The analysis of training needs aims to define the gap between what is happening and what should happen. This is what has to be filled by training. What is Training Gap What should be a) Corporate and functional results b) Knowledge and Skills possessed c) Actual performance of individual a) Corporate and functional standards b) Knowledge and Skills required c) Targets or standards of performance The gap may consist of the difference between: How the company or department within it is performing and how it should perform. What people know and what they should know. What people actually do and what they should do.
McGee and Thayer (1961) have proposed a model of training needs identification. It consists of three components: Organizational Analysis An organizational analysis tries to answer the question of where the training emphasis should be placed in the company and what factors may affect training. It involves a comprehensive analysis of organizational structure, objectives, culture, processes of decision-making, future objectives, and so on. The analysis begins with an understanding of short-term and long-term goals of the organizations, as a whole, ND for each department specifically.
These would help to identify what capacities are needed to fulfill these goals. Generally three requirements have to be considered. Do we have adequate number of people to fulfill organizational objectives? Do these people possess required skills and knowledge? Is the organizational environment conducive to facilitate activities that would help achieve its goals? To do this, the HER professional should examine organizational goals and objectives, personnel inventories, skills inventories, organizational climate and efficiency indices, remover and absenteeism, rates of accidents, changes in systems or subsystems (e. . , equipment), MOB or work planning systems, etc. Task Analysis A task analysis tries to answer the question of what should be taught so the trainee can perform the Job satisfactorily. It is a systematic and detailed analysis of Jobs to identify the type of behavior required of the Jobholder and the standards of performance that must be met to achieve the desired results. While task analysis is similar to Job analysis, it is employee centered, not Job-centered, and is concerned tit behavior needed on the Job and expected level of performance.
Questionnaire, interviews, personnel records, reports, tests, observation and other methods can be used to collect information about Jobs in the organization. Person Analysis Man analysis attempts to answer the question of who needs training in the firm and the specific type of training these people need. To do this, the performance of individuals, groups, or units on major Job duties (taken from the performance appraisal data) is compared to expected performance standards (as identified in the ask analysis).
Given these data, one should be able to determine which Job incumbents (or groups of incumbents) are successful at completing the task required. Many companies use self-assessments in this process. For example, Ford determined the training needs based on a self-assessment questionnaire distributed to the staff. At the managerial level, many organizations (e. G. , MM, Federal Express, and the World Bank) use peers and subordinates to provide performance information about their managers. Knight-Rider uses 360-degree appraisal to determine training needs.
Managers receive “competency’ ratings from customers, subordinates, peers, and their managers. At Ford, each supervisor is responsible for completing an individual training plan for each subordinate. The plan is developed Jointly by the supervisor and the subordinate. The two decide on the courses that should be taken and the time frame for completion. The goal is for each employee to reach a certain level of proficiency considered necessary for current and future tasks. Techniques For Determining Training Needs The American Society of Training Directors lists eleven techniques for determining raining needs.
They are: a) Observations; b) Management requests; c) Interviews; d) Group conferences; e) Job or activity analysis; f) Questionnaire surveys; g) Tests or examinations; h) Merit or performance ratings; I) Personnel records; j) Business and production reports; k) Long-range organizational planning. Benefits of Needs Assessment Needs assessment helps diagnose the causes of performance deficiency in employees. Causes require remedial actions. This being a generalized statement, there are certain specific benefits of needs assessment.
They are: 1) Trainers may be informed about the broader needs of the training group and their sponsoring organizations. 2) The sponsoring organizations are able to reduce the perception gap between the participants and his or her boss about their needs and expectations from the training program. 3) Trainers are able to pitch their course inputs closer to the specific needs of the participants. Course & Curriculum Design Course design can be addressed as: * Curriculum development or design * Program design * Course design * Instructional system design Each of them assumes specific meanings in specific circumstances