Networking Standard- is in short a reference model to make ere products of different vendors can work together in a network; The International Organization for Standardization (SO) lays out those standards. TCP / IP Model – provides end-to-end connectivity specifying how data should be formatted, addressed, transmitted, routed and received at the destination. This functionality has been organized into four abstraction layers which are used to sort all related protocols according to the scope of networking involved. 1] From lowest to highest, the layers are the link layer, containing communication technologies for a single outwork segment (link), the internet layer, connecting hosts across independent networks, thus establishing intertwining. Open Networking Model – is a conceptual model that characterizes and standardizes the internal functions of a communication system by partitioning it into abstraction layers. Open Systems- is a standard description or “reference model” for how messages should be transmitted between any two points in a telecommunication network.
Interconnection (SO’) Model – is a conceptual and logical layout that defines network immunization used by systems open to interconnection and communication with other systems. Encoding – is the process of putting a sequence of characters into a special format for transmission or storage purposes. Header – a header is a unit of information that precedes a data object. In a network transmission, a header is part of the data packet and contains transparent information about the file or the transmission. Trailer – Bytes of data, defined by some standard or protocol and added after the user data that needs to be sent.
Leased line – A physical link between two locations, provided by a telex, that allows two-way communication between sites. Internet Protocol (P) – The main TCP / IP network layer protocol. IP defines addressing, considered logical because it works independently from the physical networks, and routing, which defines how to forward packets from one host to the other. IP Address – A 32 – bit binary number, often written in the DON format, which hosts use as their unique identifier in a TCP/IP network, much like a postal mailing address in the postal system.
IP Routing – The process of forwarding an IP packet from end to end through a TCP/IP network, as well as the logic used on an individual host or router as its part of the forwarding of the packet to its end destination. Frame – The specific term referring to the data link layer header and trailer, plus all headers and data encapsulated between the data-link header and trailer. Packet – The specific term referring to the network layer header, plus any header that follow, up through the user data. Specifically, this term omits the data link layer header and trailer.