Work is both personal and social activity. As a personal activity, it is aimed at developing a person As a social activity its purpose is the preservation of society. Work therefore has moral and legal implications. Work is a legitimate use of our mental and bodily powers for economic gain or profit 1 . Work Is the “use” or application of our physical powers to accomplish certain tasks. It Is the “use” because nobody can own another man’s body, nor can anyone sell his body or any part of it, for purposes of material advantage or gain. . Work is the repose of obtaining economic gain for the power. It belongs to the essence of work that it can be compensated. The Meaning of Work in the Holy Bible From the biblical point of view, God is seen as the author of work and he also blessed and sanctioned work. Old Testament God did not Just create man, He was also the author of work. In Genesis chapter 1, He creates pattern for us to follow – He created the world for six days and rested on the seventh day. The reason for this respite is for man to appreciate the value and meaning of work.
New Testament The meaning of work could be understood from the mystery of God’s reincarnation. When Christ became man, humanity was blessed and sanctified, including human work. Seen from this perspective, work therefore Is not a drudgery, not even a curse, but an activity that has been sanctified, then It must also sanctify the worker. The Theological Meaning of Work According to SST. Thomas Aquinas SST. Thomas Aquinas enumerates four purposes of work in his treatise entitled “Summary Theological” 1 . It provides for one’s day livelihood. 2. It prevents Idleness which Is the source of many evils. . It curbs the rebellious flesh. 4. It enables man to give alms from his material surplus. The Human Perspective of Work . Practice the Golden Rule. 2. Guard your mouth. 3. Stop the green Jokes. 4. Practice ethical behavior. 5. Learn to forgive. 6. Be generous. 7. Respect superiors and co-workers. 8. Be considerate. 9. Perform your work and fulfill your duties to the best of your ability. 10. Bea grateful person. 11. Do not bring the problems at your home to your workplace. (vice versa) 12. Be an inspiration to others. 13. Read the bible every day. 14. Develop a personal relationship with God. 5. Smile and enjoy work. (remember: work has been sanctified, it must also sanctify you) Basic Duties of Employers 1 . Respect the dignity of the worker 2. Appreciate their work. 3. Never treat them as a slave for making money. 4. Never assign them beyond their strength, do not employ them in work not suited to their age or gender. 5. Give them commensurate or fare wages. 6. Provide for their health and social recreation. 7. Provide them time for the practice of their religion. 8. Instruct them how to use their money wisely. 9. Instruct them to love their family. 10.
Provide them opportunities for promotion. Basic Duties of Worker 1 . Work honestly and comply with all agreements. 2. Never injure capital, nor steal from the employer. . Never outrage the person of the employer. 4. Never employ deceit nor violence in presenting a cause. 5. Never consult with “agitators” or men with evil principle. CHAPTER 15 Equal Employment Opportunities and Affirmation Action EQUAL JOB OPPORTUNITY- Is a labor policy that prohibits business from discriminating against otherwise-qualified people with disabilities. JOB on the basis of personal merit but on the basis of partiality or bias.
AFFIRMATIVE ACTION – Involves policies to increase opportunities for ethnic minorities by favoring them in hiring and promotion, college admissions, and the awarding of government interacts. What is employment discrimination? Employment discrimination is a form of discrimination based on race, sex, religion, national origin, physical disability, and age by employers. Earnings differentials or occupational differentiation is not in and of itself evidence of employment discrimination. Discrimination can be intended and involve disparate treatment of a group or be unintended, yet create disparate impact for a group. 179.
What are the factors to consider? Soon and Palm-Angels (1997) think that it really depends on several factors, such as the following: Who his competitors are What abilities his competitors have How interviewers see him How he performed during the exams and interviews 180. Is it easy to detect discrimination in the workplace? The truth is that it is not easy to detect whether or not there is discrimination in the workplace. Spotting employment discrimination is a big headache because it is generally hard to know whether specific individuals were actually discriminated against. 181 . What are the elements of Job discrimination?
It may be of help if we are to identify some elements or factors that somehow constitute Job discrimination (Velazquez, 1998), and I enumerate here as follows: 1) When a Judgment, decision, or treatment (not based on personal merit such as seniority, performance rating, or other qualifications) is intended against anyone of the workers and his/ her particular group (2) When a Judgment, decision, or treatment springs from prejudice or bias, from false stereotypes, or from other ways of unfair attitude aimed at a particular group to which the worker belongs (3) When a Judgment, decision, or treatment is disadvantageous, pejorative or simply harmful to the worker, perhaps costing his/ her Job, promotion, or pay raise 182. How do you know whether those elements apply to our earlier example?
Most likely, racial discrimination was a shadow behind the promotion or a better pay if the following three elements are present: (1) Was the discussion of management to bypass the Filipino assistant manager in favor of the French assistant manager based on personal merits such as seniority, performance rating or other qualifications? Or the criterion to promote the French assistant manager has nothing to do with merits, qualifications, and credentials? (2) Did the decision spring from false stereotypes such as “the French are more competent, aggressive, or trustworthy Han Filipinos, Asians in general, and other ethnic groups? ” The presence of this element may be hard to prove. (3) Was the decision disadvantageous to the Filipino assistant manager in terms of a promotion or a better pay? 183. Is there discrimination against women in the workplace?
In the Philippine setting, it looks like there is still some kind of Job discrimination The major challenge women have to confront relates to the fact they are the ones who biologically bear children and carry most of the burden of rearing and caring for them. Employers are equally afraid they must provide childcare support by setting up a hillside facility at or near the workplace and other unending benefits for women. Almost always, HRS managers are inclined to distinguish between a career woman and a mother, with the latter usually discriminated against in favor of the former. 184. What are the stereotypes against women? Job recruitment and interviews are discriminatory if the recruiter or interviewer routinely disqualifies women by relying on sexual stereotypes.
These stereotypes may include some presumptions: There are fields of occupation, which are traditionally suitable for women because of their “sensitive, vulnerable, and fragile” nature. There are types of work, which may not be fitting to women due to their biological condition like monthly period. The inability of women to cope up with certain Job requirements since their common gender personality and aptitude traits make them unsuitable for those Jobs. Such generalizations about women are not only biased or prejudicial but also UNTRUE. 185. What is the lesson learned from the 1997 film 6. 1. Jane? The movie 6. 1. Jane, starring Deem Moore, demonstrates the active presence of a determined woman in the toughest military facilities of the US Navy Seals. Veritably, mimes have changed.
In the real world-not by pure chance, luck, or accident-women have become heads of state in Israel, Pakistan, India, Nicaragua, Ireland, Finland, Great Britain, New Zealand and other nations. 186. How is discrimination related to right to life ? It is unethical and socially irresponsible for any employer to dismiss or discharge an employee merely on account of his/her marital status. Hiring, firing, promotion, or demotion must be subject to an objective, unbiased and fair criteria. Workers ought to be treated equally on the basis of individual merit and not on the ground of sexual orientation or marital status. 187. What are ethical principles involved in Job discrimination?
Discrimination in the workplace is wrong and socially irresponsible because of the following reasons: 1) Discrimination in hiring is a disservice in the long run. To hire the best and the smartest it is wiser to select somebody whose talents and personality traits quality him/her as the most competent for the Job. If you so hire and appoint someone on the basis of other criteria unrelated to competency, then subsequent Job performance necessarily declines and productivity goes down. That’s one pragmatic argument against employment Discrimination. 2) It is actually double Jeopardy. Both the object and the subject of discrimination turn out to be the loser. The company could have possibly hired the worker discriminated against, the one who might turn out to be the best and most suited for the Job.
But because it was biased, the company did not pick up the best possible applicant, suffered a disadvantage and got no blessing. Ethics. To discriminate is not the right thing to do. Each person has a fundamental right to be treated as a free and thinking individual and all other individual including employers) have a correlative moral duty to treat him/her as such. 4)when business discriminates, it consciously or unconsciously affirms that one group is inferior or subordinate to another group, that people “from the province” are less qualified than city residents, or UP and La Sale graduates are better than JAR or PUP graduates, that women are less capable than men, that French employees are better that Filipinos.
Such regarding stereotypes undermine the self-esteem of those groups against whom the stereotypes are directed and thereby violate their fundamental right to be treated as equals. Discriminatory practices are not consistent with ethical management which upholds that all are equal in essence and dignity and that all men and women have the same basic rights and duties. Everyone is created equal in essence and dignity, in spite of the race or color, religion, sex, party affiliation, or business connections (Velasquez, 1998). 188. What is the best practice of shell in terms of diversity standard? Creating an inclusive environment that elicits the very best from its employees is fundamental to shell’s success. Therefore, the oil company is committed to manage diversity as a radical business activity.
It values the broad range of cultural and personal differences that exists in the company. The company is benchmarking CARS on diversity and inclusiveness. Shell dedicated to respect each employees need to balance work and personal demands, and provide equal opportunity for everyone to compete through well-understood and consistently applied employment and performance standards. Thus, the company provides means for employees to share, networking, learning, self-development and communication. Royal Dutch/shell group(2002) reports that shell companies across the globe promotes a culture in which all shell employees, contractors, and Joint ventures share his commitment for diversity.
In order to underpin this commitment, every shell company must assure that it: Has a systemic approach to diversity management addressing each of the elements of the group Diversity Framework; Actively supports attraction, development, retention, and promotion of diverse talents; Promotes a workplace free from harassment and discrimination; Establish annual diversity plans, goals and targets for improvement; measures, appraises and reports business performance; Includes diversity performance in the appraisal and development plans of leaders ND employees; Provides safe and effective ways for employees to report observed behavioral inconsistencies with this standard.
Chapter 16: Against Conceptualization Is Conceptualization Socially Responsible? What is labor conceptualization? Is the replacing of regular workers with temporary workers who receive lower wages with no or less benefits. These temporary workers are also known as sometimes called contractual, trainees, apprentices, helpers, casuals, piece raters, agency-hired, and project employees, among others. They do the work of regular workers for a specified and limited period of time, usually less than six months. The work they do is “desirable and necessary” for the company’s survival, but they never become regular employees even if they get rehired repeatedly under new contracts.
The general public is sounding the alarm on the steady growth of both unemployment and underemployment. The concrete situation of millions of sales ladies in our department stores and giant malls, some factory workers, house helpers, carpenters, gasoline boys, workers in the barber shops and parlors, whose jobs are “permanently temporary,” simply because they are contractual. They have no stable Jobs, no ASS, no medical insurance, no security of tenure-?not to mention the 6 million Overseas Filipino Workers who are employed on a contract-to- contract basis, more than 70 percent of whom are domestic helpers and entertainers stationed in four corners of the globe. The new millennium, tagged by management guru Peter F.
Trucker as the “century of knowledge society,” is witnessing the sudden increase of part-time Jobs even among our professionals. This is happening in spite of the fact that the Filipino labor force in general is globally recognized as technically proficient, highly educated, almost always over skilled, let alone our competitive advantage in the English language. Filipino workers are prioritize among Asians by many international companies. Is contractual labor part and parcel of the big economic landscape? Contractual labor is and has been there as part and parcel of the big economic picture-?in agribusiness, sweatshops, construction, and retail business.
Nevertheless, the fact that it has been with us for a long time does not make it correct. At any fast food chain you and your kids happen to drop by and eat, it is very probable that only a few of the uniformed crew (18-24 years old) who are on duty will become casual, probe, or regular employees. One thing is sure for those crew embers, the rest of them are out of work before the sixth-month deadline imposed by Labor Code. Even oversupplied nurses are now contractual laborers. From there, some have to renew their contracts while others have to look for another job, usually in another fasted or gasoline station or hospital, and the vicious cycle of conceptualization continues without ceasing.
The conceptualization of labor is a business strategy or practice, validated to be cost effective. What could be the raisin d’tree why Article 23 was included in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights that says, “Everyone has the right to work, to free choice f employment, to Just and favorable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment”? The basic foundation for full employment is the 1987 Philippine Constitution protecting the right to full employment in the following provision: Article 13, Section 3, “The State shall afford full protection to labor, local and overseas, organized and unrecognized, and promote full employment and equality of employment opportunities for all. From here, we can safely assume that both able and disabled bodies have the natural right to earn a living by a meaningful occupation, a Job worthy of the free and hinging person. This basic human right to work and earn a legitimate means of livelihood entails a solemn duty on the part of private business sector and the government to provide ample opportunities for adequate work and full employment. Jobs are not enough. It should be adequate and full-?regardless of how beautifully some pundits explain various theories of underemployment. Why is it a choice between underemployment and unemployment? Underemployment refers to an employment situation that is insufficient in some important way for the worker, relative to a standard.
Examples include holding a part-time Job despite desiring full-time work, and over qualification, where the employee has education, experience, or skills beyond the requirements of the Job. Unemployment (or Joblessness) occurs when people are without work and actively seeking work In the technical sense, conceptualization is a form of underemployment. The right to adequate work and full employment is essential to all men and women of legal age, as swimming is essential to a fish and flying to a bird (well, most birds). This basic right springs from our intrinsic nature to self-preservation and our innate obligation o support our family, both of which are in accordance with the divine plan.
Although underemployment (conceptualization and part-time Jobs) continues to exist in many various ways, there are no reasons adequate enough to Justify it. The key principle is that full employment is a fundamental right of every citizen, which means the right to be protected from unemployment and underemployment is basic. The harsh reality, however, appears to contradict this idealism embodied in our In most cases, on the part of the Jobsharers, who are almost always breadwinners, it is a choice between Joblessness and underemployment, a quick option between anger and at-least-there’s-hope-for-survival. Is conceptualization a scheme for profit minimization?
Ever since the Philippines Jumped into the GAIT-WTFO bandwagon, times have been especially difficult for labor. The name of the game is cheap labor. In order to attract foreign investors-?aspiring to be competitive as they say with our Asian neighbors-? we have to provide the cheapest labor possible. And this cheap labor comes through conceptualization of Jobs and services. It appears that conceptualization is a scheme that allows capitalists to replace their workforce with ease according to market demands. This translates to minimization of profits for the company, but for the laborers, this system denies them the security and benefits of a regular Job while being paid very low wages.
Conceptualization has become the main form of labor in many Philippine businesses, a good reason why there are hardly any labor unions in the country or why most workers are not organized in the new millennium. Contractual workers cannot afford to Join unions because they are at the mercy of their employers. Many laws protecting workers protect only regular employment. Ethics and Professional Codes of Conduct The era of globalization has created a need for a specialized skills and knowledge. 1 . Skills is the ability to do something well. 2. Knowledge skill that acquire during your education and experience. The reason for the globalization is known as full automation. This situation bring the word profession, professional and professionalism exist in the corporate world. 1 .
Profession – a type of Job that requires a special education, training or skill. 2. Professional -relating to a Job that requires special education, training, or skill done or given by a person who works in a particular profession paid to participate in a port or activity 3. Professionalism – the competence or skill expected of a professional. Members of profession are required by their association to follow their particular rules or guidelines known to be Professional codes of conduct. These guidelines prescribe responsibilities that members must adhere to and situations in which they must not involved. In some cases, members must be sanctioned for violation of the code.