Hydrology 8526 - Essay Example

Dealing with the natural resources of our environment, both in management

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capacities for present needs and safety and in planning for the future available

resources, is the responsibility of water resource engineers. Working in the

fields of Hydrology and Hydraulics, water resource engineers help to guarantee

the availability and quality of public water supplies and the timely handling of

excess water, in any of its forms. Water resource engineering includes the

analysis of water supply, treatment and storage, watershed management, which

includes surface and ground water hydrology and hydrogeology, urban / rural

rainfall and run-off analyses, and stormwater management and master drainage

plans. The last function of water resource engineering is wastewater treatment

and disposal, which includes sewage collection, treatment and disposal systems,

sanitary sewer systems construction, inspection and rehabilitation, and sewage

pumping stations collection, storage and treatment of urban run-off. Water

resource engineering mainly falls in the fields of Hydrology and Hydraulics.

Hydrology is the study of the sources and natural flows of water, whether it be

underground, watershed runoff, snowpack, etc. The practice in this field is the

planning and management of the available resources, whatever their form.

Hydraulics is the study of both confined and unconfined fluid flow phenomena,

and the designing of engineered systems to utilize such fluid properties as

head, pressure, and velocity. Hydrological research in its widest sense

comprises the circulation of water in nature under the influence of climatic

variability and of man’s actions concerning the exploitation and control of the

water resources. A quantitative model description of the circulation of water is

central as a background for the analysis of groundwater contamination,

environmental effects of groundwater recovery, soil erosion, flooding, drought,

and the interaction of areal use and water resources. Hydrology can be divided

into two main areas: groundwater hydrology and surface water hydrology.

Groundwater hydrology includes the flow and transport processes in saturated and

unsaturated soil, including laboratory experiments and field investigations

describing the exhaustive physical or chemical processes and the development of

mathematical or numerical model systems. The focus of groundwater hydrology is

especially upon the effect of heterogeneities in the subsurface (for example

stone, clay or sand lenses and macropores), dispersion and solution of oil

contamination in soil, coupling between chemical processes and transport, and

definition of model parameters by optimization and validation of models. A

prevailing part of the research resources will also in the future be

concentrated on groundwater research with the main theme being flow and

transport modeling in heterogeneous aquifers including scale-dependent model

description, geochemical modeling, inverse modeling, and modeling of multi-phase

transport (oil contamination). New, important areas are transport of pesticides,

estimation of model uncertainties, and optimization of remediation initiatives

at point sources. On the other hand, surface water hydrology includes the

planning, development, and management of the water resources. It focuses on the

understanding and model description of the global, regional, and local

interaction between atmosphere, soil, water, and vegetation, including the

change of precipitation to evaporation, the creation and run-off of groundwater.

Research in water resources and hydraulic engineering includes problems in the

hydrodynamic modeling of free surface flows, the dynamics of ice formation and

transport in rivers and oceans, remote sensing of sea ice dynamics, the

spreading of oil and other chemical spills, modeling deep water oil/gas jets and

plumes, and mathematical modeling of oil spills on rivers and oceans. Hydraulic

engineering also deals with fluid statics, fluid dynamics, pipe flow, open

channel flow, the design of various hydraulic structures, measurements, and

model studies. The following are water resources engineering case studies. Water

Quality Modeling of Lake West Point West Point Reservoir, on the Chattahoochee

River downstream of metro Atlanta, is subject to algal production and blooms due

to excessive nutrient loadings that need to be evaluated and controlled. The 2D

hydrodynamic and water quality model CE-QUAL-W2 is being calibrated and applied

to West Point Reservoir with the goal of assisting Georgia EPD in developing

total Maximum Daily Loadings (TMDL’s) of nutrients in order to meet water

quality standards in the reservoir. The effect of using different temporal

scales for model inputs is being investigated, and the impact of reduced

phosphorus loading on reservoir water quality will be evaluated over a

multi-year period. Use of Satellite Information in Modeling Runoff, Erosion, and

Non-point Source Pollution for Large Watersheds This project focuses on

assessing the value of using satellite sensed weather and land cover/land use

for the management of large watersheds (*1000 km 2). The project includes four

major components: (1) estimation of rain using satellite images, (2) runoff

modeling using distributed watershed models, (3) erosion modeling and sediment

transport, and (4) modeling of non point source pollution loads. Case studies

will be conducted for the Southeastern US and the Lake Victoria Basin.

Bibliography

http://vig.prenhall.com/acadbook/0,2581,0131766031,00.html http://www.ce.gatech.edu/~water/research.html#efm11

http://cu.clarkson.edu/education/engineering/cee/NavMenu/Graduate/Areasofstudy/HydraulicsWR.htm

http://www.isva.dtu.dk/research.htm#hydrology http://www.civil.utah.edu/~blaser/MM_project/water/index.html

http://www.gamsby.com/water.htm