The usage of one Inappropriate word can change the total meaning of the question. Once the survey objectives have been met then that particular questionnaire is considered a good and a successful questionnaire. Creation of Questionnaire 1. O The Problem and the Plan Incidentals of authorization and submittal 1. 1 The following report has been handed over to analyses the essence of a Questionnaire. 1. 2 Objectives The basic criteria of this report Is to understand what Is meant by the term development of a questionnaire.
And which kinds of questions are to be phrased within a questionnaire during its development stage. 1. 3 Historical Background The co-founder of the questionnaire was Sir Francis Gallon. It serves as a guideline for many marketing researchers. It could be based on any subject. 1. 4 Report Preview The report is divided into three categories conceptual skills, application skills and the empirical skills. Firstly, it constitutes of the conceptual skills which highly concentrates on the concepts relating to Questionnaire.
The term questionnaire has been defined followed by the steps that are involved in the creation of a questionnaire. Later on the several factors have been discussed that are highly recommended to make use of it while forming the questions. An in-depth research analysis has been conducted (three online Journal article have been researched) for the purpose of demonstrating the different types of surveys that has been performed for distinctive aspects in the real time application . I. E. Application Skills. 2. Conceptual Skills 2. 1 Introduction The term Questionnaire can be defined as a structured technique used for the collection of data based information that comprises of a set or a group of questions concentrating on any particular theme or a topic which are to be answered by the respondents. (Malory, 2004) A big amount of data is usually collected through the questionnaire forms from a large number of respondents. This questionnaire method is basically used in the econometric marketing research. (Cooper, D, 2006) 2. Creation of a Questionnaire Construction of the questionnaire forms is an essential step in the survey being successful. The elementary steps to be considered while making a questionnaire are: Planning for Evaluation The researcher should be clear with the type of information he/she is searching for as per suiting his/her necessities. They should be well aware of their concepts as well as the respondents to whom they will seek to answer the questions. The researcher also needs to keep in mind about their target population and their needs as well as demands. Cooper, D, 2006) Layout of Questionnaire Before setting up the questions one must know what type of questions are supposedly to be asked. It is regarded as the one of the essential step in the formatting of the questionnaire. Basically there are two forms of questions I. E. Open ended questions and close ended questions. The researcher may choose which (cooper, D, 2006) Question Wording In order formulate the right type of question; it entirely depends upon the type of words used in a particular question. A slight change in the usage of word can change its entire meaning.
It may infer to the non-desirable answer from the respondents. Therefore, it is very important to word the questions in well efficient manner so as to avoid any kinds of confusion. (Cooper, D, 2006) Sequencing and the Designing The general sequence of the questions follows starts with easy level questions to the a bit tough level of questions. This is done in order to make it easy for the respondents to answer each question. All the easy questions should be placed in the beginning of the questionnaire followed by the specific ones.
For instance, questioning the respondent to give specific details about their income, martial status. Presenting and Rectification of Crisis Just before the questionnaire is executed, it should be pre-tested to determine if it meets all the expectations. One can find also find if the proposed questionnaire infers to the relevant information. Also one can easily spot the mistakes and rectify them. (Cooper, D, 2006) 2. 3 Formation of Questions The rules listed below are essential to achieve Just the clear cut information from the respondents; (Cooper, D, 2006) It must consist of Close Ended Questions
These kinds of questions generally are put in such a manner which aims for direct answers from the stated category. For Inference. Which brand of the following sunscreen lotions do you prefer? ‘ (Cooper, D, 2006) Simple Layout Shorter the questions, it is better for both the researcher as well as the respondent. It should be Point Specific Short and brief questions are generally preferred, but some specific ones need to be explained slightly. For example, ones income, it could be confusing for the respondent to discuss about his income based on annually, monthly, hourly,etc.
Therefore top priority is given to explain the question slightly in detail(Cooper, D, Emphasis on the present than the past No question should stress on the past. To achieve an accurate answer, something like two weeks is perfect. For example, ‘how many times have you dined outside in the last two weeks? Is a better question than ‘how many times have you dined out in the last 6 months? (Cooper, D, 2006) Don’t use Loaded Questions These kinds of questions usually force indirectly the respondents to answer from the researcher’s prospective.
In this the respondent isn’t granted his/her freedom of expression. For Example, “Don’t you agree with the argument mentioned within the D, 2006) 3. 0 Application Skills Journal 1 3. 1 Title of Journal – Benchmarking an International Journal Title of Article – Benchmarking in civil aviation: some empirical evidence Author – Jackie Fry, Ian Humphreys and Graham Francis year – 2005 The following article “Benchmarking in Civil Aviation: Some empirical evidence” has been written by Jackie Fry, Ian Humphreys and Graham Francis it had been published in the 2005.
This article concentrates on the exploratory research conducted to gather information on whether there is utilization of the Benchmarking purpose in he field of civil aviation industry. Two international surveys had been performed that comprised of participation of more than 200 airlines as well as 200 airports. Benchmarking has been considered as one of the best techniques to enhance the standards of both the airlines & airports. The inferences gained were similar to the samples that had been taken into account.
Most of the commercialese airlines make use of this concept. Certain amounts of issues were triggered based on the comparison of information which is at the higher level of competitive sensitivity. Inferences stated that there was a tremendous increase in the utilization of benchmarking technique mentioned by the respondents within the surveys. The type of question used in the questionnaire was the open ended question. It has been mentioned in the article that the respondents were asked to describe their experience with benchmarking. (Fry,J. Et al 2005) 3. 2 Journal 2 Title of Journal – International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management Title of Article – Effects of the Austrian road toll system on companies Author – Marcus Invoice The following article “Effects of the Austrian road toll system on companies” has been Ritter by Marcus Invoice in the year 2006. The basic objective of this article was to illustrate after the after effects of implication of Austrian road toll system on majority of companies especially the road pricing factor by conducting a survey.
The following system had been introduced in the year 2004 each type of vehicle had a different pricing charge as per the per kilometer driving depending on the number of axles. Therefore, the big vehicles had a higher number of price charge. The logistics service providers were used to make it highly enhanced in the field of transportation as well as logistics. The type of questionnaire use is a standardized questionnaire like in this study guarantee a uniformity of the measuring situation and respectability of relevant persons is given. It is can also be classified as the close ended question. Invoice. M, 2006) 3. 3 journal 3 Title of Journal – Marketing Intelligence & Planning Title of Article – University performance and strategic marketing: an extended study Author – Kevin L. Hammond, Harry A. Harmon, Robert L. Webster Year – 2007 The article “University performance and strategic marketing: an extended study has been written by Kevin L. Hammond, Harry A. Harmon and Robert L. Webster in the year 2007. The basic purpose of this article was to analyses the university performance as well as the strategic marketing by conducting an extended study.
From the prior findings of the business schools located in the USA. It aims at the selection of different strategies of marketing involved in each organization. The information was collected by passing out questionnaires to the deans of more than 225 business schools in the USA. It was found that several strategies likes the requirement of the performance excellence, a usage of a mission statement as well s the extensive practice of the marketing planning lead to the motivational impact on the faculty. It is highly inclusive of the hypothetical study in the field of marketing application theory.
The type of questions used in the questionnaire is closed ended questions. As in the article the Respondents were questioned if their institution provided each individuals with a formal recognition of the presentation by giving awards for excelling in the field education (teaching & learning) research, service and counseling etc. ( Hammond. K. , et al 2007) 4. 0 Empirical Skills TYPES OF QUESTIONS enervate the relevant responses an organization may need. Three types of questions that are commonly found within a questionnaire include open-ended, close-ended and probing questions. Case 1 Open-ended questions are beneficial as they enable a rapport to be formed and are greatly useful when a researcher may want the respondent, to fully express how they feel on a certain issue and what, in their opinion may be critical. This allows an in- depth answer to be formed as other than facts, a greater deal of information is collated. Often open-ended questions tell a story. An example of an open-ended question would be: Describe a typical shopping experience you may encounter when at a shopping complex (Mall). Ease 2 Close-ended questions offer a specific response to be formed, which may simply carry down to a response of a ‘male’, female’ or yes, ‘no’. These type of questions allow the generation of factual data and are less time-consuming to handle in terms of its analysis. There require very minimal thought to be placed by the respondent and are solely to the point. An example for a close-ended question is:- How many times a week do you carry out a physical form of activity (exercise)?