The use of computer hardware and software In education and training dates to the early sass, when American researchers developed flight emulators which used analog computers to generate simulated onboard instrument data. One such system was the type 9 synthetic radar trainer, built in 1943. From these early attempts in the WI era through the mid-sass, educational software was directly tied to the hardware, usually mainframe computers, on which it ran. Pioneering educational computer systems in this era included the PLATO system (1960), developed at the university of Illinois, and TACIT (1969).
In 1963, IBM had established a partnership with Stanford university’s Institute for Mathematical Studies in the Social Sciences (IMAMS), directed by Patrick Suppers, to develop the first comprehensive CIA elementary school curriculum which was implemented on a large scale in schools in both California and Mississippi. ] In 1967 Computer Curriculum Corporation (ICC, now Pearson Education Technologies]) was formed to market to schools the materials developed through the IBM partnership.
Early terminals that ran educational systems cost over $10,000, putting them out of reach of most particularly BASIC (1963), and LOGO (1967) can also be considered educational, as they were specifically targeted to students and novice computer users. The PLATO IV system, released in 1972, supported many features which later became standard in educational software running on home computers. Its features included bitmap graphics, primitive sound generation, and support for non-keyboard input devices, including the touchstones.
History 1990, Major developments in educational software in the early and mid sass were made possible by advances in computer hardware. Multimedia graphics and sound were increasingly used in educational programs. CD-Rooms became the preferred method for content delivery. With the spread of the internet in the second half of the sass, new methods of educational footwear delivery appeared. In theosophist of virtual learning environments, the sass were a time of growth for educational software systems, primarily due to the advent of the affordable computer and of the Internet.
Today Higher Education institutions use virtual learning environments like Blackboard Inc. To provide greater accessibility to learners. Educational games are games that have been designed to teach people about a certain subject, expand concepts, reinforce development, understand an historical event or culture, or assist them in learning a skill as they play. They include board, card, and video games. Video games ‘stimulate learning’, BBC News, March 18, 2002).
Educational video games are considered a type of serious game, as these games have a strong purpose other than pure entertainment. Some people call these types of games edutainment because they combine education and entertainment. An educational computer game can be defined as an electronic medium with all the characteristics of a gaming environment that have intended educational outcomes targeted at specific groups of learners. Video games can aid the development of proficiency by allowing users to interact with objects and manipulate variables.
They are said to be particularly effective when designed to address a specific problem or teach a certain skill in curriculum subjects, where specific objectives can be stated and when deployed selectively within a context relevant to the learning activity and goal. (Mode Games”, 2008). Math games are a great way to get students involved in math. Just like chess, math games get students hooked. Each time they play, they have more confidence and better strategies. With the competitive itch, they strive to do better each time they play.
Math games should be specifically designed to work on math skills. It may work on addition, multiplication or fractions. Having the skills as part of the game makes it easy to make learning seem fun. Just like mothers often sneak vegetables into a casserole or pasta dish, teachers can sneak learning into games. The games should have some elements that make it playable. The game should have simple rules. If there are too many rules, kids will lose interest. Soccer is relatively simply. You need to kick the ball into the net without using your hands.
In golf you try to hit a ball into a hole in as few strokes as possible. With Scrabble, you try to make words with the eighths point value possible. The general goal or core rules of the game should be relatively simple. Games in the class create hours of solid practice. Students actually focus on the skills and develop their skills quickly. Aside from the math skills students learn, they also learn some much needed social skills by working with and make learning a truly fun and inspiring activity. The skills they learn will last a lifetime.
Darken Mechanical is the founder of the Brick School. He is an experienced classroom teacher who has developed many programs and resources for math, language and music. The Brick School offers quality educational posters, programs and worksheets online for elementary language arts, math and music. Materials are designed to promote effective learning strategies in an easy to understand, straight- forward format. They offer both practical solutions to learning problems and leading edge technology and techniques. It reaches both struggling students and those who need extra challenges in class.
With the latest software and leading edge learning strategies, our materials are paving the way for learning. User-friendly programs give students instant feedback while they practice important basic skills. Lessons and study guides also include proven learning strategies and memories techniques. (Darken Mechanical, 2007) As for the Holy Virgin of Salvation Foundation College Inc. (HVAC’S) pupils, they are having a difficulty in understanding or learning math. If these continue, it will only cause low performance of the pupils.
So our group decided to make an educational game that will entertain and encourage the pupils to study their subjects. Therefore, the study aims to create an educational computer game that pupils will enjoy playing and for them to gain knowledge through the experience they learn by playing the game. It will help pupils develop their logical, analytical and thinking skills. They will learn through experience by solving math problems, puzzles, and memory and mind games. It will help them improve their academic performance by encouraging them to study their lessons.
It can also be used as a medium of learning that will help the teacher teach the pupils in an interactive, fun learning environment. Statement of the problem This study aims to develop an educational game that will help students from grade four to six to enhance their academic and logical skills. Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions: 1 . What are the lessons needed to be included on the game? 2. What topics are to be focused? 3. What are the teaching strategies used in teaching Math? 4. What is the software and programming language needed to make this educational computer game?
Theoretical Framework The following related theories are presented for the development of the study: According to Emory & Seagram (2003), Choc and Handful (1995) stated that formal education contexts are comparatively unfamiliar when compared to real-life experiences as they often emphasize abstract, decentralized knowledge which is difficult to transfer to real-life situations. The Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt, 1990 stated that this knowledge is then static and can be recalled in tests but not readily applied in problem-solving situations encountered in everyday life.
In contrast, Brown, Collins &Dug, (1989) stated that in informal learning contexts, individuals apply the knowledge practically and routinely to solve everyday problems. Knowledge and tools can only be fully understood through their regular use and using them requires the user to change their view of the world. Eagan (1985) stated that traditional instructional design usually involves strategies that promote deductive learning. According to Eagan, Briggs, & Wager (1988) for example, and non-examples of practice.
In contrast, Burner, (1986) inductive learning based on discovery or “learning by inventing” is perhaps a method of learning that is more effective. Through engaged experience in a domain learners induce, or construct, their own concepts and rules based on their interpretation of the instances encountered. Early childhood educators know how important play is in children’s lives. Harris et al. , (2003) stated that play is not only an enjoyable and spontaneous activity of young children but it is also contributes significantly to children’s psychological development.
Quinn (1994) stated that play, and play associated with games, is an important aspect of learning. According to Emory & Seagram (2003), play performs important roles in psychological, social and intellectual development, especially during early childhood, and could be defined as a voluntary activity that is intrinsically motivating, involves some level of activity (often physical) and may possess make-believe qualities. A number of characteristics that distinguish play from other forms of human activity have been identified by Graver (1977).
Play has been characterized as a spontaneous, self-initiated and self- regulated activity of young children, which is relatively risk free and not necessarily goal-oriented. Play is intrinsically motivated: normally children have an internal desire and interest to engage in play, they are actively involved in creating their play and are in control of it. Limonite (1981) &Unscrupulous (1993) stated that an essential characteristic of child’s play is a dimension of pretend-?that is, an action and interaction in an imaginary, “as if” situation, which usually contains some roles and rules and the symbolic use of objects.
According to Emory & Seagram (2003), Robber et al. , (1996) stated that games can affect cognitive functions and motivation; inherently stimulate curiosity by including challenges and elements of fantasy and novelty and complexity and can promote goal formation and competition. Shank& Clearly et al. , (1995) stated that skills required to play games include motor skills, logic, memory, visualization and problem solving that are fundamental to learning. Shank& Clearly (1995) stated that learners appear to be intrinsically motivated, interrogatively active, behaviorally active and self-evaluating while playing games.
According to Nag et al (2008), Jones, 1997 stated that it is also asserted that students need to develop an understanding of a new domain through challenging and enjoyable problem-solving activities. Computer games seem to represent the instructional artifact most closely matching these characteristics. Besides, Hills (2000) and led (2002) claimed that computer games as a virtual reality infuse the sense of “presence” in a virtual space through identity construction, and enable players to associate themselves with such technologies.
Apart from these, Socialize (1978) maintained that genuine learning may be viewed to include the allowing characteristics which are noticeably present in most computer games: * it is difficult; * it is individual, but stimulated collaboratively; * it is situational unpredictable; * learning applications do not automatically produce genuine learning, but can at the most inspire it; *and it changes our views and perceptions of the world.
According to person and wolf (2009, THE VIDEO GAME THEORY)debenture of games available, but they will not use the video game medium to its fullest potential, because there games limit player influence and how players reflect on political ideas, robbery because this people making these kinds of gamesmen a limited understanding of politics in general. Whatever the case, open – ended games based on philosophical ideas and interesting ethical systems are much more exciting to experiment with and explore, turning them into fuller experiences of meaningful play.
As for the future of philosophical games, there is the real challenge. I am certainly not saying that every game from now on ought to be a philosophical game. However, if game culture and aesthetics are to develop into mature games beyond teenage power-gaming and simplistic propaganda, designers will have to meet this halogen and create games that expect the players to explore and reflect on game experience. Unman, Robert J. (1987) Game theory is a mathematical method for analyzing calculated circumstances (games) where a person’s success is based upon the choices of others.
An alternative term suggested “as a more descriptive name for the discipline” is interactive decision theory. Game theory is mainly used in economics, political science, and psychology, and other, more prescribed sciences, like logic or biology. The subject first addressed zero-sum games, such that one person’s gains exactly equal net losses of the other participant(s). Today, however, game theory applies to a wide range of class relations, and has developed into an umbrella term for the logical side of science, to include both human and non- humans, like computers.
Classic uses include a sense of balance in numerous games, where each person has found or developed a tactic that cannot successfully better his results, given the other approach. Mathematical game theory had beginnings with some publications by Г?milometer, which led to his book Applications auk Juju De Hazard. However, his results were limited, and the theory regarding the non- existence of blended-strategy equilibrium in two-player games was incorrect. Modern game theory began with the idea regarding the existence of mixed-strategy equilibrium in two-person zero-sum games and its proof by John von Neumann.
Von Newsman’s original proof used Borrower’s fixed-point theorem on continuous mappings into compact convex sets, which became a standard method in game theory and mathematical economics. His paper was followed by his 1944 book Theory of Games and Economic Behavior, with Oscar Northeastern, which considered cooperative games of several players. The second edition of this book provided an axiomatic theory of expected utility, which allowed mathematical statisticians and economists to treat decision-making under uncertainty.
Conceptual Framework The diagram on the next page shows the ideas on how the researchers utilize the input to come up with the output. INPUT * Respondents * Preferences * Target population * Questionnaires * Software resources * Program resources PROCESS * Data interpretation and evaluation * Analyze * Program * Design * Implementation OUTPUT * An Interactive Game * Entitled: (Grades 4-6). Math Booster: AD Educational Computer Game for Pupils The researchers gathered inputs needed. The inputs are used in the data gathering, data interpretation, designing of the plan and action and then implementation.
As the study continues, the researchers can now come up with the desired output which is the Math Booster:AD Educational Computer Game for Pupils (Grades 4 – 6). Fig. 1 Conceptual Framework of Math Booster: AD Educational Computer Game for Pupils (Grades 4 – 6). The schematic dissimilarities how the researchers will utilize the resources gathered in the input to come up with the output. The researchers researched on what type of project they are going to propose. The proposed project depends on the availability of the resources and the capacity of the researchers.
Then, they plan how they will collect dependable information for the proposed system. From the collected information, the researchers will analyze and design the system. Once the system satisfies the needs of the respondents, it may now be implemented and continuously be developed. Significance of the Study The researchers intend to create a math educational game for pupils from grades four to six to improve and develop their math and analytical skills. It is significant to he following: To the pupils this will enhance their academic and thinking skills by solving simple and complicated math problems, include logic and puzzles.
The game has tutorials that will guide the pupils in answering the problems. The game will encourage the pupils to study and learn their academic subjects. To the researcher this will serve as an output of the three year that they have studied as an IT student. This will also challenge the capabilities of the researchers wherein a programming language is to be used and more complex animation is to be done. To the HAVOCS the school will become more competitive with other schools. It will help the school to uplift its quality of learning as well as increase its number of enrollee.
Since other schools are already using educational games as teaching material. To the future researchers this will serve as a guide for them and to know what they can do to improve the past researches to a more innovative one. Scope and Delimitation of the Study This study covers the Holy Virgin of Salvation Foundation College Inc. And focuses on creating an educational game that will entertain as well as develop the math and logical skills of pupils. This game will encourage the pupils to study and learn math. He game only covers the subject math.
The game consists of three levels, easy, medium and hard. The game also has a user profile system that enables the pupils to monitor their scores in the game and for the teacher to monitor their progress in the game. The game has tutorials in basic subject namely Math. It also has unlovable mini games like puzzles, memory and mind games that will be unlocked after passing a certain level of the game. Definition of Terms The following terms are being used by the researchers in this study: * HAVOCS – Holy Virgin of Salvation Foundation College Inc. ICC (Computer Curriculum Corporation) – was formed to market the materials developed through the IBM partnership. Enemies and Halberd (1989) suggested that “no other CIA system has had such impact at the elementary level”. * Educational Software – is computer software whose primary purpose is teaching or self-learning. * Edutainment – entertainment (as by games, films, or shows) that is designed to be educational * Math Games – whose rules, strategies, and outcomes can be studied and explained by mathematics. Examples of such games are Tic-tact-toe and Dots and Boxes. IBM – stand for International Business Machines, Is a multi-national computer technology ND IT consulting corporation. The company was founded in 1896 as the Tabulating Machine Company. In 1981, IBM launched its first personal computer, called the IBM PC. * Power Gaming – a style of interacting with games or game-like systems with the aim of maximizing progress towards a specific goal, to the exclusion of other considerations such as (in videotapes, board games, and role playing games) storytelling, atmosphere and camaraderie. Scrabble – a word game in which two to four players score points by forming words from individual lettered tiles on a game board marked with a 15-by-15 grid. * The Playmates – known as “Programmed Logic for Automated Teaching Operations”, was the fertilization computer assisted instruction system, and, by the late sass, comprised several thousand terminals worldwide on nearly a dozen different networked mainframe computers. * TACIT -known as “Time-shared, Interactive, Computer-controlled Information Television”, first developed by the MITER Corporation in 1968 as an interactive cable television (CATV) system. Tic Tact Toe – also known as 3-in-a-row or “naughty and crosses,” is a game in which players alternate placing pieces (typically Xx for the first player and So for the second) on a board. The first player to get three pieces in a row (vertically, horizontally, or diagonally) is the winner. * User Friendly Program – a program that the user considers a friend instead of an enemy. Notes Internet Resources: Encyclopedia Instructional Systems Development. (1989). Retrieved from http://en. Wisped. Org/wick/Educational_software GAME THEORY. (2011). Retrieved from http://en. Kipped. Org/wick/Game_theory Internet Sources: EBook VIDEO GAME THEORY. (2009). Retrieved from http://books. Google. Com. PH/books Children’s Educational Computer Games. (2011, July 1). Retrieved from http:// www. Whippets. Mom/2011 /07/children’s-educational-computer-games/’ Enhancing Your Brains Through Educational Games. (2011). Retrieved from http://www. Straightforwardness. Com/ Math Games – A Fun Way to Learning Math. (2007). Retrieved from http://centralizes. Com/? Math-Games—A-Fun-Way-to-Learning- PDF Files: How Are Games Educational?
Learning Theories Embodied in Games. (2011). Retrieved from http://www. Diagram. Org/del/db/06278. 23299. PDF Emory, A. , & Seagram, R. (2003). Educational Game Models: Conceptualization and Evaluation. Retrieved from:HTTPS://docs. Google. Com/viewer Chapter II Review of Literature and Studies The researchers have found the following studies and literature as relevant to the system being proposed. Related Literature This chapter reviews relevant ideas from related literatures which provide the researchers with information and valuable perceptions relative to the topic.
It can be a truth that at this point of time, the planet has changed using the advent of technologies. The development of additional high end technologies every day has brought an important impact to the modernization of a number of fields, for example, in entertainment. It’s fascinating how the mode of play evolved and has now turned UT to be a lot more advanced. The entertainment globe has taken an additional one massive leap towards producing the people today entertained and amused. (“How to Choose Good Educational Games” ,2011).
Sheets (2011) stated that educational games are known for stimulating the overall growth of a kid. It generally promotes the physical, social and emotional growth among the kids. Some of the benefits of educational games: ;It provides a medium that promotes an immediate and challenging visual feedback within a fun safe virtual environment. ; Research has proved that kids exposed to educational software games developed many skills like Logical Reasoning skills and decision making. ; Educational games also help the kids to interact with the other kids of their age to solve a particular puzzle or a problem.
Educational computer games can combine two separate things, learning and entertainment. Most children think learning is related to text book, boring and something they should avoid of. The use of games in teaching children keeps them from getting bored easily. The educational computer games will be so much fun that our children will never even realizes that the games are intended to make them learn. (“Educational Computer Games as Effective Learning Tools” ,2009). In recent years, Fitch & Sims (1992) stated that computers have become an increasingly popular learning and playing tool, especially with young children.
Some educators believe that enhancing the capability of young children through computer formal school setting. The research literature provides some knowledge on the impact of use of computer-related technology on young children’s social, psychological, cognitive development, and academic learning. With respect to how young children with/without computer experience view computers, Fitch and Sims (1992) found that those who worked on computers understood it better, viewed it ore positively, and related computers to learning more strongly than the group without computer experience did.
With a different focus, Williams and Axletree (1992) studied the gender differences in computer interest and competence in preschool children, and the relationship of these variables to gender role concepts. They found little evidence for the masculine stereotyping of the computer, or for greater male competence or interest. Computers applications are now used as learning and playing tool that researchers believe that is more effective and efficient learning in school. This helps develop the children’s social, psychological, cognitive development, and academic learning.
Playing and studying are not incompatible activities. A team of researchers from Madras’s Compliments University (UCM) looks to integrating virtual graphic adventures into online education platforms and analyzes the educational and technological aspects that they should have to promote expansion. “Video games in virtual educational environments are a complement to traditional teaching for the student”, Pablo Moreno-Gear, lead author of the study and member of the e-UCM educational technologies research group, led by PleasanterГN’djamenaГ¶n in Ism’s Software Engineering and Artificial Intelligence Department, tells SINCE.
According to research, the graphical adventure genre (e- Adventure) is the most flexible, covering the greatest number of subjects or areas of knowledge, and the one that, possibly, “works best in the area of education”. In these games, a wide variety of problems must be resolved through a story line designed to aid in the learning process. The Spanish researchers believe that including video games in the online education platforms is the best way to achieve mass, economic striation of this tool, the educational effectiveness of which is now rarely a topic of debate in the academic field. “Educational Video Games Effective in Classroom If Certain Criteria Are Met” ,2009). Gorger (n. D. ) stated that before entering the school system, children today are required to know more and be more skilled. When their parents were young the requirements were much less. As a parent, deciding what to teach kids in preparation for kindergarten can be a great challenge. Educational or learning games can help parents by providing a resource for them to teach children he necessary skills needed to begin kindergarten.
These educational games and activities can be both fun and challenging for adults and children alike. Because kids learn differently than adults, the games are made to be both educational and fun. Things like colors, shapes, counting, the alphabet and rhyming are commonly taught in these kinds of games. Memory is another skill children need to learn and practice before starting school. Children often have very sharp memories that Just need to be reinforced, so games that teach memory are particularly helpful for this age group. These games are popular and fun for adults, too.
At the elementary and secondary school levels, games with the more traditional childhood meaning are generally used to excite student interest and enthusiasm in various courses, particularly math. In to meet basic math standards, according to the U. S. Department of Education’s National Assessment of Educational Progress. One result was the massive introduction by elementary school teachers of games designed to eliminate the fear of math that many children harbor and to make math more fun. In some classes, students spent 50% of their mathematics study time engaged in games, and some searchers claimed a 10% increase in student scores.
Among the most popular games was “24,” in which student players compete to see who can first analyze how to add, subtract, multiply and/or divide four given numbers and arrive at a result of 24. Critics of games fear their excessive use and question the long-term academic benefits and emotional effects of associating “fun” with every academic exercise. (“Educational Game” ,2011). Increasing numbers of teachers are also beginning to suggest that computer games develops children thinking in a way that we need to pay attention. In an age of unauthorized technology, the computer games could become part of the school curriculum.
Teachers assist student to make computer games to be effective learning tools in this society that is increasingly dependent on digital technology. (“Educational computer games as effective learning tools” ,2009). Related Studies Edutainment covers the combination of educational and entertainment use on a variety of media platforms including computer games. The term edutainment is elastic and game companies are inclined to strengthen the appeal for parents. Sutton-Smith & Kelly-Byrne (1984) argued that parents appreciate the ambition of education and entertainment, preferring play that teaches children.
This links well with the common rationalizing of children’s play pursued by adults. Further, Gentled-Nielsen (2005) stated that there is a distinct tendency for both educators and parents to cast play in developmental terms. Children should not Just play for the sake of playing, but could also nurture other skills. Rationalizing play is extended to edutainment and used for creating a new market. Although, there are theoretical good arguments for using play for learning they are often glossed over in edutainment.
Saloon’s-Pasternak (2005) wrote that computer games are quite new form of media and today they have already established themselves as an everyday phenomenon. Norman (1993) states that games satisfy the basic requirements of learning environments and can provide an engaging environment for learning. Unfortunately, Kill (2005) stated that games have been used in education primarily as tools for supporting the practice of factual information. In fact it can be argued that most of the educational games resemble too much digital exercise books and do to utilize the powerfulness of games as an interactive context free media.
Moreno & Mayer (2005) stated that one of the reasons for this is that the field of educational technology lacks of research on how to design game environments that foster knowledge construction, deep understanding and problem solving while being engaging and entertaining. Griffith (2002) stated that videotapes, in addition to their entertainment value, have great positive potential when games are designed to address a specific problem or to teach a certain skill. Videotapes can consume the