The case is that scientists don’t often think about an individual but only about society. They are willing to hurt animals in order to successfully carry out the experiment and achieve good results. A lot of animals suffer and we can’t be sure that scientists’ activity will stop on it; they can start to carry out terrible experiments on people. Therefore I came to the conclusion that genetic engineering should be controlled by law in order maximize its benefits and minimize its harms.
There are so many opinions about genetic engineering. A lot of people think that it is unnecessary, because contradicts the nature, and, as a result, should e controlled by law. But as for the scientists, most of them are sure that it is a great achievement which allows us to change the hereditary properties of the human body. The most painful problem is that we still do not know which group of people is right. I’ll try to compare researches’ thoughts and my views on this problem, agree or disagree with them, and vindicate my decision.
First of all it should be noted, that genetic engineering is the direction of research in molecular biology and genetics, the ultimate goal of which is to obtain organisms, by means of laboratory methods, with new combinations of inherited characteristics. Mae-Wan Ho (a geneticist known for her critical views on genetic engineering) considers that genetic technology has given man an advantage, which he had never had: quickly to change the world of plants, animals and himself. Understanding of life processes at the molecular level will let us in the future improve basis of man’s heredity, overcome many illnesses.
Thus, Mae-Wan Ho is inclined to think that genetic engineering is very useful and has many pluses. Firstly, scientists are sure that cloned organs – is the salvation for the people involved in automobile accidents or other disasters, as well as in need f a radical means for any medical conditions. Cloning could allow infertile people to have their own children, to help people with serious genetic disease. Thus, if the genes that determine any such disease are contained in the chromosomes of the father, the mother’s egg cell nucleus is transplanted her own somatic cell.
As a result, a baby, devoid of dangerous genes, is an exact copy of the mother. Secondly, genetic transformation of animals allows us to establish the role of individual genes and their protein products, as in the regulation of other genes, as well as in various pathological processes. With the help of genetic engineering a lot of animals were created which are resistant to diseases such as animal influenza, and which have useful for people features such as increased size, strength and longevity.
Thirdly, genetic engineering can be used for the treatment of hereditary diseases. However, technically, there is a significant difference between treatment of the patient and the change in the genome of its offspring. Moreover, genetic engineering is already being used to give women with certain varieties of infertility a chance to get pregnant. For this purpose, eggs of healthy women are used. As a result, the child inherits the genotype of one ether and two mothers.
Finally, with the help of genetic engineering we can get offspring with improved appearance, mental and physical abilities, character and behavior. But the multiplication of knowledge of biotic interactions and the increasing ability to manage vital processes should not lead to abuse. The idea is that the construction of a new life can be evil, because this life is not only a tool, but it begins to exist in itself and reproduce itself. New biological knowledge opens up many possibilities of genetic control over the individual.
One of the first known genetic engineering disasters was a miserable creature in the USA allied a Belgian pig. It was supposed to be a very fat pig; therefore researchers injected a human gene Of growth in her DNA in order to speed up this process. As a result they raised a large, Sick pig. Her limbs were affected by chronic arthritis, and when the pig wanted to go, she could only crawl. She could not stand much and most of the time she spent lying down, suffering from a large number of other diseases.
In the case of a Belgian cow genetic engineers have found a gene which was responsible for the increase in muscle mass, they doubled it, thus, they raised large calves. Unfortunately, a cow, which was born as a result of this experiment, has thinner thighs and hips, than a normal cow. It’s easy to understand what is happening. The process of giving birth to the calves is much more painful for such cows. Most cows which underwent genetic changes are not able to give birth. The solution is a cesarean section.
But it is not the solution of the problem. Even more strange experiments were conducted on the Swiss brown cows. It turned out that these cows have the genetic flaw that causes the development of a disease of the brain. But oddly enough when disease starts sows give more milk. When scientists discovered a gene that causes the disease, they did not try to cure it, but on the contrary, they got evidence that if the cow suffers from the disease, it will give more milk. Not only an animal but a man also becomes the object Of genetic engineering.
Some scientists believe that their activities are in no way should be limited to: all they want, they can do. However, if the restructuring of the genome of an individual adult for medical reasons is completely acceptable ethically, a quite different situation arises during changing the genome of ERM cells, because nature of the interaction of new genes in the genome as a whole is still insufficiently studied, and the restructuring of the genome of germ cells can lead to unpredictable consequences. Therefore, scientific curiosity at any cost is extremely dangerous.
Prohibitions should not take place here, but their work must be controlled by law. Thus, genetic engineering research to the beginning of the 21st century increasingly affects the interests of society. Now the world community and scientists are actively debating the usefulness and harmfulness of the achievements of genetic engineering. More and more scientists are inclined to think that research in this direction should continue, but the main goal should be treatment of diseases. We came to the conclusion that genetic engineering has many positives.