System Analysis and Design - Essay Example

A group of interacting mechanical or electrical components 5. A network of structures and channels, as for communication, travel or distribution. 6. A network related computer software, hardware and data transmission devices. * An organized set of Interrelated Ideas or principles. Definition number one (1) Systems are developed to satisfy a set of requirements that meet q need. It exists in an environment, and has operators and users. The system provides feedback to the operators and services to the users. Sometimes, a system contains many subsystems.

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Definition number two (2) A system Is a set of manual and automated procedures and devised for conducting business. Some procedures may support monthly information gathering others may consist of calculations, summarizations, and report creation, each with a respective set of required decision. A system can be totally manually process, a completely automated process, or a combination somewhere in between. Definition number three (3) A system has three (3) components: * Input * Process * Output Definition number four (4) A system Is a collection of parts which Interact with each other to function as a whole.

Definition number five (5) achieve specific results. The system should follow some particular procedures or rules to operate. SUB-SYSTEM A system is an assemblage of inter-related elements comprising a unified whole. From the Latin and Greek, the term “system” meant to combine, to set up, to place together. A sub-system is a system which is part of another system. A system typically consists of components (or elements) which are connected together in order to facilitate the flow of information, matter or energy. * A sub-system is a system which is a part of another system * Exist where main system becomes complex

It is important to have a good utilization of sub-system in order to achieve the following: * Hide the detail before it is needed * Simplify the problem (easy to understand) * A clear visible scope * Good for comparison between systems Example of a typical business system: Interaction of major systems Shipping Sales Purchasing Inventory Finance Personnel Marketing Typical business system and subsystems Accounts Payable Accounts Receivable General Ledger Payroll Credit What is information system? Information is the result of processing, manipulating and organizing data in a way that adds to the knowledge of the person receiving it.

An information system can be any organized combination of people, hardware, software, communications networks, and data resources that collects, transforms, and disseminates information in an other using a variety of physical devices (hardware), information processing instructions and procedures (software), communications channels (networks), and stored data (data resources). It is built for the purpose of supporting and improving both day- to-day operations in a business (sometimes called data processing), as well as supporting the problem solving and decision making needs of management (sometimes called information services).

Four technologies of information systems Computer Hardware Technologies (From centralized mainframe computer to PC, Bar-Code Scanner, Smarted, Flash Memory, PDA, GAPS, LCD Display, High speed printer [publisher / designer], portable computer) Computer Software Technologies (software development life cycle, rapid development, user interface, dynamic code modification, plug-in, API, protection [e. G.

Acrobat], encryption, compression, robustness, client-server) Telecommunication Network Technologies (Wired and Wireless communication, Internet, browse, WWW, web-oriented application) Data Resource Management Technologies Database management, software development process, ‘SO, SAD, COMIC) Five major knowledge needed by Information System professional: 1 . Foundation Concept 2. Information Technologies 3. Business Applications 4. Development Processes 5. Management Challenge Foundation Concept Fundamental behavior, technical, business, and managerial concepts about the components and roles of information system.

Example include basic information system concept derived from general system theory, or competitive strategy concepts used to develop business applications of information technology for competitive advantages. Information Technology Major concepts, developments, and management issues in information technologies – that is hardware, software, networks, data management, and many Internet-based technologies. The major use of information systems for the operations, management, and competitive advantages of a business.

Development Process How business professionals and information specialists plan develop, and implement information systems to meet business opportunities. Developing and project management is always a challenge since we always have the habit about “project delay”. Management Challenges The challenges of effectively and ethically managing information technology at the end user, enterprise, and global levels off business. The consideration of user privilege to data access. Fundamental Roles of IS in Business 1 . Support Business Process and operations 2.

Support Business Decision Making 3. Support Competitive Advantage Support Business Process and Operation As a consumer, you have to deal regularly with the information systems that support the business processes and operations at the many retail stores where you shop. For example, most retail stores now use computer-based information systems to help hem record customer purchases, keep track of inventory, pay employee, buy new merchandise, and evaluate sales trends. Store operations would grind too halt without the support of such information systems.

Support Decision Making Information systems also help store managers and other business professional make better decisions. For example, decisions on what lines of merchandise need to be added or discounted, or on what kind of investment may require, are typically made after an analysis provided by computer-based information system. This not only supports the decision making of store managers, buyers, and others, but also helps hem look for ways to gain an advantage over other retailers in the competition for customers.

Support Competitive Advantage Gaining a strategic advantage over competitor require innovative use of information technology. For example, store management might make a decision to install touch- screen station in all of their stores, with links to their e-commerce website for online shopping. This might attract new customers and build customer loyalty because of systems. Thus, strategic information system can help provide products and services that give a business a comparative advantage over its competitors.