he problems by a well-defined and correct means to solve the problem. Pre-coding the program (Validate Design). Coding the program (Implement Design).
Testing the program (Test Solution). Documenting the program (Document Solution). The structure of the programming language would not depend upon the internal in the programming language on any computer regardless of who manufactured it or what model it is. Such languages are known as high level machine independent programming languages. HISTORY OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE The first programming languages predate the modern computer. The 19th century saw the invention of “programmable” looms and player piano scrolls, both of which implemented examples of domain specific languages.
By the beginning of the twentieth century, punch cards encoded data and directed mechanical processing. In the sass and sass, the formalisms of Alonzo Church’s, lambda calculus and Alan Turning machines provided mathematical abstractions for expressing algorithms; the lambda calculus remains influential in language design. In the sass, the first electrically powered digital computers were created. Grace Hopper, was one of the first programmers of the Harvard Mark I imputer, a pioneer in the field, developed the first compiler, around 1952, for a computer programming language.
Notwithstanding, the idea of programming language existed earlier; the first high-level programming language to be designed for a computer was Plank;l, developed for the German Z by Conrad Use between 1943 and 1945. However, it was not implemented until 1998 and 2000. Programmers of early sass computers, notably UNIVAC I and IBM 701, used machine language programs, in other words, the first generation language (1 GEL). First generation language programming was quickly superseded by similarly machine- pacific, second generation languages (GEL) known as assembly languages or “assembler”.
Later in the sass, assembly language programming, which had evolved to include the use of macro instructions, was followed by the development of third generation programming languages (GEL), such as FORTRAN, LISP and COBOL . Third least implemented similarly on computers that do not support the same native machine code. Updated versions of all of these third generation programming language are still in general use, and each has strongly influenced the development of later languages. At the end of the sass, the language formalized as ALGAL 60 was introduced, and later programming languages are, in many respects, descendants of Algal.
Advantages of Assembly Language I) Assembly language is easier to understand and use as compared to machine language. It) It is easy to locate and correct errors. I. E. Locating error is not a cumbersome exercise. Iii) Assembly language can be easily modified to suit desired program. Disadvantages of Assembly Language I) Like machine language it is also machine dependent. It) Since it is machine dependent therefore programmer should have the knowledge of the hardware. HIGH LEVEL LANGUAGE: The assembly languages started languages are the computer language in which it is much easier to write a program Han the low level language.
A program written in high-level language is Just like gibing instruction to person in daily life. It was in 1957 that a high level language called FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslation) was developed by IBM which was specially developed for scientist and engineers other high level languages are COBOL which is widely used for business data processing task. BASIC (Basic All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) language which is developed for the beginners in general purpose programming language. C- Language can be utilized for almost any programming task.
PASCAL is another high level language which has gained widespread acceptance. High-level languages were developed because of the difficulty of programming using assembly languages. High-level languages are easier to use than machine and assembly languages because their commands are closer to natural human language. In addition, these languages are not CPU-specific. Instead, they contain general commands that work on different JPL’s. For example, a programmer writing in the high-level C++ programming language who wants to display a greeting need include only the following command: scout