Those leaders who possess a strong set of interpersonal skills and can distinguish what approach is best to use for any given situation are most likely to be successful in their positions (Dyer, 2001). Such skills needed for effective leadership include empathy, heightened awareness, insight, and the ability to give feedback (Bass, 1985). Mandela and Permian (2003) examined the predictive relationship between emotional intelligence and transformational leadership style, the gender differences within each construct, and interaction effects between gender and emotional intelligence.
The study established that emotional intelligence significantly predicts transformational leadership style. A significant difference was also found between the emotional intelligence scores of male and female managers. Gender, however, did not predict a transformational leadership style over and above emotional intelligence. These results indicate that emotional intelligence can be used to identify leaders who demonstrate positive transformational leadership qualities. Webb (2004) examined the extent to which emotional intelligence is related to transformational leadership within mentoring legislations.
One hundred and twelve faculty members responsible for mentoring doctoral students were assessed on the various dimensions of emotional intelligence. Transformational leadership ratings for each professor were provided by the doctoral student(s) who were advised by him or 62 her. The results indicated that emotional intelligence can predict several aspects of transformational leadership, including charisma and inspirational motivation. Gravitas and Brinkmanship (2004) examined the relationship of emotional intelligence with leadership excellence, success and Job satisfaction.
The results showed that emotional intelligence significantly correlates with transformational leadership and success. An emotionally intelligent person is more successful in all spheres than a person who possesses less emotional intelligence skills. Punt (2005) conducted a study on 250 executives in the National Capital Region – Delhi, and found that leaders with higher emotional intelligence see changes as opportunities for betterment, and they cherish not stability but ongoing development of individual workers and of the organization itself.
Rosette and Cockroach (2005) established a link teens emotional intelligence and workplace measures of leadership effectiveness, using an objective measure of performance and a 3600 assessment tool. The research results showed that executives higher on emotional intelligence are more likely to achieve organizational outcomes and be considered as effective leaders by their subordinates and direct manager.
Alone and Higgins (2005) opined that with the current rise of globalization, both emotional and cultural intelligence has become important for cross-cultural leaders to excel. Global leaders can make the best use of motional intelligence and maximize success when they understand and work within diverse foreign environments. This multiple intelligence framework helps to clarify firms. 63 Ergo, Souse, Chuan, Correct, and Gaur (2007) examined the relationship between leaders’ emotional intelligence and creativity of their teams.
A sample of 138 top and middle managers from 66 organizations operating in the European Union was analyzed. Emotional intelligence was assessed by a self-report scale consisting of six dimensions: understanding one’s emotions, self-control against criticism, self- encouragement (use of emotions), emotional self-control (regulation of emotions), empathy and emotional contagion, understanding other people’s emotions. The results revealed that emotionally intelligent leaders behave in ways that stimulate the creativity of their teams.
Sings (2007) investigated the relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership effectiveness among 340 software professionals of a large company in India. Emotional intelligence was found to be positively and significantly related to organizational leadership for both genders. The results revealed no significant differences between male and female software refashions in terms of emotional intelligence and overall leadership effectiveness. The relationship management aspect of emotional intelligence was found to be the most important predictor of leadership.
The study laid emphasis on employees to develop their relationship skills in order to become effective leaders. Bal Submarine, Ghats and Nair (2008) conducted a study in Apollo Health City, Hydrated to investigate the relationship of emotional intelligence with organizational leadership as well as the impact of emotional intelligence on leadership effectiveness. The findings suggested that management functions have undermined the importance of individual development, at the cost of technology and 2. 2 modernization.
The study suggested that Apollo Hospital Group, Hydrated, should specifically concentrate on improving the self-management and social awareness skills of the employees in order to maintain its position as the No 1 health care provider in India. Bodysuit and Ratty (2009) in their study identified competencies that distinguished effective managers and leaders. Performance measures were collected as nominations from superiors and subordinates. Results revealed that emotional, social and cognitive intelligence competencies predict performance.
More specifically, in the emotional intelligence competency cluster, effective executives showed more initiative, while effective middle level managers showed more planning than their less effective counterparts. Similarly, in the social intelligence competency cluster, effective executives were more distinguished in networking, self-confidence, persuasiveness and oral communication. These are all addressing assertive and influencing processes. Meanwhile, effective middle level managers distinguished homeless with empathy and group management.
These appear to be key competencies in addressing internal processes, whereas effective executives seem to be focused on the external environment. The main implication of the study was that competencies needed for managers to be effective can be identified. EMOTIONAL Lack of emotional intelligence is one the leading cause of conflict, as the root of all conflict is a lack of sensitivity on the part of one or both parties and sensitivity is directly related to one’s emotional intelligence. Managers or leaders who are high on 65 motional intelligence will be able to mitigate problems long before they have a larger impact on the company.
A brief account of some pertinent studies relating to emotional intelligence and conflict has been reported here: The study conducted by Fugal and Clement (2002) in seven countries revealed that motivation, one of the dimensions of emotional intelligence, is positively related with effective problem solving style. Carmela (2003) examined the relationship between emotional intelligence, Job satisfaction, organizational commitment and work-family conflict in ninety-eight senior managers. He suggested that emotional intelligence is a competency that drives positive outcomes and behaviors.
Caramel hypothesized that high levels of emotional intelligence would result in positive moods and feelings which would generate high levels of Job satisfaction, that emotional intelligence would augment a higher level of organizational commitment as employees would be able to maintain positive affective states, and finally he hypothesized that employees high in emotional intelligence are more able to balance work-family conflict as they recognize and manage feelings of conflict as they occur.
Jordan and Troth (2004) examined the utility of emotional intelligence for predicting individual performance, team performance, and conflict resolution styles. 350 respondents working in 108 teams were administered a measure of team members’ emotional intelligence. Participants then completed a problem-solving task, individually and as a team member, and afterwards reflected on the conflict resolution tactics used to achieve the team outcome. In line with expectations, emotional 66 intelligence indicators were positively linked with team performance and were differentially linked to conflict resolution methods.
Lehmann, Baud and Eisner (2007) in their study supported the finding that possession of emotional intelligence will act as a protector variable of one’s well- being in the face of work-family conflict. The results revealed that higher emotional intelligence positively influenced well-being. Specifically, those individuals in the study who had high emotional intelligence with low work-family conflict reported the highest well-being while those with low emotional intelligence and high work-family conflict reported the lowest well-being.
A total of 205 people participated in this study. This sample was drawn from a large university representing a large variety of Jobs including unionized trade workers to executive managers. Cravings and George (2005) in their research paper investigated the relationship between emotional intelligence and conflict management styles of management students. The subjects for the study were 516 students from business schools in Tamil Nadia, India, who responded to a structured questionnaire.
The study found that different problems demand different styles of handling and emotionally intelligent students seem to be capable of applying the different style of conflict management styles as the situation demands. Kooky, Calla features of conflict, reactions to conflict, and team emotional intelligence climate. They proposed through their study that teams with less-well- defined emotional intelligence climates were associated with increased task and relationship conflict and increased conflict intensity.
In addition, team emotional 67 intelligence climate, especially conflict management norms, moderated the link between task conflict and destructive reactions to conflict. They stressed upon the fact that team leaders and members need to be aware of their team members’ reactions to conflict. More specifically, teams that are experiencing destructive reactions to conflict need training in skills related to empathy, emotion management, and conflict management norms. The application of these skills in the team environment will assist team leaders and members in minimizing conflict and in managing conflict for team effectiveness.
Goods and Thingamajig (2010) examined the relationship between personality, conflict resolution styles and emotional intelligence among 81 technology professionals in India. The results revealed that emotional intelligence was significantly correlated with the integrating style of conflict solution (I. E. Involving the exchange of information and differences toward a solution favorable to both parties), negatively correlated with the avoiding style (I. E. Withdrawal from the situations) and not correlated with the dominating, compromising or obliging style.
The results indicate that IT professionals with higher perceived emotional intelligence are likely to adapt better styles of conflict resolution in order to deal effectively with the situations. The study draws our attention to the use of emotional intelligence skills in effectively resolving conflicts in the workplace. 2. EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND JOB STRESS Stress in the workplace reduces productivity, increases management pressures, and makes people ill in many ways, evidence of which is still increasing.
Workplace 68 stress affects the performance of the brain, including functions of work performance; memory, concentration, and learning. Stress at work also provides a serious risk of litigation for all employers and organizations, carrying significant liabilities for damages, bad publicity and loss of reputation. It is here that emotional intelligence comes to our rescue and guides us to respond appropriately to different stresses. Emotional Intelligence helps to cope up with stressful situations. Stress management, therefore, largely depends upon striking an emotional balance between a potential stress condition and one’s reaction to it.
Researchers proved this fact in their studies, a brief account of which is given below: Clucked (1994) carried out a survey on management accountants and examined the relation between stress and Job strains. He found main causes of stress to be as follows (1) Reporting to more than one boss, (2) Heavy workload under time constraints, (3) Work relations in the organization, and (4) A perceived lack of career progress. He also reported an additional source of stress, a mismatch between personality and the task demands of the Job.
Shall (1997) assessed the effect of role stress on the level of involvement a person has in the Job and alienation and the coping mechanism used to deal with stress. It was found that role erosion, resource inadequacy and inter-role distance were 69 dominating contributors of role stress. Avoidance style of coping was used more frequently than approach styles of coping. Chain and Seth’ (1997) conducted a study to examine the organizational factors as predictors of Job related strain among 1 50 noir officers working in various banking institutions in the state of Himalaya Pradesh.
Role conflict, strenuous working conditions and role overload were found to be the dearest and most significant predictors of Job related strain Abraham (2000) deliberated that the social skills component of Emotional Intelligence is related to positive interpersonal relationships and it increases the feeling of Job satisfaction and decreases occupational stress. She further stated that these social skills foster networks of social relationships which in turn increase an employee’s commitment to he organization.
In their theoretical paper, Specter and Gogh (2001) examined the role of emotion in occupational stress. They employed a narrow definition of Job stress as “any condition or situation that elicits a negative emotional response, such as anger / frustration or anxiety / tension” in an attempt to overcome the broadness of previous definitions and focus on negative emotional responses. The authors suggested that emotions influence how the work environment is perceived, that is, whether a particular condition is appraised as a Job stresses or not.
They further suggested that hose appraising emotions may lead to psychological and physical strains. Psychological strain might result from continual negative emotional experiences and may lead to decreases in Job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Physical strains (for example, suppression of immune system, heart disease) may result from 70 the physiological components of experienced emotions that can adversely affect health. It was concluded that an individual’s ability to manage and control their emotions (particularly negative emotions) in the workplace will influence the outcome of stress.
Slacks and Cartridge (2002) investigated the relationship between assures of emotional quotient, subjective stress, distress, general health, and morale, quality of working life and management performance of a group of retail managers. Significant correlations in the expected direction were found, indicating that managers who scored higher in emotional quotient suffered less subjective stress, experienced better health and well-being, and demonstrated better management performance.
Gaur (2003) identified role erosion, role overload, role isolation and personal inadequacy responsible for occupational role stress in her study of managers working in different branches of Punjab State Cooperative Bank Ltd. Aziza (2004) opined that organizational stress originates in organizational demands that are experienced by the individual. Stress is built up in the concept of role which is conceived as the position a person occupies in a system. The paper investigated the intensity of organizational role stress among women information technology professionals in the Indian private sector.
Organizational role stress scale was used on a sample of 264 professionals to explore the level of role stress. Resource inadequacy emerged to be the most potent role stresses, followed by role overload and personal inadequacy. The research found differences in the level of stress between married and unmarried employees on several role stresses. 71 Duran and Extremer (2004) in their study including professionals employed in institutions for people with intellectual disabilities, revealed a significant relationship between emotional intelligence and burnout syndrome, and personal accomplishment in particular.
The data clearly indicated that emotional intelligence expressed in the ability to recognize, express, and control emotions may have impact on the perceived Job stress and the consequences of experienced stress. Editorial and Editorial (2005) studied the role of emotional intelligence in coping with stress and emotional control behavior. The research clearly established that emotionally intelligent people who are able to understand and recognize their emotions, manage themselves appropriately so that their impulsiveness and aggression is kept under control in stressful situations.
Cabbaging (2005) proposed that by developing emotional intelligence one can build a bridge between stress and better performance. The effects of stress are costly to both the organization and the employee if left unattended within a given timeshare. Regular administration of emotional intelligence abilities can help employees at workplace to control impulses and persist in the face of frustration and obstacles, prevent negative emotions from swamping the ability to think, feel motivated and confident and to accurately perceive emotions, to empathic and get along well with others.
Zoom, Scorers and Dallas (2005) led an investigation among 1 58 freshmen to find an association between emotional intelligence (emotion- relevant abilities) and stress (feelings of inability to control life events), considering personality (self-perception of the meta-emotional raids of clarity, intensity, and attention) as a moderating 72 variable. The results suggested that emotional intelligence is potentially helpful in reducing stress for some individuals, but unnecessary or irrelevant for others.
It may be because they have average emotional intelligence, but do not appear to use it, presumably because they lack confidence in their emotional ability. Osaka-Bulk (2005) explored the relationship between emotional intelligence and perceived stress in the workplace and health-related consequences in human service workers. The results confirmed that employees reporting a higher emotional intelligence level received a lower level of occupational stress and suffered less from negative health consequences.
The study confirmed that emotional intelligence plays a buffering role (but rather weak) in preventing the workers from negative health outcomes, especially from depression symptoms. Sings and Sings (2008) investigated the relationship as well as the impact of emotional intelligence on to the perception of role stress of medical professionals in their organizational lives. The study was conducted on a sample size of 312 medical professionals consisting of 174 male and 38 female doctors working for privately managed professional hospital organizations.
The findings of the study indicated no significant difference in the level of emotional intelligence and perceived role stress between genders, but significantly negative relationships of emotional intelligence with organizational role stress for both the genders and the medical professionals as a whole. Shahs and acknowledged to be a critical issue for managers of private manufacturing companies. Their study examined the relationship between Job stress, Job satisfaction 73 2. 4 and performance among 100 managers of private manufacturing firms.
The findings of the study suggest that higher stress levels are related to lower performance whereas higher Job satisfaction indicates higher performance. Small, Such-Such, Allis and Dollar (2009) conducted a study to examine the effect of emotional intelligence in the relationship between occupational stress and Job performance. The outcome of the study clearly stated that relationship between occupational stress and emotional intelligence significantly correlated with Job performance.
Statistically, the results confirmed that the inclusion of emotional intelligence in the analysis edited the effect of occupational stress on Job performance Disgusts and Kumar (2009) examined the sources of role stress among doctors and the stress levels among male and female doctors working in Nadir Gandhi Medical College and Hospital, Shimmy (India). The study revealed that role overload, self-role distance, role isolation, inter-role distance, role stagnation, role expectation conflict, role ambiguity and role inadequacy are the major sources of role stress.
It further stated that there is no significant difference between the stress levels among male and female doctors except in cases of – inter-role distance and role inadequacy, which was found more male doctors. EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND JOB PERFORMANCE Among other things / purposes, organizations are places where individuals are “organized” to work. To the extent that the work requires interactions among 74 individuals, emotions such as excitement, anger and fear are indispensable in facilitating cooperation.
Employees who are “intelligent” about their emotions will, therefore, be more efficient and effective in their interactions with the work environment and with their co-workers. This emotional intelligence – performance link has been proposed in a few previous studies which are mentioned as follows: An analysis of Job competencies in 286 behaviors worldwide indicated that 18 of the 21 competencies in their generic model for distinguishing better performers were based on emotional intelligence (Spencer and Spencer, 1993).
Epicures and Bahamas (1996) established that after supervisors in a manufacturing plant received training in emotional competencies, such as how to listen better and help employees resolve problems on their own, lost -time accidents were reduced from an average of 1 5 per ear to 3 per year, and the plant exceeded productivity goals by $250,000.
In a study, data from more than 30 different behaviors from banking, mining, geology, sales and health care industries documented that a number of emotional intelligence competencies, qualities such as, achievement drive, developing others, adaptability, influence and self confidence distinguished top performers from average ones (McClellan, 1998). Emotional intelligence may contribute to work performance (as reflected in salary, salary increase, and company rank) by enabling people to nurture costive relationships at work, work effectively in teams, and build social capital.
Work others (Gibbers, Kramer and Elide, 2001). Emotional intelligence enhances work 75 performance by enabling people to regulate their emotions so as to cope effectively with stress, perform well under pressure, and adjust to organizational change. A study on 100 bank employees by Manila University (cited in Sings, 2001) showed that intelligence quotient scores were virtually unrelated with Job performance whereas emotional quotient score accounted for 27 percent of Job performance. Balls and
Neuronal (2004) reported in their study that emotional intelligence is a factor that is potentially useful in understanding and predicting individual performance at work. They further reported that emotional intelligence is extremely important in Indians as they have high affiliation need and emotional intelligence can lead to significant gain in productivity. Lyons and Schneider (2005) examined the relationship of ability- based emotional intelligence facets with performance under stress.
The authors expected high levels of emotional intelligence would promote challenge appraisals ND better performance, whereas low emotional intelligence levels would foster threat appraisals and worse performance. The authors found that certain dimensions of emotional intelligence were related more to challenge and enhanced performance, and that some emotional intelligence dimensions were related to performance after controlling for cognitive ability, demonstrating incremental validity. Cumming (2005) explored the relationship between emotional intelligence and workplace performance with a sample of workers from New Zealand.
In addition, she studied the relationship among demographic factors, emotional intelligence and oracle performance. The results of her study suggested that a significant relationship exists between emotional intelligence and workplace performance. In the 76 case of emotional intelligence and demographic factors, no significant relationships were found between gender and emotional intelligence, age and emotional intelligence, occupational groups and emotional intelligence, neither between education and emotional intelligence.
CГ¶t and Miners (2006) examined the relationship between emotional intelligence, cognitive intelligence, and Job performance. Subjects were 175 managerial, administrative, and professional full- mime employees of a large public university. Results found that cognitive intelligence moderated the association between emotional intelligence and Job performance. Emotional intelligence became a stronger predictor of Job performance and Organizational Citizenship Behavior directed at the Organization (COB) (e. G. Defend the organization when other employees criticize it) as cognitive intelligence decreased. Results suggested that using cognitive intelligence tests alone to predict job performance entails risk, because employees with low cognitive intelligence can perform effectively if they have high emotional intelligence. Sys, Tram, and O’Hara (2006) examined the relationships among food service employees’ emotional intelligence, their managers’ emotional intelligence, employees’ Job satisfaction, and employees’ Job performance, as assessed by manager ratings.
The results showed that employees’ emotional intelligence was positively associated with Job stronger positive correlation with Job satisfaction for employees with low emotional intelligence than for those with high emotional intelligence. The 77 findings suggest that managers’ emotional intelligence makes an important difference to employees who possess low emotional intelligence. One of the most extensive studies on performance involved the effectiveness of 1,171 United State Air Force recruiters.
These recruiters were divided into high-performing groups (those who met or exceeded 100% of their recruiting goals) and low- performing groups (those who met less than 80% of their recruiting goals). An emotional quotient was administered to the recruiters, and the results indicated the emotional quotient instrument predicted 28% of the variance in the performance between the two groups. The emotional quotient correctly classified 81% of the recruiters in the high- performing and low-performing groups.
Furthermore, recruiters with high levels of emotional intelligence had a greater ability to place recruits in positions that closely matched their knowledge and skills (Bar-on, Handled and Fund, 2006). Swanker and Stayed (2006) conducted a research on 139 managers working in various organizations in Western India. The purpose of the study was to establish a relation between emotionally intelligent managers and managers’ professional development.
The managerial scores on various dimensions of emotional intelligence were correlated with professional development indicators of managers, conceptualized in arms of number of promotions attained and the rated Job success. The assumption that the emotionally intelligent managers would tend to attain greater professional development than those who are less emotionally intelligent was tentatively supported in the findings. 8 Quotidian and Hansen (2009) investigated the relationship between emotional intelligence, performance, and cohesiveness in 23 nursing teams in Belgium. Nursing team performance was measured at four different levels: Job satisfaction, chief nursing executives’ rating, turnover rate, and health care quality. The results did not support the generalization that all components of emotional intelligence relate to all measures of performance; however, the data clearly supported a relationship between emotional regulations as an important aspect of team performance (I. . , health care quality). Emotional regulation was also positively correlated with group cohesiveness. These results suggest that emotional regulation may provide an interesting new way of enhancing nursing teams’ cohesion and patient / client outcomes. The study suggested that including training on emotional regulation skills ruing team-building seminars might be more effective than focusing only on exercises to create long-term cohesiveness.