SAP Material Management Document - Essay Example

The main objective of this document is to provide a Business Requirement document of SAP Material Management. This document gives a brief introduction about the various features of SAP Material Management Software. The document will give an explanation how this software could enhance the productivity of any organization and how to implement it to gain the maximum gains out of it. SAP is an enterprise information software which gives a cutting edge to any organization which uses it, so it is required to give the description of the same in brief. The information has been described in detailed in the following pages.

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Purpose of the Document

The document would give brief about.

The functionality of SAP Material Management with a brief description of the same
The various features and characteristics of SAP Material Management which make it useful to the market.
The document will guide through various aspects and pros and cons of using SAP Material Management.

SAP is abbreviation for System Application and Product in data processing. SAP is the the third largest software provider in the world. It was founded by 5 IBM employees back in 1972 in Walldorf, Germany.

SAP is basically an enterprise resource planning software (ERP) which is designed to incorporate resource management, manage data and perform process which are essential for business activities as in gaining and working around orders, billing of activities and HR management. SAP sits upon real time activity, It can be configured accoriding to the demand in the market. That is one of the most advance feature of SAP that it is very user friendly and readily adaptive to changes and requirements.

This help in achieving the goal in a very short time period, as the customer needs and requirement keep on changing constantly hence this module is designed in such a way so as to accommodate the changes as soon as possible.

SAP combines both time and cost and integrate all the data in a single module. Companies use SAP to keep up with their business demands.

SAP MM known as SAP Material Management system. SAP Material Management works in the business activities as follows.

A business course in SAP is labelled as “Module”.
SAP Materials Management (MM) is a fragment of Logistics area and provideA‚A to handleA‚A the obtaining course of an organization from procurement.
It compliments all features of material management (decision making, regulate etc.).
It is the mainframe of the Logistics area which includes features like Marketing and Sales, Design Development, Plant Control, Project Feasibility, Warehouse Development and design which are very dependent on Materials Management module.

Features of SAP MM

The basic functionality and features of SAP MM system are:

SAP MM module of SAP deals with material and inventory management
Material Management module takes charge of the fact that there is no gap in the material which can hinder the Supply chain process in any company. SAP MM expedite the obtaining and material handling activities taking into account both time and cost factors.
It works with detailing the material management (both the services and delivery output) modules of an identity with the focus on keeping up the efficiency, decimating various cost factors and improving the overall productivity and also be able to handle the real time changes.
It works with the Procurement handling, managing the mater data for both the client and vendor, account recognition and evaluation of the various materials, Inventory management and invoice authentication, Material requirement handling and Planning.

Benefits of SAP MM

Most business associations need to deal with a procedure that starts with sourcing and acquisition of various types of materials and assets. In this way, from the time that such acquirement starts, to the time that the installment is finished, there is the need for a procedure that is proficient, viable and bodes well also.

Also, this is precisely where SAP MM becomes possibly the most important factor. With such learning levels, a business association can appreciate:

Better seller administration,
Streamlined information stockpiling, recovery and use,
Better buying systems,
Smoother stock administration,
Higher nature of materials assessment and
Overall change in quality control also.

Considering the way that low quality materials will cut down the general nature of the completed merchandise or items, each business association will in reality need to put resources into smooth materials administration forms.

A portion of the advantages of SAP MM touch upon key viewpoints, for example,

A superior comprehension of hierarchical structure,
Better control over coordinations and receipt check,
Clearer comprehension of various buy methodology,
Forecasting materials prerequisites,
Creating and utilizing MIS or Management Information Systems with particular reference to materials administration.

SAP MM Process Flow

The run of the mill acquirement cycle for an administration or material comprises of the accompanying stages:

1. Assurance of Requirements

Materials necessities are distinguished either in the client offices or through materials arranging and control. (This can cover both MRP appropriate and the request based way to deal with stock control. The consistent checking of stock levels of materials characterized by ace records, utilization of the request point strategy, and anticipating on the premise of past use are imperative parts of the last mentioned.) You can enter buy demands yourself, or they can be produced consequently by the materials arranging and control framework.

2. Source Determination

The Purchasing segment helps you recognize potential wellsprings of supply in view of past requests and existing longer-term buy assentions. This speeds the way toward making demands for citation (RFQs), which can be sent to sellers electronically by means of SAP EDI, if wanted.

3. Seller Selection and Comparison of Quotations

The framework is fit for recreating evaluating situations, permitting you to think about various distinctive citations. Dismissal letters can be sent naturally.

4. Buy Order Processing

The Purchasing framework receives data from the demand and the citation to help you make a buy arrange. Similarly as with buy demands, you can create Pos yourself or have the framework produce them consequently. Merchant planning assentions and contracts (in the SAP System, sorts of longer-term buy understanding) are likewise upheld.

5. Buy Order Follow-Up

The framework checks the update time frames you have determined and – if important – consequently prints updates or expediters at the predefined interims. It likewise furnishes you with an a la mode status of all buy demands, citations, and buy orders.

6. Products Receiving and Inventory Management

Products Receiving work force can affirm the receipt of merchandise essentially by entering the Po number. By indicating passable resiliences, purchasers can confine over-and underdeliveries of requested products.

7. Receipt Verification

The framework bolsters the checking and coordinating of solicitations. The records payable representative is told of amount and value fluctuations in light of the fact that the framework has entry to PO and products receipt information. This speeds the procedure of inspecting and clearing solicitations for installment.

Regular Tables utilized by SAP MM:

The following are couple of essential Common Tables utilized as a part of Materials Management Modules:

EINA Purchasing Info Record-General Data

EINE Purchasing Info Record-Purchasing Organization Data

MAKT Material Descriptions

MARA General Material Data

MARC Plant Data for Material

MARD Storage Location Data for Material

Pole Material to BOM Link

MBEW Material Valuation

MKPF Header-Material Document

MSEG Document Segment-Material

MVER Material Consumption

MVKE Sales Data for materials

RKPF Document Header-Reservation

T023 Mat. bunches

T024 Purchasing Groups

T156 Movement Type

T157H Help Texts for Movement Types

MOFF Lists what sees have not been made

A501 Plant/Material

EBAN Purchase Requisition

EBKN Purchase Requisition Account Assignment

EKAB Release Documentation

EKBE History per Purchasing Document

EKET Scheduling Agreement Schedule Lines

EKKN Account Assignment in Purchasing Document

EKKO Purchasing Document Header

EKPO Purchasing Document Item

IKPF Header-Physical Inventory Document

ISEG Physical Inventory Document Items

LFA1 Vendor Master (General area)

LFB1 Vendor Master (Company Code)

NRIV Number range interims

RESB Reservation/subordinate prerequisites

T161T Texts for Purchasing Document Types

Exchange Codes:

RFQ to Vendor – ME41

Raising Quotation – ME47

Examination of Price – ME49

Production of PO – ME21N

Products Receipt – MIGO

Receipt (Bill PAssing) – MIRO

Products Issue – MB1A

Physical Inventory – MI01( Create doc)

MI04 (Enter Count)

MI07 (Post)

SD Process Flow:

The business archives you make are singular reports however they can likewise frame part of a chain of between related records. For instance, you may record a client’s phone request in the framework. The client next solicitations a citation, which you then make by alluding to the request. The client later submits a request on the premise of the citation and you make a business arrange with reference to the citation. You send the merchandise and bill the client. After conveyance of the merchandise, the client claims credit for some harmed products and you make a for nothing out of pocket conveyance with reference to the business arrange. The whole chain of reports – the request, the citation, the business arrange, the conveyance, the receipt, and the ensuing conveyance for nothing out of pocket – makes a record stream or history. The stream of information from one record into another decreases manual movement and makes issue determination less demanding. Request and citation administration in the Sales Information System help you to arrange and control your deals.

Exchange Codes:

Request – VA11/VA12/VA13

Citation – VA21/VA22/VA23

Deals Order – VA01/VA02/VA03

Conveyance – VL01N/VL02N/VL03N

Charging/Invoicing – VF01/VF02/VF03

Procurement Processing

To do with the business requirement all the organizations need materials. The Procurement process deals with the purchase of materials and taking services from various vendors. The whole Procurement activity should be facilitated so that it accounts for all the right measurement of the material accumulated at right time and at right cost. The procurement processing is further divided into following:

Basic Procurement
Special Procurement

Basic Procurement

Basic procurement is the activity of gaining or acquiring the services or material in the required amount with keeping onto account the cost and time. Hence the process of getting the services and equipment and supplies from the vendors in the right quantity and at right time is called procurement. The whole idea of Procurement I to strike the right balance for example:

Organizations generally keep the inventory to a low as the inventory management costs are quite high but at the same time if there is shortage of raw material during production activity it can cost to the company a lot.
Everyone always try to get the best price for any service but also balance between the product quality, vendor relationship and availability is also very important.

Procurement Lifecycle

Most present day associations acquisition take after some consecutive strides which are depicted underneath:

1.Requirement and Information Procurement:

Acquisition handle begins with get-together data about item and its amount. At that point for required items and administrations, it is important to search for providers who can fulfill the necessities.

2.Supplier Contact

In the wake of social occasion necessities one will search for the providers who can satisfy the prerequisites. In light of that citation demand or data demand can be reached can be made with them.

3.Background Review

Once the provider is known item/benefit quality is checked, and any necessities for administrations, for example, establishment, guarantee and its support are examined. A few specimens of the items can be acquired for quality examination.

4.Negotiation

A few arrangements with providers is made in regards to value, accessibility and conveyance timetable of the items/administrations. After this an agreement is marked that is a coupling authoritative report amongst provider and requesting party. An agreement will incorporate all fundamental data like cost and amount of material, conveyance date, and so on.

5.Order Completion

Requested material will be dispatched, conveyed to the requesting gathering and provider is paid as needs be. Preparing and Installation of item or administrations may likewise be incorporated.

6.Consumption, Maintenance and Disposal

As the items/administration is devoured the execution of the items or administrations is assessed and any subsequent administration bolster if required is dissected.

7.Contract Renewal

Once the item or administrations are devoured or contract lapses and should be reestablished, or the item or administration is to be re-requested, organization involvement with merchants and specialist co-op is inspected. In the event that the items or administrations are to be re-requested, the organization chooses whether to arrange from past provider or consider new providers.

The Basic Procurement is further divided into two subparts:

Procurement for Stock Vs Consumption
External Vs Internal Procurement

Procurement for Stock Vs Consumption

These two points gives the demarcation between the Stocks Vs Consuption:

For Stock- A stock material is a material that is kept in stock. These materials are kept in stock once got from the merchant. The supply of this material continues expanding or diminishing in light of measure of the amount got or issued. To arrange a material for stock, the material must have an ace record inside the framework.
For Consumption-At the point when acquirement is for direct utilization i.e. it will be expended when it is gotten, the client ought to indicate the utilization reason. To arrange a material for utilization, the material may have an ace record inside the framework.

External Vs Internal Procurement

Below given points gives the difference between the External and Internal Procurement

External- It is the way toward securing merchandise or administrations from outer sellers. There are 3 essential types of outside acquisition by and large bolstered by the Purchasing segment of IT framework.
One time orders are for the most part utilized for material and administrations that are requested unpredictably.
For materials that are being requested consistently and in huge amounts, we can arrange manage the merchant (vendor) for evaluating or conditions and record then in an agreement. In an agreement you likewise indicate the legitimacy date.
In the event that a material is requested on a regular premise and is to be conveyed by correct time plan, then you set up a planning understanding.
Huge corporate associations may claim different separate organizations or organizations. Inside Procurement is procedure of getting material and administrations from among indistinguishable organization. In this way, each of these organizations keeps up an entire accounting framework with particular Balance, Profit and Loss Statements so when exchange happens between them it will be recorded.

Unique Procurement

Unique stocks will be stocks that are overseen contrastingly as these stocks did not have a place with organization and these are being kept at some specific area. Exceptional acquisition and unique stocks sorts are isolated into the consequent regions.

Dispatch Stocks

Material that is accessible at our store premises, in any case despite everything it has a place with the merchant (dealer)/Owner of the material. In the event that you use the material from dispatch stocks, then you need to pay to the merchant.

Outsider preparing

In outsider preparing, an organization passes on a business request to partner outer merchant (vender) who sends the products specifically to the client. The business request is not prepared by your organization, however by the merchant (vender). Outsider things can be entered in buy orders, buy requests and deals orders.

Pipeline taking care of

In pipeline taking care of, the organization needs not to request or store the material included. It is possible as and when required by means of a pipeline (for instance, oil or water), or another style of link, (for example, power). The material that is devoured is settled with the merchant (vender) all the time.

Returnable Transport Stock

The organization orders merchandise from a seller (vender). The products are conveyed with returnable transport bundling (beds, compartments) that has a place with the merchant (vender) and is put away on the client premises until they return it to the organization.

Subcontracting

The seller (the subcontractor) gets segments from the requesting party with the assistance of which it delivers an item. The item is requested by your organization through a buy arrange. The segments required by the merchant (dealer) to fabricate the requested item are recorded in the buy request and gave to the subcontractor.

Stock exchange utilizing stock transport order

Products are obtained and provided inside an organization. One plant arrange the products inside from another plant (accepting plant/issuing plant). The products are secured with an extraordinary sort of procurement request – the stock transport arrange. You’ll have the capacity to demand and screen the exchange of merchandise with a stock transport arrange.

SAP MM-Organization Structure

Association structure is the system of organization as per which business is led in each. Organization structure comprises of many levels which have relationship to some. Association structure is additionally alluded as big business structure. Venture structure is comprised of numerous hierarchical units having association with each other.

SAP Implementation Guide

At the point when customer buys SAP it arrives in a CD in type of programming. At the point when SAP is initially introduced, SAP has its standard set up that should be arranged by need of customer i.e. association.

Setup of SAP programming like include fields, to change handle names, to alter drop down records and so forth to modify as indicated by working of your association is done through usage control known as IMG. IMG is the place we characterize venture structure and different settings that are required for working of SAP programming as indicated by need of an association.

SAP IMG Path

To do any sort of arrangement as per our association require the initial step is to achieve the execution (IMG) control screen. We can achieve usage control in 2 ways:

Menu way
Value-based code
Menu way

We can explore through the accompanying way to contact IMG:

SAP Easy Access => Tools => Customizing => IMG => Execute Project

SAP IMG Path

Value-based code

Best and basic approach to connect any SAP screen is TCode i.e. value-based code. Value-based code to connect IMG: SPRO (SAP Project Reference Object). Enter the Transaction code in order field and afterward tap on enter.

SAP TCODE

SAP IMG

IMG screen can be connected quite recently by taking after the underneath steps:

After SPRO, on the following screen tap on SAP Reference IMG.

SAP IMG

Next Screen will show up as takes after. This is the last screen from where we can do setups.

SAP Display IMG

Each association has some system or some structure is characterized by the entire business runs. Endeavor structure is the structure that speaks to an undertaking in SAP ERP framework. It is subdivided into different hierarchical units which for lawful reason or business related reason are assembled together.

Endeavor structure characterizes different levels in an association. These levels are set by chain of importance. Every level has some particular usefulness connected with it, which combinedly portrays the working of an association. Likewise endeavor structure characterizes different authoritative units that are available in an undertaking. The Organizational Structure in MM comprises of taking after Organizational Levels:

Customer
Organization Code
Plant
Capacity Location
Acquiring Organization
Acquiring Group

Taking after graph is one such authoritative structure which depicts the levels consolidated in an association. Customer being at the highest, trailed by numerous organization code, trailed by various plants, plants having different capacity area with their own particular or brought together buying associations.

Customer

The basic clarification of Client is as per the following:

Customer is a business authoritative unit in R/3 framework.
It has its own arrangement of ace information with autonomous table sets.
As per progression, Client is at most elevated amount in SAP framework.
Information that is kept up at customer level is legitimate for every single authoritative level.
Organization Code

The key clarification of Company Code is as per the following:

Inside Client, Company code is the free bookkeeping unit.
It is a legitimate substance that has its own benefit, misfortune and adjust proclamation.
It is the littlest unit in association for which a total free record set can be reproduced.
Plant

The central clarification of Plant is as per the following:

Plant is an authoritative unit inside an organization where exercises happen. A plant will create merchandise and makes products accessible for the organization.
It is unit having fabricating office, stockroom conveyance focus or a local deals office inside calculated. It subdivides a venture in various viewpoints.
Capacity Location

The basic clarification of Storage Location is as per the following:

Capacity area is an authoritative unit which really separates between various material stocks in a Plant.
Capacity area is a place where stock is kept physically.
Plant can comprise of different stockpiling area. All information is put away at capacity area level for a specific stockpiling area.
Obtaining Organization

The crucial clarification of Purchasing Organization is as per the following:

Obtaining Organization is an authoritative unit under organization or plant which is in charge of acquisition exercises as per prerequisites. It is in charge of outside Procurement.
Obtaining association can be at customer level i.e. brought together buying association.
Obtaining association can be at organization or plant level i.e. organization particular or plant particular

Diverse types of buying can be portrayed as takes after:

Incorporated Purchasing

Acquiring association is not doled out to any organization code it obtains for all organization codes having a place with various customer.

Organization particular Purchasing

Buying association is alloted to an organization code just, Plant having a place with the organization code can buy through this Purchasing association.

Plant particular Purchasing

Buying association is alloted to a Plant, just this particular Plant can buy through this Purchasing association.

Buying Group

The basic clarification of Purchasing Group is as per the following:

Obtaining gathering is an authoritative unit which is in charge of ordinary acquisition exercises inside an association.
It is a purchaser or gathering of purchaser in charge of obtainment exercises in an acquiring association.
Prerequisite Analysis

SAP MM gives usefulness to keeping up the accompanying expert information:

Materials
Administrations
Merchants
Acquiring Info Records
Source List
Merchant Evaluation Criteria
Conditions (Commercial)
Installment Terms
Proposed Business Process:
Materials:

The material doc contains data on every one of the materials that an organization acquires or delivers, stores, and offers. It is the organization’s focal hotspot for recovering material-particular information. This data is put away in individual material ace records.

The material master is utilized by all parts in the SAP Logistics System. The incorporation of every material dat in a solitary database protest kills repetitive information stockpiling. In the SAP Logistics System, the information contained in the material ace is required, for instance, for the accompanying capacities:

In Purchasing for requesting

In Inventory Management for products development postings and physical stock

In Invoice Verification for posting solicitations

In Sales and Distribution for deals arrange preparing

In Production Planning and Control for material prerequisites arranging, booking, and work planning

Vendor Master

Benefit ace records, in which depictions of all administrations that may should be obtained can be put away

Vendor Master

Information in merchant ace records controls how exchange information is posted and handled for a seller. The seller ace record additionally contains every one of the information you require to work with your merchants.

The ace record is utilized in Accounting as well as in Materials Management. By putting away seller ace information midway and sharing it all through your association, you just need to enter it once. You can avert irregularities in ace information by keeping up it midway. On the off chance that one of your merchants changes their address, you just need to enter this change once and you’re bookkeeping and obtaining offices will dependably have exceptional data.

Buy information records

You utilize this part in the event that you wish to store data on a merchant and a material as ace information at obtaining association or plant level. You can make obtaining data records for various acquirement sorts (standard, subcontracting, pipeline, dispatch).

Source List

The source rundown is utilized as a part of the organization of wellsprings of supply.

It indicates the permitted (and prohibited) wellsprings of a material for a specific plant inside a predefined period. Every source is characterized by method for a source list record.

Vendor Evaluation Condition

The Vendor Evaluation segment underpins you in advancing your obtainment forms on account of both materials and administrations.

Necessity Analysis

1. You can recognize material or record changes that are rolled out with reference to an improvement number by the utilization of modification levels.

When you need to handle the BOMs for these materials or records at a later date, you can discover and call them utilizing either the change number or the modification level.

You can relegate a modification level to a material either from a building change administration work or while you are handling a material ace record or BOM for the material.

2. Over conveyances

In the standard, over conveyances are not permitted. In case of an over conveyance, the framework issues a blunder message.

On the off chance that over conveyances are to be permitted, you can determine the accompanying information in the buy arrange:

Boundless pointer

On the off chance that this marker is set, over conveyances of any size are permitted. The framework does not issue any message.

Over conveyance resilience

You can enter a rate over conveyance resilience in the buy arrange. On the off chance that an amount of merchandise is gotten that is bigger than the request amount in addition to the over conveyance resistance, it is not acknowledged by the framework.

3.Scrap calculate is for the most part considered the Bill of Materials of generation arranging module

4. By utilizing the important fields in net prerequisites arranging and booking of MRP2 view in material ace this can be tended to.

5. Framework Distinguishes between the accompanying units of measure.

Base Unit of measure

This is the unit of measure in which the loads of a material are overseen.

This is the unit of measure in which the supplies of a material are overseen. The framework changes over all amounts entered in different units to the base unit of measure.

Elective units of measure

Singular offices may have their own particular units of measure. For instance, Purchasing may utilize an alternate unit than Sales or Warehouse Management (WM). All units of measure other than the base unit of measure are alluded to as option units of measure. The MM System underpins the accompanying option units of measure:

Arrange unit

Permits a material to be requested in a unit varying from the base unit of measure. The request unit is proposed consequently in buying capacities, where it can be changed.

Deals unit

Permits a material to be sold in a unit varying from the base unit of measure. The business unit is proposed consequently in the business arrange, where it can be changed.

Unit of issue

Unit of measure in which the material is issued from the Stores. It permits utilization, stock exchanges, exchange postings, and physical inventories to be recorded in a unit varying from the base unit of measure and from the stock keeping unit.

8. FIFO valuations are a strategy that empowers you to valuate the supplies of a material as practically as could be expected under the circumstances. FIFO (first in, first out) stands for the presumption that the principal supplies of a material to be gotten are the first to be devoured. The estimation of the stock is in this way figured in view of the last stocks got.

FIFO valuation has various employments:

Posting the FIFO estimations of specific materials.

When you run FIFO valuation, the framework figures the FIFO estimations of the materials concerned. The outcomes are shown as a rundown that contains the accompanying data:

– The end stock amount and shutting stock esteem for every material for the period being referred to and the FIFO esteem and the contrast amongst that and the stock esteem

– The net esteem in view of most reduced esteem assurance (on the off chance that you do FIFO valuation with least esteem examination)

– The sums for every valuation region or organization code by material stock record

– The sums by valuation region or organization code

9. Date Freezing – There are Various components accessible in SAP System highlights like Scheduling for actuation of recently made materials, changes Display and so on., Also one can make utilization of setting cancellation marker for a material at different levels in the association structure.

10. Look control is an ActiveX segment. It was produced to bolster the SAP look help procedure.

Rather than the past pursuit help system, which utilized MM discourse boxes, look control utilizes an exchange strategy that is session-autonomous. This implies the client can just open hunt help windows each one in turn.

Seek help windows may, in any case, stay open inside a solitary exchange. This permits you to allude to the outcomes showed in a specific pursuit help window on resulting screens of a similar exchange.

With match codes, you can utilize the menu to browse the different distinctive pursuit potential outcomes showed

Tapping on the correct mouse catch shows the majority of the hunt control capacities accessible in the present setting.

11. A material may have different records, for example, drawings and photos relegated to it. The framework separates between these archives by method for the report sort. In the event that your organization uses SAP’s archive administration framework, you can oversee reports and dole out existing records to a material in the material ace record. Archive information is overseen at customer level.

12. There are different potential outcomes for keeping up material code. It is proposed to go for a solitary code as opposed to keeping up two distinct codes for a material.

13. Materials might be made according to the task to the association structure. Arrangement to characterize different capacity areas according to the Organization

Merchandise Receipt When Quality Management (QM) is Active

The SAP System separates between two distinct types of value administration:

Quality Management in Material Procurement
Quality Management in Material Inspection
Quality Management in Material Procurement

Quality administration should be dynamic for acquisition, Organizations can characterize in the material master record (Quality Management screen) that a declaration is required for the material.

In the event that an authentication is required, the framework shows a container amid merchandise receipt for a buy where you can affirm the receipt of a declaration.

Quality Management in Material Inspection

In the event that an assessment at the season of merchandise receipt has been characterized for the material, the framework consequently makes an investigation part when the products receipt is posted. Quality Management utilizes this investigation part to do the assessment.

Might be viewed as, .QM module in light of the example drawing method.

Summary

The document above give the various functionality of SAP MM A and how it can impact any organization and the Business Requirement Document shows how it can be implemented and what can be various showstoppers in the implementation and configuration of SAP MM.