Many designers have made the claim that their designs were unique, one-of-a-kind, or revolutionary, however, time has shown that design changes have been more evolutionary rather than evolutionary. In fact, during the emerging years of early aircraft, many designers incorporated many designs, and as new technologies emerged, different designers incorporated them, frequently while they were in the midst of their design.
The new technology was Incorporated because It was agonized as having some potential Improvement in airframe weight, performance, survivability, supportability, or cost. (Kelly, Paul, Venally, & Hess, 2002) The evolution and inclusion of technological advancements were key from 1900 to 1920, as aircraft design advanced from its early stages to weaponry war birds. The history of aviation If full of a wide variety of aircraft designs: fighters, bombers, transports, and a large variety of biplanes, and experimental airplanes that used the sky as a testing ground.
Their accomplishments are as storied as their past, some set scores, some won wars, others were purely for fun and entertainment, regardless of their original Intention, they all Influenced aviation. Then there were the transformational airplanes. The ones that changed design prepuce so that future aircraft of similar type were different from what had flown before. The transformational airplane was not as well known, as they should have been. Their Improvements generally appeared on later designs that became better known than their predecessor became.
A few changed not only their basic aircraft design, but also the aviation community, and sometimes more; they are remembered, however, nearly for their advancements in the science of flight. (Hellion, 2008) The aircraft selected are but a few of the many aircraft of that period that contributed in the evolution of the aircraft. Won’t 1905 Flyer The Wright 1905 Flyer was the world’s first practical airplane. The 1903 and 1904 machines were experimental aircraft, laying the groundwork for three-axis control-? in yaw, pitch, and roll.
The 1903 Flyer had interconnected roll and yaw (wing warping and rudder). The 1905 Flyer, on the other hand, was the first airplane to have independent three-axis control. Though it still launched from a catapult, just as the earlier versions, the 1905 Flyer did Incorporate slight modifications setting it apart. Specifically, It had had upright seats for the pilot and a passenger, 50 percent greater speed (twice the power of its predecessors), greater endurance- capable of a 30- 1 OFF was, in effect, a template for the world’s aircraft that followed. Hellion, 2008) Bibelot Louis Blotter’s Model XI is remembered for having made the first flight across the English Channel, on July 25, 1909; a feat, which caused the Britain’s Daily Mail swapper to, proclaimed, “England is no longer an island. ” The Model XSL established the tractor “engine in front” monoplane design, together with the classic “tail-dragger” landing gear. Larger, more powerful spin-offs of the Bibelot XSL were the world’s first successful air exports, and among the first military reconnaissance and bombing airplanes to fly in actual combat.
Military service for the XSL began in 1910 when the aircraft entered into service in the French and Italian air service, the British began using their Sol’s in 1912. By WWW, the Sol’s military value was primarily as an observation and trainer aircraft. Observation became an important part of maintaining an “eye in the sky’ on enemy movements. However, as technology advanced, the need for the Sol’s became less for observation, and more for training. Aircraft, an) Depressing Monocle The Depressing Monocle introduced what would become the global standard in aircraft design, the stressed-skin shell structure to aircraft design, first in wood and then in metal. This uniquely shaped machine also launched the streamlining revolution that continues to the present day. The Depressing Monocle racer first lee in 1911; it blended the Bibelot-style monoplane approach with a sleeker, narrowed form, looking more like a sass’s racer than an aircraft flying shortly after the airplane’s debut at Kitty Hawk.
In September 1912, a more powerful and even slicker shaped Depressing became the first airplane to exceed 100 MPH, establishing a world air-speed record of 126. MPH (Chant, 2001), introducing the powerful rotary engine to aircraft design. Scissors Lily Mortem Igor Scissors was the developer of the world’s first large multi-engine airplane, the Risky vita, the “Russian Knight,” more popularly known as El Grand. However, it was with its successor, the Lily Monomers (IM) that he created his reputation.
This large four-engine biplane came complete with dual controls for a pilot/copilot, a plush cabin, complete with a bathroom, private suite with bed, and even a balcony, cabin heating and lighting, it foresaw all later biplane bomber and transport aircraft. In June 1914, it flew from SST. Petersburg to Kiev and back, and spin-offs of it proved powerful and rugged wartime bombers. Undeniably, the Lily Monomers (IM) was the first example of the “dual use” aircraft, with both civil and military roles.
The IM quickly became the showcase of the Imperial Russian Air Force; despite initial doubts, the aircraft proved its worth, capable of delivering bomb-loads with accuracy across great distances. The IM also doubled as a reconnaissance platform, its high-flying, long-distance, and well-defended gun positions, reinforced its ability to withstand combat damage. (Hellion, 2008) Junkers J-13 (F-13) Hugo Junkers reinvented the airplane, adopting the thicker wing, which produced greater lift and enabled construction of cantilever (constructed without external braces) wings.
Suspicious of wooden construction, he opted for metal. Junkers’ transformational airplane was the J-13 of 1919, better known as the F-13. It was an all-metal, streamline structure, with an enclosed cabin, and a low wing, that launched alloy airplane. (Boone, 1987) With more than 300 delivered around the world, it spawned a series of look-alike aircraft, culminating in 1932 in the Junkers Juju 52. By 1924, Junkers supplied 40 percent of the world’s transports, placing Germany at the forefront of air transport design, a position it held until replaced by the United States n the early sass. Hellion, 2008) Booker D. VII Fighter The Booker D. VII is regarded as the best German fighter of WWW. A biplane design, that entered development towards the end of the war, but still managed to accumulate a very impressive kill-to- loss ratio. This aircraft was based on the Booker Trip-plane, but was upgraded to feature a revolutionary new 160-horsepower engine, giving German pilots a responsive and extremely capable platform, which produced several German ace pilots. The D. VII became a highly respected war machine, when it was armed with two 7. Mm machine guns, synchronized to fire through the propeller arc.
The Booker D. VII was held in such high regard, that one of the conditions of the Armistice signed by Germany at the end of the war required them to turn over all Booker D. VII aircraft to Allied control. (Booker, an) From the beginning, aircraft design seemed to be almost in a constant state of transition. There were many different designers, some with ideas that worked and others who failed. With each passing month, new ideas, new concepts, and new technologies were developed, tested, and incorporated onto aircraft, with various concepts shared by a variety of aircraft designs.
With the onset of the First World War, several of the existing aircraft were modified for use in war. Inevitably, aircraft designers looked away from modifying existing aircraft for war, and began to focus on designing aircraft for war.