Free Sample: Database paper example for writing essay

Database - Essay Example

Which account Is designated as the owner of a relation? What privileges does the owner off relation have? NAS: An “owner” account Is given to those in control of specific relations. They have select, modification, and reference privileges on that given relation. 2) How Is the view mechanism used as an authorization mechanism? NAS: A multiuse database system must selectively permit users to share data, while retaining the ability to restrict data access.

There must be a mechanism to provide retention and security, permitting information to be accessed only by properly authorized users. Further, when tables or restricted views of tables are created and destroyed dynamically, the granting, authentication, and revocation of authorization to use them must also be dynamic. Each of these issues and their solutions in the context of the relational database management system System R are discussed. 3) Discuss the types of privileges at the account level and those at the relation level.

NAS: The concept of an authorization identifier Is used to refer, to a user account. The DB’S must provide selective access to each relation In the database based on specific accounts. There are two levels for assailing privileges to use the database system: l. The account level: At this level, the DAB specifies the particular privileges that each account holds Independently of the relations In the database. 2. The relation (or table level): At this level, the DAB can control the privilege to access each individual relation or view in the database.

The privileges at the account level apply o the capabilities provided to the account itself and can include the CREATE SCHEMA or CREATE TABLE privilege, to create a schema or base relation; the CREATE VIEW privilege; the ALTER privilege, to apply schema changes such adding or removing attributes from relations; the DROP privilege, to delete relations or views; the MODIFY privilege, to insert, delete, or update tepees; and the SELECT privilege, to retrieve information from the database by using a SELECT query.

The second level of privileges applies to the relation level, whether they are base relations or virtual view) relations. The granting and revoking of privileges generally follow an authorization model for discretionary privileges known as the access matrix model, where the rows of a matrix M represents subjects (users, accounts, programs) and the columns represent objects (relations, records, columns, views, operations). Each position M(I,]) in the matrix represents the types of privileges (read, write, update) that subject I holds on object j.

To control the granting and revoking of relation privileges, each relation R in a database is assigned and owner account, which is happily the account that was used when the relation was created in the first place. The owner of a relation is given all privileges on that relation. The owner account holder can pass privileges on R to other users by granting privileges to their accounts. 4) What are the mall reasons for and potential advantages of distributed databases?

NAS: Distributed Database ; A logically interrelated collection of shared data (and a description of this data), ; Software system that permits the management of the distributed database and sakes the distribution transparent to users ; Decentralized processing, but (logically) integrated information resources Advantages ; Potential for parallel execution ; More resources available to process queries faster ; Potential for replicated data ; Processing closer to users’ locations ; Reduced communications time ; Duplication in case of failures 5) What additional functions does a DB’S have over a centralized DB’S?

NAS: The DB’S have many advantages over DB’S. They are: Reflects organizational structure: We can distribute the data base over any organization offices which has distributed locations Improved share ability and local autonomy: Users can use the data of other sites, which mean the data can be near of the users who use it. Also by this way the data can be controlled by the user. Improved availability: Unlike centralized DB’S, the failure at one site or link of communication makes only some parts of system inaccessible, which means the entire system is still working. Improved reliability: The replication system make the data exist in many site.

So this insures the possibility of accessing to this data if there s any failure happened. Improved performance: We can improve the accessing speed to data base if we use remote centralized database. Also, there may not be same conflict for CPU and using the services, like DB’S. Economics: For making the organization systems more cost-effective to obtain separate computers, DB’S allows us to create systems of smaller computer, its power equal the power of one large computer. Modular growth: This one refers to the flexibility of DB’S, where we can add a new site without any affects on the operation of other sites.

Free Sample: Database paper example for writing essay

Database - Essay Example

What is a Database Management System? Database Management System is a collection of Interrelated data and a set of programs to access those data. This Is a collection of related data with an Implicit meaning and hence Is a database. The collection of data, usually referred to as the database, contains Information relevant to an enterprise. The primary goal of a DB’S is to provide a way to store and retrieve database information that is both convenient and efficient. Database systems are designed to manage large bodies of Information.

Management of data involves both defining structures for storage of information and providing exchanges for the manipulation of information. In addition, the database system must ensure the safety of the information stored, despite system crashes or attempts at unauthorized access. If data are to be shared among several users, the system must avoid possible anomalous results. 2. What are the kinds/ types of DB’S? There are four main types of database management systems (DB’S) and these are based upon their management of database structures. A. Hierarchical DB’S is a data model in which the data is organized into a tree-like structure.

The structure allows representing information using parent/child legislations: each parent can have many children, but each child has only one parent (also known as a I-to-many relationship). All attributes of a specific record are listed under an entity type. In a database an entity type Is the equivalent of a table. Each Individual record Is represented as a row, and each attribute as a column. Entity types are related to each other using 1: N mappings, also known as one-to-many relationships. This model is recognized as the first database model created by IBM in the asses.

Currently the most widely used hierarchical databases are AIMS developed by IBM and Windows Registry by Microsoft. . Network DB’S when the relationships among data in the database are of type many-to-many. The relationships among many-to-many appear in the form of a network. Thus the structure of a network database is extremely complicated because of these many-to-many relationships In which one record can be used as a key of the entire database. A network database is structured in the form of a graph that is also a data structure. Elements I. E. Records and sets to designate many-to-many relationships.

Mainly high- level languages such as Pascal, COBOL and FORTRAN etc. Were used to implement the records and set structures. Some well-known database systems that use the network model include: * Integrated Data Store (IDS) * DIMS (Integrated Database Management System) * 3RD Embedded * 3RD server * Turbocharger * antic DMS-1100 c. Relational DB’S is when the database relationships are treated in the form of a table. There are three keys on relational DB’S 1) relation 2) domain 3) attributes. A network means it contains a fundamental constructs sets or records.

Sets contains one to many relationship, records contains fields statically table that is composed of rows and columns is used to organize the database and its structure and is actually a wow dimension array in the computer memory. The purpose of the relational model is to provide a declarative method for specifying data and queries: users directly state what information the database contains and what information they want from it, and let the database management system software take care of describing data structures for storing the data and retrieval procedures for answering queries.

A number of Orders are available; some popular examples are Oracle, Sybase, Ingress, Inform, Microsoft SQL Server, and Microsoft Access. D. Object-oriented DB’S is a database management system in which information s represented in the form of objects as used in object-oriented programming. Object databases are different from relational databases which are table-oriented. Object- relational databases are a hybrid of both approaches. Object databases have been considered since the early asses.

Able to handle many new data types, including graphics, photographs, audio, and video, object-oriented databases represent a significant advance over their other database cousins. Hierarchical and network databases are all designed to handle structured data; that is, data that fits nicely into fields, rows, and columns. They are useful for handling small snippets of information such as names, addresses, zip codes, product numbers, and any kind of statistic or number you can think of.

On the other hand, an object-oriented database can be used to store data from a variety of media sources, such as photographs and text, and produce work, as output, in a multimedia format. A. Microcomputer- Myself, MASC., Postures, Oracle b. Minicomputer- Oracle, Ingress c. Mainframe- DIMS 4. What kind of database is widely used by industry? Inform is one of the world’s most widely used database servers, with users ranging room the world’s largest corporations to start-ups.

Inform incorporates design concepts that are significantly different from traditional relational platforms, resulting in extremely high levels of performance and availability, distinctive capabilities in data replication and scalability, and minimal administrative overhead. 5. What is the number one database here in the Philippines? And/or used abroad? One of the most influential and widely spread open source database applications that manipulates large databases and can be accessed over the Web is Myself database server. In the Philippines are the Myself and Oracle while abroad is

Microsoft SQL server. 6. What is the database under open office? Microsoft SQL Server. 7. Definition of terms. * Database- a collection of related files that are usually integrated, linked or cross- referenced to one another. * DIMS- (Integrated Database Management System) It was first developed at B. F. Goodrich and later marketed by Culminate Database Systems (renamed Cellulite in 1983). * 3RD Embedded- Aroma Database Manager (or 3RD) is a high performance, ACID-compliant database management system divided into three environments; Mobile, Embedded and Desktop & Server.

3RD as been designed to utilize multi-core computers, networking (local or wide area), and in-memory or on-disk storage. * 3RD Server- is an embeddable, heterogeneous, client/server database management system supporting both C/C++ and SQL Apish for programming flexibility. The databases can be disk resident and/or memory resident. * Turbocharger- IMAGE is the primary reason that the HAPPEN was a success. It is a reliable, simple, fast database for MME. After about a decade of enhancements it was renamed Turbocharger, then Turbocharger/XSL after the PA-RISC migration. * Univac DMS -1100- The SO 2200 database managers are all part of the

Universal Data System (LIDS). I-JDK provides a common control structure for multiple different data models. * Pascal- an influential imperative and procedural programming language. * COBOL- one of the oldest programming languages, Oriented Language, defining its primary domain in business, finance, and administrative systems for companies and governments. * FORTRAN- general- purpose, imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing. Originally developed by IBM at their campus in south San Jose, California. Relational database management system (READS) – s a database management system (DB’S) that is based on the relational model as introduced by E. F. Cod, of Vim’s San Jose Research Laboratory. Many popular databases currently in use are based on the relational database model. * Oracle- is an object-relational database management system [2] produced and marketed by Oracle Corporation. * Sybase- from SAP Company is an enterprise software and services company offering software to manage, analyze, and mobile information, using relational databases, analytics and data warehousing solutions and mobile applications development platforms.

Ingress- is a commercially supported, open- source SQL relational database management system intended to support large commercial and government applications. Ingress Database is fully open source with a global community of contributors. * Inform- is a product family within Vim’s Information Management division that is centered on several relational database management system (READS) offerings. * Microsoft SQL Server- is a relational database management system developed by Microsoft. As a database, it is a software product whose primary function is to store and retrieve data as requested by other software applications.