An example of one-to-one communication is a nurse looking after a patient In a hospital. When greeting someone to begin a one- to-one conversation someone may say; ‘Good morning! How are you? To show that they are welcoming and friendly. It is important in a health and social care setting to be friendly, as the service users need to feel comfortable in their surroundings, which in turn helps them to have a faster recovery, and shorten their time in hospital. In my placement I have had one-to-one communication with the younger students. As a part of the activities the teacher would give me. He would send me a pupil and I would practices counting, recognizing shapes and colors using modeling clay. Group Communication When communicating in a group there are certain rules to be followed, for example; is there a leader of the group? Is everyone getting Involved? Can everyone hear and understand each other clearly? An example of group communication In a health and social environment could be a counseling group In a rehab centre. There may be friction between some of the patients. Some patients may not be able to cope and some may not know what to say.
In a case like this there would be a member of staff leading the group discussion that hopefully would help to relax the service users and help them to have confidence In their surroundings. When I was moved to the older class of pupils In my placement, I was set to work with a group of young boys. I would work with the boys by leading the conversation and having them answer questions which would later be written down in the work books. Formal Communication Formal communication Is very Important In a health and social care setting because patients and service users need to be addressed clearly and Informatively.
If this the staff. There may be exceptions to this if service users and workers know each other as individuals. There is also a limit to how formal an individual should be. If omen is too formal a service user may mistake the formal communication for being too posh, or even arrogant. Therefore workers in health and social care settings need to find the right balance of formal communication. Individuals may communicate formally when parents are meeting staff and looking around a school or a doctor treating a patient.
An example of formal communication is being polite when greeting someone and introducing themselves; such as ‘Good morning Mrs. Hudson, I am Dry Watson and I will be treating you today. ‘ Informal Communication In health and social care informal communication is very important as it makes arrive users, and perhaps the staff feel more comfortable in their surroundings. Individuals may call each other by their first names. An example would be a nurse in a nursing home speaking to one of the residents; ‘Afternoon Mrs. Eliding, you alright love?
As staff and service users who work together closely and work very often, relationships will grow, and the natural language around each other will grow to a more informal language. But the language should always have a limit to how informal it can become, so that the workers at least show respect to the service users at all mimes. In reaction to this the service user should react and treat the worker in the same way. This may be challenging at times as some service users may have an medical illness, mental issue or personal problems which may lead them to reacting negatively to the individual who is working with them.
Communication between Colleagues When colleagues communicate, it may naturally become a bit informal, but it is important that staff always show respect to each, because it may reflect badly on the service users and could suggest that that member of staff is disrespectful to service users. When starting a shift, or day at school, a meeting or gathering where all the staff come together to greet and talk before starting work could increase morale in colleagues and show that they respect and value each other. Colleagues do need to show that they can work well and trust each other.
In a hospital or nursing home setting, service users expect that the staff can work well together and trust each other’s abilities. Communication between Professionals and the Service Users When professionals communicate with each other, they may speak in their own ‘language community. This could be when staff in a hospital communicate using deiced terms to describe a patient’s condition. An example of this would be a doctor telling a nurse that a patient is having an ‘inapplicability shock, then when later speaking relatives they would say that the patient had a ‘severe allergic reaction’.
This is so the relatives understand what is going on and avoid confusion. Not only when communicating with service users do professionals need to be clear about what they are talking about, but when they are talking to other professionals in other sectors, medication, where as a chemist may use the proper terminology for those certain types of medicine. TYPES OF COMMUNICATION Forms When individuals communicate, it enables them to share information and learn new things.
There are many different types of communication for those who can communicate easily, and others use alternative ways of communicating, such as an individual who is deaf communicating through sign language. Communication allows us to get to know each other and form relationships, and help us build our self- esteem. If a child is communicated with poorly, then they are likely to develop poor communication skills which can make that individual and other individuals feel nervous and vulnerable, or even threatened. Oral Communication
Communicating orally is the most common form of communication as a large proportion of the world’s population is able to do so. It is the ability to communicate using speech, and using that speech to create words and sentences. These skills allow information to pass on to other individuals who can hear and listen. The tone of voice is also important when communicating orally as it can show an individuals’ personality and mood. Written Communication This type of communication is used extensively in health and social care.
Surgeries, schools, nursing homes and many other places use written communication to monomaniac with patients, parents, families or other care settings. This communication may be direct such as through letters and emails. An indirect example of written communication is through an information pamphlet in a waiting room or on a reception desk. It is indirect because there is no person-to-person communication. Signing Signing is used by everyone. It communicates perhaps how you feel to another person, and what kind of individual you are and some of your personality.
Expressions are also considered a sign. For example, if you greet someone with a smile you may come across as friendly. Also using arm gestures is a form of singing, if someone has crossed their arms it may be a sign that they do not want to communicate with anyone. Using Symbols Individuals who are able to see, use signs every day, perhaps without even knowing they are doing so. Signs that communicate with us are speed limit signs, fire exit signs, and warning signs for things like electrocution or fragile contents.
All of these Touch Communicating using touch can be very personal, and some people do not like to communicate through this means, be it at a personal level or even professional level. In informal situations touch can be used to show close affection such as kissing or holding hands, also it can be help comfort people for example a hug or touching another individuals’ shoulder. It is also used in communicating in formal situations when shaking hands to greet someone, such as a doctor greeting their patient. Music and Drama Music and drama has always been seen as a good way of communicating emotions.
Therapists may ask a client to choose a song to help them to describe their feelings, and may also use music as therapeutic treatment to help individuals express their linings. Drama is also used to express and describe emotions. An example of this being used is having an individual act out how the emotion feels. For example, someone portraying anger might act and say what is making them feel angry. Objects of Reference People may use objects to show a happy moment or a holiday they enjoyed. This communicates that the family may be a happy one.
Other objects of reference could be using imagery to tell another person what that individual wants. For an example, a child showing a nurse a picture of a cup communicates that they need a drink. Arts and Crafts Individuals do also use arts and crafts to communicate their feelings and emotions. In therapeutic centers, children may be asked to draw, paint or craft their feelings. The colors and patterns may describe an individual’s emotions at the time. Children may design graphic images to communicate their experiences in home life, a mental problem their emotions or Just their vivid imagination!
Technology Today technology is very advanced and is able to help massively with impaired people’s ability to communicate. The use of hearing aids and cochlear implants doesn’t only help people to hear, but help them with developing their own ability to monomaniac and recognizing their own voice. There are also phones, relay systems and mint-come that help people who are deaf or hard of hearing to turn phone calls into text, so that they are able to read the message. For the blind, there is voice- activated technology where things may be read out to them, such as text messages and even social networking sites.
There is also technology that helps people who have trouble, talking perhaps because of cerebral palsy or the effects of a stroke. An example of this is when an elderly person who had had a stroke was presented with tablet that had a communication app, and was able to communicate that to a nurse that they wanted a drink of water. Interpersonal interaction is the effect that the way we speak, the language we use and our non-verbal communication will have on the individual with whom we are communicating personally. Speech In different areas, such as in different parts of cities there are different accents.
In health and social care, people may be more comfortable communicating to someone who has the same accent. It is also important that staff are able to recognize that different words are used in different areas. For example the word ‘sick is used by some to describe that something was ‘crazy or ‘amazing, and terminology like this can be easily mistaken. These types of words are called slang. Language First language- There are a vast number of languages in the world, so many that we may never know the real number. Despite this, it is considered that only 600 of these languages have 100,000 speakers or more.
Some countries only have one main language for example in England, where mainly English is spoken. But on England’s border, Wales has its Welsh native language. This means that some people speak and hind in Welsh, and staff in a health and social care setting in Wales may come across service users who would only communicate in Welsh, particularly the older or dementia patients, for example. Dialect- Different geographical areas, be they different cities, or Just different parts of the country will have different dialects or accents.
Some people may find accents different from their own difficult to understand. In the I-J some people from other countries, may only know a limited amount of English. This is why it is important for people to try and learn words or as much as they can to help with communication. In I-J schools some pupils from from different ethnic backgrounds may not understand any English whatsoever. Therefore those pupils will need one-to-one assistance to help them understand and learn a second language.
Jargon- These are words that are used in professional environments, such as in a hospital or GAP. Staff need to be aware that service users who do not work in their profession may not understand the words and terminology being used and this could cause distress or anxiety when they do not understand something. For example, an emergency doctor may communicate to their colleagues that a patient has had a DTV deep venous thrombosis), but later when describing to the patients themselves or their families they would say that there was a blood clot in a large vein.
Non-verbal Posture- The way an individual sits or stands does communicate someone’s feelings individual sits back with their arms crossed it suggests they could be bored or ‘not bothered’. Whereas someone leaning forward in a chair might show that they are interested in the topic. If a doctor is consulting a patient and is sitting leaning back with arms crossed the patient might feel that the doctor is uninterested, bored and not listening. Facial expression- Faces often indicate emotional states, with smiling indicating that someone is happy or excited, and sadness being shown through an individual looking down and closing their mouth.
In Europe, when eye-contact is lost or people look away from a speaking individual it suggests that that individual is bored or not interested. For example, if a teacher were up to turn to school and teach the nursery children without smiling, they may feel unhappy or uncomfortable being in the teacher’s company. Touch- In a health and social care setting, touch needs to be considered very carefully because it can be taken the wrong way. If a nurse or doctor touches an individual in a dominating or sexual manner, the patient will feel uncomfortable.
There are times when health and social care staff do need to comfort service users, for example a nurse, consoling family members who have lost a relative, may feel that touching a relatives’ shoulder is appropriate and natural. This is an example of how to communicate sensitive information. Silence- When in a health and social care setting, silence from a service user can communicate that they are uncomfortable or uninterested. For example, if a nurse asks a female patient; ‘Are you pregnant? And the patient is silent, it is immunization that the patient is unsure or perhaps scared.
Proximity- Service users have their own personal space, and this needs to be recognized by health and social care staff. Some individuals may be more open to allowing people to enter their personal space, but others may find this an invasion of privacy and could even find it threatening. For example, when a nurse in a nursing home is cleaning a resident who has dementia, the resident may find this threatening or even abusive and may lash out in an attempt to protect themselves if threatening or even abusive and may lash out in an attempt to protect themselves cause they do not understand what is going on.
Cases like this need to be handled with as much sensitivity as possible. Reflective Listening- This type of communication is a skill of its own. Staff in a health and social care setting need to show that they care and understand what clients are saying, for example keeping eye contact with the individual who is communicating with them, nodding in response to show that you are taking note of what they are saying, repeating some of the information to show that you understand exactly what the service user is saying. An example is when a teacher accepts new students into school.
The teacher would fill out forms as the parent is communicating with them, issue, and sometimes the teacher would repeat information when writing it down, so the parents of the child are happy that they are being listened to and understood. COMMUNICATION WITH LANGUAGE NEEDS AND PREFERENCES Many people in Britain and the world like to communicate in their preferred language. In health and social care it is important that staff are able to communicate verbally very clearly and effectively (unless they have a disability prevents them from doing so).
It may also be of benefit if staff can communicate in another language so hey might be able to communicate with those patients who do speak their first language. Sign Language In the United Kingdom British Sign language (BBS) is a language that was recognized as an official British language in 2003. Because of this, it has allowed deaf people in the I-J to be educated, and gain access to information and services through the use of BBS. An example of this a deaf child beginning school and required a teaching assistant that can also communicate through the means of BBS.
Megaton This form of communication was formed quite recently, and is in fact a form of immunization that helps people who have learning difficulties or disabilities to communicate. It is not used as much by the deaf community, as it is not a recognized language. Megaton uses some speech and a large range of signs using hands and symbols to communicate. For example, children in special needs schools, who perhaps do not communicate verbally, might communicate through Megaton as it is considered a more ‘child friendly means of communication.
Braille Braille is a form of communication that is used extensively by the blind or the partially blind community. Today it is used extensively in health and social care tenting and in public. An example of it being used in health and social care settings is that Braille is printed on medicine boxes to help people who cannot see written script to identify the correct medicine. Today computers can translate written material into Braille. The use of signs, symbols, pictures and writing Today signs and symbols are used everywhere to communicate with us and send us information.
It is also used to help us when it comes to health and safety in health and social care settings, such as warnings such as the risk of infection or baseboards from dirty laundry or sharp needles. Writing on a piece of paper is also a form of communicating, if an individual is unable to communicate verbally. Objects of reference could be when an individual points at an object to communicate what they way. For example a child in a nursery may point towards an image of a bottle of milk with a cow on it show what they want.
Using pictures is a way of communicating effectively. In some special needs schools, teachers use small booklets that they are able to carry around with them. In the booklet there may be a picture off red cross that means ‘no’, or a picture of a thumbs up to say ‘good’. Finger spelling This form of communication is a part of BBS, but it uses two hands to communicate specific letters instead of words. It is used to help with spelling complicated words and names, or even to communicate words that do not have its own signed word.
In a health and social care setting, a nurse in a hospital may be able to understand finger spelling, but not full BBS words. If a deaf person did not have an interpreter, they could spell what they needed to that nurse. Human and technological aids to communication There are many human and technological aids to communication, such as the use of sign language, Megaton, Braille, hearing aids and even technology that can talk to us. An individual has a right to communicate in a way that makes them feel comfortable, and may use any form they wish to communicate in in health and social care settings.
Variation between cultures In different cultures, styles of body language and speech may be interpreted differently. For example, in a white community, it is a sign of respect to look at an individual’s eye when they communicate. But in a black community it is considered respectful to look away from an individuals’ eye when one is communicating with them. Another form is head shaking, in European custom, shaking the head means ‘no’, and nodding the head means yes’.
But in Asian countries, nodding is considered as ‘no’, and shaking the head means yes’. In a health and social care setting, it is difficult to understand every cultures’ form of communication, but staff must consider and be respectful of other cultures and try to understand as , much as they can about the different forms of communication. For example, in a school, a teacher must try and understand what an Asian pupil may mean if they ask them a question, and the pupil shakes their head as an answer.
THE COMMUNICATION CYCLE In health and social care, it is important that workers communicate in a way that can be understood, following wherever possible ‘The Communication Cycle’. This process includes the sender and receiver sending messages that are decoded by the other, and make sure the message is understood. To another individual. 2) Message coded- the sender thinks about how they are going to communicate with the receiver, deciding how to structure it in a sentence or sign language or in other forms of communication. ) Message sent- the sender speaks or communicates with the receiver. ) Message received- the individual receiving the message hears or reads the symbols used to communicate with them 5) Message decoded- the receiver of the message interprets the message. The receiver will also take in the body language used by the sender and consider it as a part of the message. 6) Message Understood- should all types of communication have been clear, the message should have been understood. After the cycle has ended, it begins again with the sender turning into the receiver and vice versa.
Dustman’s stages of group interaction Dustman’s believed that group interaction is influenced by many aspects, such as the rationalities in the group. Some groups may take time to come together and ‘bond’, whereas other groups may work well together immediately. Despite this, most groups who do work together will go through the stage of formation, and other stages will follow it. TCPMAN believed there was 4 main stages to group interaction; forming, storming, morning and performing. TCPMAN later added a fifth stage called adjourning, but not all groups would go through this stage.
For example, if a doctor has to inform the family members of a patient that their relative has passed away, they an use the steps of the communication cycle to give them the information If dealing with a sensitive situation, a group or team of health and social care workers would communicate between each other. The use of Dustman’s group interaction stages would be very effective here. A team of people who are diagnosing a patient with mental health issues and taking the individual to a mental health hospital would have the risk of the patient reacting badly to the news.
They would therefore have to plan ahead and work together to keep the individual calm and discuss the best way to handle them. Example: A team of mental health workers diagnosed a patient, and the patient would have to be referred to a hospital. The team would have to take steps in ensure a positive outcome: 1) The team would meet and share information about the patient, and what needs to be known about them for the task in hand. If there is a new member’s to the team they would relay their strength and knowledge about the patient.
Also the hierarchy of the group is established. 2) The team would next discuss what they think is best for the patient, discussing their medical treatment, the best form of counseling for them and other aspects of treatment. Here, there may be some disagreement as to what members of the team think is best for the patient, and because of this there could be some tension. 3) This stage is when the team come together in agreement and decide what is best for the treatment of the patient.
The team would realize that they can work together and perform at their best with each other for the patient. 4) Finally the team work together and follow the hierarchy of the group to carry out their Jobs to have the patient receiving the treatment that they need. Because of the effectiveness of the other stages, the task will be carried out effectively. In all types of communication, within health and social care, communication theories can be seen to be working. I have used some of my examples of communication from the first section of my assignment to provide examples. . In my placement I have had one-to-one communication with the younger students. As a part of the activities the teacher would give me, she would send me a pupil and I would practices counting, recognizing shapes and colors using modeling clay. The communication cycle can be seen to be working in this example. Because I would ask the pupil about what shape or color it was, this was me sending the message. The pupil would then communicate with the correct or incorrect answer, and this shows the message received and understood.
Dustman’s theory of group communication can be seen where the teacher and her colleagues are discussing the curriculum and what are the best activities to help the children with their education, they may disagree with some activities but will eventually come to a group agreement. 2. When I was moved to the older class of pupils in my placement, I was set to work with a group of young boys. I would work with the boys by leading the conversation and having them answer questions which would later be written down in the work