Comparison of Research Design - Essay Example

Correlation Designs Pages 20-22 and Chapter 11. An experimental research design uses quantitative procedures to measure the relationship between two or more variables using the statistical procedure of correctional analysis. This research design allows researchers to explain and predict the relationship among variables. Researchers do not attempt to control or manipulate the variables. Survey Designs Pages 20-22 and Chapter 12. An experimental research design uses quantitative procedures to describe trends In data rather than offering rigorous explanations.

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Researchers collect data initiative data using questionnaires or Interviews and statistically analyze the data. Surveys are given too sample population to describe attitudes, opinion, behaviors, and characteristics of the population. The focus is directed at learning about a population and less on how variables relate or outcome predictions. Grounded Theory Designs Pages 20-22 and Chapter 13. An experimental research design uses qualitative procedures that generate a theory when existing theories do not address your plan of study or participants.

This design provides a systematic process for analyzing data to explain an educational process of vents, activities, action, and interactions that occur over a span of time. Researchers identify and connect the categories to form a theory, which explains a process. Ethnographic Designs Pages 20-22 and Chapter 14. An experimental research design uses qualitative procedures to describe, analyze and interpreting cultural shared group patterns of behavior, beliefs, and language over a span of time.

This research design will require that the researcher spend considerable time interviewing, observing, and gathering information about the target sample cultural group-family, event, or activity. Narrative Research Designs Pages 20-22 and Chapter 15. An experimental research design uses qualitative procedure that generally focuses stories about people’s lives, writes a narrative of the subject’s experiences in detail, and engages in discussing those experiences with the individual. Mixed Methods Pages 20-22 and Chapter 16.

An experimental research design uses quantitative and qualitative procedures that require the researcher’s clear understanding of both quantitative and qualitative research methods. This research design is time consuming, requires extensive data collection, analysis, and merging the data. Both quantitative and qualitative data are axed into a single study to understand the research problem. Action Research Pages 59-62 and Chapter 17. An experimental research design uses quantitative and qualitative procedures to address a specific practical issue and obtain solutions too problem.

Teachers or others in an educational setting perform this research design to gather information to improve the process of their current educational setting and their student learning. A researcher’s goal is to empower, transform, and emancipate individuals from barriers that impede their self-development and self-determination. Types of Basic Research Designs Types Chapter 10, beginning on page 307. 1 . Between Group Designs a. True Experiments b. Quasi – Experiments c. Factorial Designs 2. Within-Group or Individual Designs a. Time Series I. Interrupted time series it. Equivalent time series b.

Repeated Measures c. Single-subject Designs I. A/B design ii. Multiple baseline design iii. Alternating treatments Correlation Designs Chapter 1 1, beginning on page 339. 1. Explanatory Design a. Correlate two or more variables b. Collect data at one point in time c. Analyzes all participants as a single group d. Two scores for each individual group-one for each variable e. Relation conclusions 2. Prediction Design a. Predictor variable I. “prediction” in the title it. Measure the predictor variable(s) at one point in time iii. Forecast future performance b. Criterion variable I. Assure the criterion variable at a later point in time Survey Designs Chapter 12, beginning on page 377. 1 . Cross-sectional Survey Designs a. Group comparisons b. National assessment 2. Longitudinal Survey Designs a. Trend studies b. Cohort studies c. Panel studies Chapter 13, beginning on page 424. 1 . The Systematic Design a. Open coding b. Axial coding c. Selective coding 2. Emergent Design a. Fit b. Ark c. Relevance d. Modifiability 3. Constructivist a. Views b. Values c. Beliefs d. Feelings e. Assumptions f. Ideologies Chapter 14, beginning on page 464. 1. Realist Ethnographers a. Hired-person dispassionate voice b. Objective data c. Participants’ views 2. Case Study a. Intrinsic Case Study b. Collective Case Study 3. Critical Ethnography Narrative Research Designs Chapter 15, beginning on page 503. 1 . Who writes or records the story? A. Biography b. Autobiography 2. How much of a life is recorded and presented? A. Life history b. Personal experience story 3. Who provides the story? A. Teacher’s stories b. Arsenal classroom experiences 4. Is a theoretical lens being used? A. Theoretical lens b. Advocating for groups or individuals 5. Can Narrative Forms be Combined?

Mixed Methods Designs Chapter 16, beginning on page 539. 1. Convergent parallel design a. Quantitative and qualitative data b. Compare or relate c. Interpretation 2. Explanatory sequential design a. Quantitative data collected/analyzed b. Follow-up with qualitative data collected/analyzed 3. Exploratory sequential design a. Qualitative data collected/analyzed b. Builds to quantitative data collected/analyzed 4. Embedded design a. Quantitative or qualitative design . Quantitative or qualitative data collected/analyzed I. Before, during, or after 5. Transformation design 6. Multiphase design a.

Study 1: qualitative b. Study 2: qualitative c. Study 3: mixed method Action Research Designs 1. Practical action research a. Small-scale b. Narrow focus c. Teachers or teams within a school or school district d. Improve specific, local issues e. Implement a plan of “action” 2. Participatory action research a. Social conditions/inquiry outside of education b. Influence the condition of society c. “action” based research Key Characteristics Chapter 10, beginning on page 296. 1. Random assignment 2. Control over extraneous variables 3. Manipulation of the treatment conditions 4. Outcome Measures 5.

Group comparisons 6. Threats to validity Chapter 11, beginning on page 342. 1. 1. Displays of scores (shatterproof and matrices) 2. 2. Associations between scores (direction, form, and strength) 3. 3. Multiple variable analysis (partial correlations and multiple regression) Survey Designs Chapter 12, beginning on page 380. 1. Sampling from a population 2. Collecting data through questionnaires or interviews 3. Designing instruments for data collection 4. Obtaining a high response rate Chapter 13, beginning on page 431. 1. Process approach 2. Theoretical sampling 3. Constant comparative data analysis 4.

A core category 5. Theory generation 6. Memos Chapter 14, beginning on page 468. 1. Cultural themes 3. Shared patterns of behavior, belief, and language 4. Fieldwork 5. Description, themes, and interpretation 6. Context or setting 7. Researcher reflexivity Chapter 15, beginning on page 505. 1. Individual experiences 2. Chronology of the experiences 3. Collecting individual stories 4. Restoring 5. Coding for themes 7. Collaborating with participants Chapter 16, beginning on page 548. . Provide a rationale for the design 2. Include collecting quantitative and qualitative data 3. Consider priority 4.

Consider sequence 5. Match the data analysis too design 6. Diagram the procedures Chapter 17, beginning on page 586. 1. A practical focus 2. The educator-researcher’s own practices 3. Collaboration 4. A dynamic process 5. A plan of action 6. Sharing research Steps Followed Chapter 10, beginning on page 322. 1 . Decide if an experiment addresses your research problem 2. Form hypotheses to test cause-and-effect relationships 3. Select the experimental unit and identify study participants. . Select an experimental treatment and introduce it. 5. Choose the type of experimental design. 6.

Conduct the experiment. 7. Organize and analyze the data. Chapter 11, beginning on page 354. 1 . Determine if a correlation study best addresses the research problem 2. Identify individuals to study 3. Identify two or more measures for each individual in the study 4. Collect data and monitor potential threats 5. Analyze the data and represent the results 6. Interpret the results Survey Designs Chapter 12, beginning on page 403. 1. Decide if a survey is the best design to use 2. Identify the research questions or hypotheses 3. Identify the population, the sampling frame, and the sample 4.

Determine the survey design and data collection procedures 5. Develop or locate an instrument 6. Administer the instrument 7. Analyze the data to address the research questions or hypotheses 8. Write the report Chapter 13, beginning on page 440. 1 . Decide if a grounded theory design best addresses the research problem 2. Identify a process to study 3. Seek approval and access 4. Conduct theoretical sampling 5. Code the data 6. Use selective coding and develop the theory 7. Validate your theory 8. Write a grounded theory research report Chapter 14, beginning on page 475. 1 .

Identify intent and the type of design, and relate intent to your research problem 2. Discuss approval and access considerations 3. Use appropriate data collection procedures 4. Analyze and interpret data within a design 5. Write the report consistent with your design Chapter 15, beginning on page 513. 1. Identify a phenomenon to explore that addresses an educational problem 2. Purposefully select an individual from whom you can learn about the phenomenon 3. Collect stories that individual that reflect personal and social experiences 4. Restore or retell the individual’s story 5.

Collaborate with the participant storyteller in all phases of research 6. Write a story about the participant’s personal and social experiences 7. Validate the accuracy of the report 1. Determine if a mixed methods study is feasible 2. Identify a rationale for a mixed methods study 3. Identify the data collection strategy and type of design 4. Develop quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods research questions 5. Collect quantitative and qualitative data 6. Analyze data separately or concurrently 7. Write the report as one-or-two phase study Chapter 17, beginning on page 589. . Determine if action research is the best design to use 2. Identify a problem to study 3. Locate resources to help address the problem 4. Identify information you will need 5. Implement the data collection 6. Analyze the data 7. Develop a plan for action 8. Implement the plan and reflect Appropriate Use in a Real-Life Setting Appropriate Usage In a Real-Life Setting Chapter 10 An experimental research design would be a good choice if a researcher wished to find out if a new phonics program influences reading comprehension test results for grade three students at School EX..

Correlation Designs Chapter 11 A correlation design would be a good choice if a researcher wished to find out if a new phonics program worked as a supplemental instruction tool, and how the program influenced reading comprehension tests results for grade three students at the school. Survey Designs Chapter 12 A survey design would be a good choice if a researcher wished to find out the students and parents attitude and opinions of the new phonic program for grade three students at the school.

Grounded Theory Designs Chapter 13 A grounded theory design would be a good choice if a researcher wished to roommate a theory about the uses of the new phonics program to increase’ reading comprehension test results at the school. Ethnographic Designs Chapter 14 An ethnographic design would be a good choice if a researcher wished to learn why the reading comprehension tests results were low for Hispanic grade three students at the school.

Narrative Research Designs A narrative research design would be a good choice if a researcher wished to evaluate the success of previous grade three students at the school with low reading comprehension tests results. Mixed Methods Designs Chapter 16 A mixed methods design would be a good choice if a researcher wished to determine what factors influence student attitudes toward reading and follow-up with qualitative interview data to explain the initial quantitative results.

Action Research Chapter 17 An action research design would be a good choice if a researcher wished to explore the community involvement of the phonics program for grade three students at the school. Purpose Statements and Sample Questions Purpose Statement and Sample Research Questions The purpose of this experiment is to determine if the BBC Phonics Program influences reading comprehension test scores for grade three students attending school EX.. Research questions: 1 . Is there a difference in reading comprehension test scores of students provided with the BBC Phonics Program and those provided with only traditional reading instruction? . Is the influence of the BBC Phonics Program on reading comprehension test scores different for boys and girls? 3. Is the influence of the BBC Phonics Program on reading comprehension test scores different for struggling readers and advanced readers? Correlation Designs The purpose of this experiment is to determine if the BBC Phonics Program should be applied as a supplemental reading program for grade three students with low-test scores. 1 . How well are grade three students performing without the phonics program? 2. How well are grade three students performing with the phonics program?

Survey The purpose of this experiment is to determine if the BBC Phonics Program is to evaluate the attitudes and opinions of the phonics program of those parents’ whose children have low-test scores. 1. Do the parents’ think the phonics program is an appropriate program for their children? 2. Do the parents’ believe the phonics program has improved their children est. scores? Grounded Theory Designs The purpose of this experiment is to determine if the BBC Phonics Program is the best program to help improve students’ reading comprehension at the school. . What are the current trends of reading comprehension programs in elementary schools? 2. Do the current theories about reading comprehension programs address the problem facing the third grade students at the school? Ethnographic Designs The purpose of this experiment is to explore the cultural influence of the Hispanic cultural on the reading level of third grade students at the school. 1 . What cultural factors of Hispanic culture affect reading? 2. How can the Hispanic culture positively influence a child’s desire to read and learn?

Narrative Research Chapter 15 The purpose of this experiment is to study how previous students that used the BBC Phonics Program maintained their reading level and reading comprehension. 1 . How much personal commitment is required to attain success? 2. What type of achievements can a student attain by using the phonics program? Mixed Methods The purpose of this experiment is to determine whether the BBC Phonics Program success would benefit other schools with similar issues. Research questions: 1 .