Hardware is important because it carries out the * in putting of data * processing of data * storage of data/information * out putting of information * Communications of the system (it) Software Software refers to electronic instructions that tell the computer how to perform a task. These are a series of programs (instructions) that tell the computer what and how to work. Computer software is categorized into System Software and Application Software. System Software consists of programs that control the operations of the computer and its devices.
System Software consists of the Operating System (SO), Utility Software and Programming Languages. * An Operating System is as software that controls the execution of computer Unix, Linux, Windows 8, etc. * Utility software is a computer program designed for general support of processes of a computer. It is a kind of system software designed to help analyze, configure, optimize and maintain the computer. Examples of utilities include Antivirus software, disk defragmenters, data recovery, screener utility, etc. * A programming language is a set of commands used to write computer software.
Examples of programming languages are C++, PH, SQL, Java, PH, Python, BASIC, etc. Application software are programs that perform specific tasks for users. They solve the particular needs of the end user. Application software are categorized as: * Off the shelf (packed software) e. G. Microfiche suite * Custom (tailor made) e. G. School management system. (iii) Data/limitation * Data refers to a collection of raw facts and figures that are processed into information. Data is anything in a form suitable for input into a computer for processing.
Examples of data include: letters (e. G. , a, b, c, … ) * words and symbols * numbers * examination scores * musical notes Data is the foundation for information. * Information refers to the processed data that is organized, meaningful, and useful. Examples of Information are * words (e. G. , apple, boy, cat) * a report, a letter, an essay * a mathematical formula * comments, grades * a piece of music, a song Data/limitation is important because they are the basis of decision making, planning, analysis, forecast, discovering the past, present and future. (iv) User (Human ware)
User/human ware refers to the people who operate and initialize instructions to the computer system This is the most important component of a computer system used to design and develop computer systems, operate the computer hardware, create the software, and establish procedures for carrying out tasks. Users are categorized as Ordinary and Professional Users. * Ordinary user is someone without much technical knowledge of computers but uses computers to produce information for professional or personal tasks, enhance learning, or have fun. * A computer professional user is a person in a profession amputees.
Examples of professional users are: * Computer programmer * System analyst * System administrator * Database administrator * Network administrator. * Graphics designers * Web Designers/webmasters * Computer technicians * Computer tutors / instructors/ teachers * Secretaries / Typists * Software Engineers Importance of users – * Data entry * manipulating the computer system * programming the computer * administering the network * analyzing the computer system (v) Communications This is the process of transferring data between computer systems or devices.
This is the linking of one device of a computer to another. Communications Hardware facilitates connection between computers and computer systems over phone lines and other channels. Communication through computer networks involves Internet, Intranets, LANA, WAN, MAN, PAN, etc. Examples of communication media are: * Modems * Cables * Computer * Bridges * routers * gateways * Repeaters * Hub Importance of communications * Linking up computer devices and computers * Enabling the flow of data * Enabling the flow of instructions * Networking of computers