Peter Drucker defined management as “making human beings productive so that the skills, expectations, and beliefs of the individuals lead to achievement in joint performance. “(Source: University of Leicester, 2600 Management, People and organisation Module 1 Unit 1). McGregor believed that the basic task of management is to arrange organisations conditions and methods of operations so that employees could best achieve their goals by directing their own efforts towards organisational objectives. A number of different styles of management are employed in C&A bank with the main aim of achieving organisation’s goals.
Huneryager and Heckman (1967) identified the following as some of the leadership styles that organisations could adopt: “dictatorial, autocratic, laissez faire, and democratic. ” In addition, researchers at the Ashridge Management College have also identified the following management styles: “autocratic, persuasive, consultative and democratic. ” (Source: University of Leicester, 2600 Management, People and organisation Module 1 Unit 1). C&A’s management style is characterised by the traditional organisation structure approach from the scientific management and Tayloristic system.
This has defined the existing relationships between departments/units and individuals. Also top management has operated an authoritarian style of management, which is described by some managers as autocratic and militaristic. Probably this could be due to the management’s desires to get quick results. Instances of staff involvement exist, but on a smaller scale. By this style, decision making is controlled by the leader and participation of subordinates is not encouraged. In C&A bank, managers tell their subordinates what to do.
This type of style alienates employees from the decision-making process, which could create problems in implementation of those decisions. It has been realised that, in learning organisation, superiors achieve much from their subordinates if they are involved in the decision making process. Another problem resulting from this style of management is poor formal communication in C&A bank. Communication is the “interchange of ideas, facts and emotions by two or more by the use of words, letters and symbols. (Source: University of Leicester, 2600 Management, People and organisation Module 1 Unit 1).
It is also the flow of information and meaning from a sender to the receiver. Due to the nature of the vertical hierarchy, the flow of communication is too long, leading to information overload and ‘noise’ (i. e. barriers to communications)Technology is one of the most important factors that contribute to the development of present day successful organisations. Technological changes have been related to modernisation of society through profit making and economic growth in the form of the development of new products and services. In C&A bank the type of technology used is Information Technology (IT).
Richrad L. Daft defined IT as the “hardware, software, telecommunication, database management, and other technologies used to store, process, and distribute information. ” Some available information technologies which are presently used at the bank are telephones, facsimile, computer systems, software applications, internet, air conditions, generators, Wide Area Network (WAN), Local Area Network (LAN), and Uninterrupted Power Supply (UPS). They way IT is conceived will influence the way its impact on an organisation is analyse. The approach of technology can be classified as technology deterministic (i.
e. technology determines what occurs in an organisation) or technology choice (i. e. a lot of choices are available in introducing IT) The implementation and installation of a Wide Area Network (WAN), Globus Banking Software electronic mails, internet and intranet services is to achieve one of the banks goals: “to apply information and communication to drive the bank’s effectively and efficiency. ” Consequently, technological change in C&A was as result of management decisions-making based on the goals and objectives of the bank.
Hence technology deterministic approach or the principle that, technology is a force that limits choices about the way in which work is organised and how organisations are structured do not hold in all situations. The strategic use if IT provide key information to employees helping them make better decisions and continuously finding ways to improve customer services. It helps to break communication barriers through the use of e-mails and intranet services and create a sense of team spirit that is essential for learning, change, and growth.
Sharing and retrieving of information by employees is more flexible; thus confirming Zubof (1988) theory of IT being informate. Wide range of reports from the Globus banking system has improved decision making by mangers efficiency and effectively. Despite the modern and flexible IT platform of the bank, there are few impediments such as: (1) Job deskilling of some of the departments making work monotonous and offering little challenge; and (2) inadequate training of management information system department.