In this perspective, the objective of the present study is to propose an adaptation from the Model of Walton, where the criteria were transcribed in the interrogative form, and the scale of answers were converted into a Liker scale with five alternatives. The verification of the inner consistency of the instrument was achieved from the Cockroach’s alpha coefficient, which the obtained value was 0,96. Such result guarantees a very high consistency to the instrument adopted.
It can be concluded that the adaptation from the Model of Walton, proposed in this study, allows, through more clarified questions and a more objective scale of answers, its application to people with low schooling level, guarantying the obtaining of reliable results without changing criteria and objectives of the original instrument. Palavers-shaves: Quality of work life, Wallow’s SQL model, evaluation instrument 1.
Introduction The contemporary scenario show that the companies are increasingly trying to accompany the changes occurred in the business environment and, consequently, they concentrate great part of their effort in the attempt to possess a differential, which may guarantee competitive advantage on the market. This way, some companies are starting to realize that changing their focus to the individuals that compound the organization may be a good business strategy. The manipulation and full use of people in their activities have consequently occurred by the change of concepts and changes in management practices occurred in organizations.
The companies, instead of investing directly in products and services, are investing in people who understand, know how to create, develop and improve those products and services. (ZANIEST, 2002). This way, the investigation on Quality of Work Life (SQL), the development and the application of programs that intend to improve the work environment can bring benefits to the Company in the relationship with its workers and in the quality of its products, making them more competitive.
Further more, nowadays it is possible to realize a differentiated approach grading people’s Quality of Life (SQL), indicating a valuation in factors inherent to the human being, like satisfaction level, professional and personal achievement, good relation with society and access to culture and leisure as real examples of well being. The discussion about SQL is not recent. After an investigation on the bank of thesis from the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Staff (Capes), a good number of thesis and dissertations in the Management area related to SQL since 1989 were found.
And, since 1 996, they were also found in the Production Engineering area. In general the researches about the SQL have as purpose the comprehension regarding individual situations of workers in their labor environment, including behavioral aspects, and individual satisfaction (LIMING;FRANCA 2004). To evaluate the SQL, the models more frequently found in the literature are Hickman and Lolled (1975); Wesley (1 979); Whether 2 and Davis (1983); Walton (1975) and Fernando (1996).
In Brazil, the Wallow’s SQL model (1975) is one Of the most accepted and used by the researchers SQL. During the development of some studies related to SQL, and after a lot f applications of the Wallow’s SQL model, it was observed the fact that some collaborators, when subjected to the evaluation of SQL presented difficulties to interpret and understand the original form of the model, due to the use of more elaborated terms and expressions. Another point of difficulty was regarding the lack of direct and specific questions or the definition of each criterion.
Based on this perspective, it is verified the need of an instrument of easy comprehension to attend collaborators with a low schooling level. In this context, the objectives of this study are: To adapt the evaluation model of SQL proposed by Walton in 1 975 in a simpler and direct language, allowing its application to individuals with a low schooling level. -? To present the development of the adapted version, pointing out that this study was not aimed at creating of a new model of evaluation of the SQL, but just adapts a model already existent and broadly used. . Quality of Work Life The work, in its purposes and also in its concept, evolved over time. Work is not a simple instrument or a mean of subsistence anymore; it is now a multiracial process, in which the human being is placed as a driving centre. Following the work evolution came the SQL, which have the focus centered on the individual, and its concerning is to try to offer good labor conditions to the worker, so that he can develop his tasks with satisfaction and wellbeing.
According to Walton (1975), the SQL is getting importance as a way to rescue human and environmental values that have being neglected in favor of technological advancement of the productivity and economic growth. To Fernando (1996), the SQL cover the conciliation of the individuals’ and organizations’ interests, that is to say, at the same time that it improves the rockers satisfaction, it improves consonantly the productivity of the company. Cole et al. (2005, p. 4) states that “the quality of life at work includes broad aspects Of the work 3 environment which affects the collaborator in its health and in its performance”. With the technology available to everyone, the companies started investing on the transformation of the labor environment, trying to make it suitable to the physical, mental and social needs Of its workers, having in mind that this is a way to impose its differential in face of the market. According to Liming;Franca (2004, p. ), when this vision is consolidated, the businessman no longer looks at the money he applies in better conditions of life at work as expenditure, but yet as an investment, that certainly will bring him in return a virtuous circle, where the quality of life at work represents the quality of his products, productivity and, consequently, higher competitiveness. In this perspective, it is possible to state that, while technology ceases to be a differential for the company, it is the persons who are inserted in it that promotes or not its success.
This way, the concern with the health, and the ell being, and, consequently the SQL of the workers is intensified. 2. 1 Wallow’s SQL model To this proposal of adaptation it was selected the model proposed by Walton (1975), that comprehend eight dimensions according to the writer, directly influence the employee. His choice is justified because its eight criteria addressed broadly covers basic aspects of the work situations, and for being a widely used instrument in the SQL evaluation in Brazil.
The listed criteria that compose the Wallow’s SQL model (1975) are not in priority order, and can be arranged in distinct manners to assume other importance, according o the reality in each organization. Table 1 indicates the criteria and subscribers presents in Wallow’s SQL model (1975). Evaluation criteria of SQL -Wallow’s SQL model (1975) 1. Adequate and fair compensation 5. Social integration Fair Remuneration Discrimination Wage Balance Interpersonal Relationship participation in Results Team’s Compromise Extra Benefits Ideas’ Balkanization 2.
Safe and healthy environment 6. Constitutionalism Weekly Journey Worker’s Right Workload Freedom of Expression Process Technology Discussion and Norms Salisbury Respect a Individualistic PEP and EPIC Equipments 7. The total life space 4 Fatigue . Development of human capacities Autonomy Importance of the Task Polypropylene Performance Evaluation Conferred Responsibility 4. Growth and security Professional Growth Trainings Resignations Influence on the Family Routine Leisure Possibility Time of Work and Rest 8.
Social relevance Proud of the Work Institutional Image Community Integration Qualities of the Products/ Services Politic of Humans Recourses Encouragement for studies Source: Adapted from (WALTON, 1975) Table 1 – Criteria and sub criteria of the quality of work life 3. Methodology This study has been developed in four different contexts: first in the context f the current academic literature about SQL and its evaluation models; next, in the investigation and the adaptation of the questions; and, finally, the application of the instrument and the analysis of the coefficients found by criteria and in a general way of the whole instrument.
A more detailed description Of the stages is presented below. 3. 1 Questions development The questions development process and adaptation of the technical terms to simpler and more usual terms, without changing its meaning, involved the following steps: a) Application of the instrument in its original shape and the identification of the terms that would be adapted. Some of these terms are indicated in the Table 2. Original Terms Violence Constitutionalism Source: Research data, 2007 Adapted Terms Salary Lamentation, transport, doctor, dentist, etc.
Work conditions Tiredness Possibility to perform several works Respect to laws and norms Table 2 – Some examples of alternate and adapted terms at the instrument b) Elaboration of a set of questions involving anchors terms and adapted terms; 5 The permanence of the origin anal anchor term of the instrument between brackets in the question, beside the term that corresponds to its modified synonymous, as resented in Illustration 1. D) Standardization Of the questionnaire involving the eight criteria proposed by Walton (1975) and 35 subscribers, each being represented by a question. ) Formulation of a response scale equivalent to all questions, as showed in Illustration 1. Illustration 1 – Example of the question present in the instrument 3. 2 Development of the answers scales In order to identify the collaborator’ perception regarding his SQL, it was used a Liker scale, polarize in five points. The purpose of this scale, exemplified in Table 3, is to verify the collaborator’ satisfaction according to he indicated criteria, taking into account its individual’s needs and aspirations. Scale 0% anchor 25% Evaluation of the Very dissatisfied dissatisfied satisfaction level.
Numerical Grade Source: Adapted from Check, 1999 75% 100% anchor Neither satisfied nor Satisfied Very satisfied Table 3 – Scale of levels of satisfaction This scale was based on the model of answer used by the Health World Organization in the instrument WHQL-OHIO. To make comprehension easier and to standardize the respective answers to the questionings, it was used only one scale of answers referring to the evaluation of the intensity of distractions for all questions. 6 3. 3 Verification of the instrument’s consistency To ensure the inner consistency of the present instrument, it was used the Cockroach’s alpha coefficient.
Developed by Lee Cockroach in 1951, the Cockroach’s alpha coefficient is a statistic tool that evaluates the accountability through the inner consistency of a questionnaire. For the utilization of the Cockroach’s alpha coefficient, it is a requirement that all the items of instrument use the same measurement scale (FREESIAS; RODRIGUEZ, 2005). The Cockroach’s alpha is obtained by the variance of individual components ND by the variance of the components sum of each evaluated, aiming to investigate the possible relations Beethoven the items.
This way, the variances used at Cockroach’s coefficients calculus are: the number of questions of the instrument (K), the variance of each question ( S ii ) and the total variance of the instrument ( S to The Cockroach’s alpha coefficient can be calculated through the following equation: Sis Equation 1 – Calculus of the Cockroach’s alpha coefficient Source: Freesias and Rodriguez, 2005 It is important to observe that, even being widely used in many areas Of the knowledge, there is not a consensus about the evaluation of the Cockroach’s alpha coefficient.