Introductory Paragraph I have been hired to conduct a research project for university here in Washington DC. I will be meeting with my university clients to explain the research strategy that I will be developing. This strategy Is critical for the success of the research project; I will help my client understand what research strategy Is and how to prepare a report that addresses the following topics. First I will discuss how research topics are selected. I will then discuss the importance of the purpose statement and explain how research questions and hypothesis are developed.
I will then discuss the null ND alternative hypothesis and how they support the research effort. I will also discuss how research effort will be measured and analyzed and I will include a discussion of the various research report formats and documentation that will be needed for each research method qualitative quantitative mix and action. After that I will explain how to conduct a literature review to support the research effort and discuss how to develop an annotated bibliography and explained the Importance of ethical and legal responsibilities in the research project.
Crewel, J. (2009) Discuss how research topics are selected. When developing a research strategy is important to discuss how research topics are selected, this is usually done before considering what literature to use in the project. The university must first Identify a topic to study. This topic must be practical and useful, because the topic will become the central idea for the researcher to learn about or to explore. There are several ways that researchers gain insight into their topics; one way is to draft a “brief title” to the study.
Some researchers draft their topics with a question to help them determine a “working title” for their paper. The question the researchers develop could be “this study Is about? ” and then the researchers finished the question with a response that eventually becomes the topic of research. When creating a topic It’s Important to be straightforward and simple. Researchers should avoid using wasteful words. It is important that the topic be precise as possible so that the research is understood quickly. Crewel, J. (2009) After selecting a topic there’s a few things that researcher would encounter 1 .
Researcher couldn’t find that there’s very little information available on the subject. 2. The researcher may find that the research doesn’t support the thesis. In order to avoid pitfalls researchers should come up with intriguing exciting ideas according to Michael Oboe (2008) a Yahoo contributor he outlines an eight step process as to how to select a research topic. 1. The topic must be educational In nature. 2. The topic must be selected and of Interest to the researcher. 3. The topic must be Orlando. 4. The topic must be researchable. 5.
The topic must be available, meaning time and financial resources need to be available so that the researcher can complete the e available. 8. The topic must be significant and capable of adding new knowledge to the research project. Michael Oboe (2008) Discuss the importance of the purpose statement. All research projects require a statement of purpose. A statement of purpose explains the research project goals as well as the hypothesis tested. The statement of purpose usually comes at the end of the introduction and is often included in the thesis statement findings.
Research findings should never be revealed in the statement of purpose. The statement of purpose of several components gives the deader framework of the research and explains the main concepts of the paper. It also covers that the study will have the results that are measured. The statement of purpose is not a thesis statement; although it helps the researcher set the stage for the thesis statement by introducing the topic and the breath of the research. The purpose of the statement is used to help the researcher do two things; 1. It gives the researcher an opportunity to provide detailed information about the topic and 2.
It allows the researcher to determine the projects focus through providing relevant information. Researchers should know that a purpose statement may change as they delve further into the research topic. (Noel Rezone 2013) Explain how the research questions and hypothesis are developed. After a research topic has been established the researcher must develop a “question” for research as well as a hypothesis that relates to the study being conducted. This question will be in the formulation of the research question should be developed before the research study begins.
The question will guide the research and will focus the research study throughout the research project. The researcher should be coking to answer the question throughout the research study. CUT MUSE. (2012) The hypothesis is not the research question it is quite different. The hypothesis is a prediction of the outcome of the study. The research hypothesis is a statement that the researcher believes will be the outcome of the research study. The hypothesis is developed by the researcher’s experiences and other research studies. The hypothesis is ultimately accepted or rejected at the conclusion of the research study.
When developing the research hypothesis the objective by the researcher is for the hypothesis is to ultimately be tested. There are several types of hypothesis a null hypothesis and an alternative hypothesis. Crewel,J. (2009) Discuss null and alternative hypothesis and how they support the research effort. Although research questions are appropriate for qualitative and quantitative research only quantitative research includes a hypothesis. The use of a hypothesis is typically limited to three approaches. The researcher can compare groups, the groups or variables. The latter being the most detailed.
Hypotheses have two forms null and alternative. When a researcher wants to use the traditional approach uses a null hypothesis. The null hypothesis makes predictions in general with no relationship or significant differences between the groups of variables. The second form is the alternative hypothesis this former hypothesis makes predictions about the expected outcome. A researcher can predict outcomes based on information or research that the researcher has already researched. Under alternative research there’s two types of hypothesis directional and non-directional.
Directional hypothesis examine the relationship among variables rather than compare groups. Non-directional hypothesis researchers make predictions, because the researcher goes not know the exact differences between the groups or how it’s related to the hypothesis. Crewel,J. (2009) Discuss how the research effort will be measured and analyzed. Measuring and analyzing research is important when considering the goals of the research study. Measuring and analyzing is the actual purpose for conducting the study. Measuring and analyzing outlines what is to be performed and accomplished by the study.
The researcher will be better focused and organized after the study is measured and analyzed. For example In order to improve the universities programs a searcher may analyze the strengths and weaknesses of the programs and then a measurement can be done to assess the advantages of the programs. This analysis and measurement this will allow for the researcher to suggest improvements that could potentially be made and apply the advantages or disadvantages of the study as a whole. Crewel,J. (2009) Various research reports formats. Qualitative, Quantitative, Mixed, Action) The four major paradigms are quantitative research, qualitative research, and mixed research which involves quantitative and qualitative characteristics. The last search method I will cover is action research. I will go over the definitions of each research method and then speak in detail about qualitative and quantitative research in particular. Crewel,J. (2009) Qualitative Research Qualitative is a standard term for investigating methodologies, it is used to help researchers explore and understand the meaning individuals or groups ascribed to as a social human problem.
This research is usually performed in a natural setting that allows the researcher to learn about human behavior. Qualitative research is means that you’re collecting information from the individuals that are having the robber. Crewel, J. (2009) This type of research is important in that the participants provide deep personal responses. It is imperative that the information received by the researcher is as accurate as possible, researchers collect data by pictures, words, or even categories, as well as personal in-depth interviews.
The data analysis is inductively building upon one another and researchers make interpretations of the meaning of the data. (MUSE 2012) Crewel,J. (2009) With qualitative research there will be specific questions that lead to a hypothesis here’s also large samples that a researcher must take to receive statistical validity. The population that the samples are taken from will be more accurate the larger the population. This means that the larger the sample the more confident the results. This also leads researchers to ask questions what if the sample is flawed.
Will the results also be flawed? The calculations are derived from formulas and numbers which is more reliable. Statistics and charts are universal measures these measures help the researcher to accurately presents its statistical data with confidence. MUSE. (2012) Quantitative Research Quantitative data testing is used by researchers to determine objective theories and by examining the relationship among variables. The aim of this research is to use measures such as weight performance or time to establish the difference between two variables. MUSE. 2012) This data testing is also an experimental means to establish one variable over another. Variables can be measured typically using instruments, and analyzed statistically. The findings are structured with introduction literature. The various methods used to gather this information are surveys and questionnaires once the data is collected and analyzed results and discussion methods protects against bias. This allows researchers control for alternative explanations, the goal is so that data can be can be generalized and replicated. Crewel,J. 2009) Unlike with qualitative research quantitative research is more subtle. Quantitative research is termed as an exploratory research method that uses a natural setting and it’s conducted with the human factor as its main approach. Which most researchers determine can be a flawed. With The quantitative approach the samples that are taken at times are an unstructured approach. The data collected is done through focus groups interviews questionnaires panels and these groups tend to be small the researcher must take that information into account when calculating his results.
MUSE. (2012) Mixed Research forms of research into one single study. The combining of the two methods allows for the techniques of both studies and the best characteristics of each to make up the overall combined study. The mixed research includes philosophical assumptions and uses both approaches in tandem the use of both approaches simultaneously improves the overall strength of the study. This study tends to receive many more reports then each study individually the increased amount of data allows for researchers to make sensible conclusions regarding any project at hand.
Crewel,J. (2009) Action Research Action research is a research model that tends to follow the accomplishments of research, at the same time studying its objectives. This research typically uses conditions where the outcomes and accomplishments are likely do to the management process. The researcher’s intention for using this methodology is to have action outcomes and research outcomes. The goal is to improve by the overall recess of identifying the outcomes and testing the actions of these outcomes. This process allows for improvements to be made. Crewel,J. 2009) Explain how to conduct a literature review to support the research effort. I have discussed in this paper the many stages of the research project from topic, the hypothesis, the measurement, and development of a research design. Now I will cover the literature review. At the outset of the research the literature review was done to make sure that the researcher does not duplicate someone else’s research. More importantly it can help narrow topic so that it remains unique to the searcher. This narrowing helps the research information stay relevant to the research study.
Literature reviews has some unique features on which the researcher must focus. A good research literature review involves all information that has been written about the topic. It’s done by developing general explanations and observations as well as various behavioral phenomena. Then it attempts to identify the potential relationship between the concepts and the hypothesis. It also allows researchers to learn how others have defined the key concepts and have measure the data previously. It also allows the researcher to identify a particular data source that other researchers have already used.
Doing this enables a researcher to develop alternative research designs, so that the researcher can now discover how his or her research project closely related to the work of other researchers. Literature reviews are an important part of the research study and allows the researcher to be unique and relevant in its research. CUT MUSE. (2012) When discussing these research methodologies it is important to understand the concept of research design. It is important to understand that research design involves philosophy, strategy, and methods. Researchers are studying how these three components intersect.
In order to conduct study researchers must review the philosophical worldview to determine the strategy of the inquiry and specify which methods to translate the approach into practice. This is especially true with qualitative and quantitative research methods. MUSE (2013) (2012) research- methodology. Net. How to develop an annotated bibliography and how it can be applied to effectively support the research effort. According to Olin and Iris Libraries 2010 an annotated bibliography is a list of taxation to books, articles, and documents.
Each citation is followed by a brief (usually about 1 50 words) descriptive and evaluative paragraph, the annotation. The purpose of the annotation is to inform the reader of the relevance, accuracy, and quality of the sources cited. (Cornell University Library 2010) The author writes creating an annotated bibliography call for the application of a variety of intellectual skills: concise exposition, succinct analysis, and informed library research. First, locate and record citations to books, periodicals, and documents that may contain useful information and ideas on your topic.
Briefly examine and review the actual items. Then choose those works that provide a variety of perspectives on your topic. Cite the book, article, or document using the appropriate style. Write a concise annotation that summarizes the central theme and scope of the book or article. Include one or more sentences that (a) evaluate the authority or background of the author, (b) comment on the intended audience, (c) compare or contrast this work with another you have cited, or (d) explain how this work illuminates your bibliography topic.