Each of these steps results in the development of a s/w project which may be either a minor or major component of the s/w system In contribution to the completion of the system. Each step requires some Input and produces some form of output which further becomes the Input of the next step.
This process goes on In step wise fashion until the s/w product Is developed fully. The software development life cycle Involves the following steps and they are: 1 . Requirement analysis 2. Design. 3. Coding 4. Module level testing 5. Integration and system testing 6. Delivery, implementation and maintenance Figure 1 to show the software development lifestyle: A student database management system (SODS) is a software application for education establishments to manage student data.
These systems vary in size, scope and capability, from packages that are implemented in relatively small organizations to cover student records alone, to enterprise-wide solutions that aim to cover most aspects of running large multi-campus organizations with significant local responsibility. Student Database Management System deals with all kinds of student details, academics related reports, college details, course details, curriculum, batch details and other resource related details too.
It tracks all the details of a student from the day one to the end of his course can be used for all reporting purposes, tracking of attendance, progress in the project or any other assignment details, final exam result exam etc. Our design can facilitate us to explore all the activities appending in the college, even we can get to know which faculty is assigned to which course, the current status of student, attendance percentage of the student and upcoming requirement of the student. Here almost all work is computerized. So the accuracy is maintained.
Our system has two types of accessing modes, administrator and user. Student management system is managed by an administrator. It is the Job of the administrator to insert, update and monitor the whole process. When the user log in to the system, he/she would only view details of the student. He/she can’t perform any changes. Our system has seven modules; they are administrator, student, course, department, exam, attendance, and section. This Student Database has been designed taking into account the practical needs to manage a Students’ data.
Moreover, it provides security at product level as well as user level. Its design concentrates on 2 types of users: Administrator Students This Database follows a typical event flow seen in such a system. The database mainly is from the student point of view. Since the student is the center of the system, all the various records in the database revolve around the student activities. Some of the other independent categories of data include the library facility, fest, sports, cultural activities & alumni association.
All such information helps one and all to know about the progress achieved by the institution. Every student can be given special attention by knowing his performance in the database. And if the organization is capable to put it on a LANA then it still adds more flexibility for the organization staff. Requirement Analysis It defines project goals into defined functions and operation of the intended application. This phase analyses the requirements of the software. Requirements analysis is critical to the success of a systems or software project.
The requirements should be documented, actionable, measurable, testable, traceable, related to for system design. This is the process of discovering, analyzing, defining, and documenting the requirements. It involves measuring each and every functional requirement, non-functional requirement, technical, operational, and transitional requirements. As a result, the SOFTWARE REQUIREMENT SPECIFICATION (SIRS) prepared which has the following contents: DATA STORAGE: Student Profile: Student Details, Address, Admission Details, Dependent Details.
Attendance Details: Total no of classes, No of classes attended by student for each subject. Internal & Examination Information: Takes Data for each of the 3 internals & Exam Details. Supports Data Management for finding: Student in each Department by URN. Internal Average Marks Scored. Attendance Shortage. Exam Result. MANIPULATION OF DATABASE: Addition of Student Profile. Addition of Department Details & its Corresponding Subjects. Modify or Delete Student Profile. Modify Attendance and Examination Results.
REPORT GENERATION: List of Students in each Department. List of Attendance for each Student Department-wise. List of Examination Status for each Student Department-wise. So with respect to this we have taken up a small work here, wherein we have developed a database for Students’ Attendance & Examination Database that can hold the Institute in good stead. Software Requirement Specification Objective: Our Database is a store house of information regarding the various Student & the various attributes encapsulated in it.
To maintain such a huge list of diverse data, the Institution cannot afford to maintain paper-work, as it is time consuming and has more chances to data loss and integrity loss. The huge amount of data can be made easily maintainable and accessible, by the use of computers. Commercial READS like Oracle can ease the process of such automation. Our Database Management project aims to provide computerized interface to all the data to be manipulated and stored, using Oracle and Visual Basic. The application provides for, 1 .
Retrieval of any data based on particular criteria customized reports based on particular criteria 4. Easy to use, interface with menus and forms, for clearer navigability The Application differentiates between 2 types of users. One category is of Students ho Just want to get information about their individual details for attendance & Examination information. The administrative user is another category, who is authorized to add, delete and modify the database content. He can add New Department, corresponding Subjects. He can also enter Student info, simultaneously.
Scope: Admissions Course Management Curriculum Planning Scheduling Registration Student Records Management Degree Progress Grading Student, Advisor, Faculty, and Staff portal tools Integration Reporting General Purpose of the project: The student database management system is designed to insure a smooth handling f inquiries from prospective students, handling the admissions process, enrolling new students and storing teaching option choices. This software maintains records of students, records of examinations, assessments, marks, grades and academic progression, inventory and assets of the college.
The college is having many students, it is very difficult to manage all the data manually, and also if some information is required urgently then to obtain this is very difficult. To solve this problem now they are looking for better alternative solution. Hence the alternative is to make a better tuned database management system. FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS:- Input: The input of the system is the student details, their profile, the details of attendance, internal & examination information. Output: student roll number or by the name. Also we can insert new entry directory in the system.
This would be beneficial for the users to know about the student’s details, and other status. SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS: Software Used: 1 . Windows XP 2. Turbo C++ 3. Notepad 4. MS word Hardware Used: 1. Pentium Ill onwards 2. 128 MBA RAM 3. BIBB HAD The Overall High level Description: Product Functions: The following is a summary of the functions that the system is expected to perform: Provide separate access to individual Student and administrator such that only the administrator has the right to add, delete and modify the various services offered by the system.
Provide the administrator with options to add as many Students, Departments, corresponding Subjects as required. The administrator must be provided with rights to modify the Student data store.. Provision to generate reports and make queries in any desired manner. User Characteristics: Any person with basic computer skills can make use of the product. The user would have only been briefed about the functionality of the system before he can start using the system.
Assumptions and Dependencies: Apportioning of requirements: The designers intend to upgrade the system to a LANA enabled multi user system besides providing connectivity to the internet for regular automatic updating of the data stored in the system. Functions: The basic services that the Student Database System include Entry of New Students’ to the Department Entry of Attendance Information Entry of Examination Marks Provide individual and Department-wise reports. Update the student profile depending on Attendance & Exam Status.
The system shall provide for password protected administrator access to add, delete & modify the basic services offered by the system. The system shall provide for storing of Student personal details along with his Attendance & Examination marks. Reports: Individual Student report : Includes personal details of members. Department-wise report: Lists all the employees currently active User Interface & Security: Menu based Interface Floating Pop-up menu Customized Background Picture File based Encrypted Password Handling Performance Specification: The system is designed to be a standalone, single user system.
It is proposed to make the system multi user and network enabled in the future. The system is hence fast and efficient in terms of data retrieval. 95% of the transactions are completed within 2 seconds while the others may take approximately 5 seconds. (Above values vary from system to system. ) Fig: Student Database Management System SYSTEM DESIGN Design is the process of applying various techniques and principle for the purpose of defining a device, a process or a system in sufficient detail to permit its realization. Design is the creative process of transforming the problem into a solution by allowing and ordered sequence of steps.
Design requires considerable creativity to purpose the necessary system specific changes and additions that are both acceptable to users and easy to implement. INPUT DESIGN Input design is the process of converting user-oriented input to a computer based format. Input design is a part of overall system design, which requires very careful attention. Often the collection of input data is the most expensive part of the system. The main objective of the input design is:- 2. Achieve highest possible level of accuracy. 3. Ensure that the input is acceptable to and understood by the staff.
Input Data: The goal of designing input data is to make easy, logical and free from errors as possible. The entering data entry operators need to know the allocated space for each field, field sequence and which must watch with that in the source document. Here data entry is online; it makes use of processor that accepts commands and data from the operator through a keyboard. The input required is analyzed by the processor. Output Design Outputs from computer systems are required primarily to communicate the results of processing to the users. They are also used to provide permanent copy of these exults for later consultation.
Designing computer output should processed in an organized well throughout the manner. The right output must be available for the people who find the system easy to use. The outputs have been defined during the logical design stage. If not they should defined at the beginning of the output designing terms of types of output connect, format, response etc. Various types of outputs are:- External outputs Internal outputs Operational outputs Interactive outputs Turn around outputs DATABASE DESIGN: The general theme behind a database is to handle information as an integrated whole.
A database is a collection of interrelated data stored with minimum redundancy serves many users quickly and effectively. After designing input and output, the analyst must concentrate on database design or how data should be organized around user requirements. The general objective is to make information access easy, quick, inexpensive and flexible for other users. During database design the following objectives are concerned:- Controlled redundancy Data independence Circulation and integrating More information at low cost Recovery from failure Privacy and security Performance Ease of learning and use
A data flow diagram (DVD) is a graphical representation of the “flow’ of student information system. A data flow diagram can also be used for the visualization of data processing. It is common practice for a designer to draw a context-level DVD first which shows the interaction between the system and outside entities. This context- level DVD is then “exploded” to show more details of the system being modeled. A DVD represents flow of data through a system. Data flow diagrams are commonly used during problem analysis. It views a system as a function that transforms the input into desired output.
A DVD shows movement of data through the different transformations or processes in the system. Data flow diagrams can be used to provide the end user with a physical idea of where the data the input ultimately has an effect upon the structure of the whole system from order to dispatch to restock how any system is developed can be determined through a outflow diagram.