The biodiversity and environmental integrity - Essay Example

These interspecies combinations can raise unfortunate existential questions, threatening our sense of uniqueness. If we can make our cells spring to life in a sheep or make a piece of our biological code work in a beady-eyed little rodent, what is it, exactly, that separates man room beast? While scientific progress on molecular biology has a great potential to increase our understanding of nature and provide new medical tools, it should not be used as justification to turn the environment into a giant genetic experiment by commercial interests.

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The biodiversity and environmental integrity of the world’s food supply is too important to our survival to be put at risk. What’s wrong with genetic engineering (GE)? Genetic engineering enables scientists to create plants, animals and micro- organisms by manipulating genes in a way that does not occur naturally. These genetically modified organisms (Smog) can spread through nature and interbreed with natural organisms, thereby contaminating non ‘GE’ environments and future generations in an unforeseeable and uncontrollable way.

Their release is ‘genetic pollution’ and is a major threat because Smog cannot be recalled once released into the environment. Because of commercial interests, the public is being denied the right to know about GE ingredients in the food chain, and therefore losing the right to avoid them despite the presence of labeling laws in certain countries. Biological diversity must be retorted and respected as the global heritage of humankind, and one of our world’s fundamental keys to survival.

Governments are attempting to address the threat of GE with international regulations such as the Biostatic Protocol. We believe: Smog should not be released into the environment since there is not an adds Tate scientific understanding of their impact on the environment and human health. We advocate immediate interim measures such as labeling of GE ingredients, and the segregation of genetically engineered crops and seeds from conventional ones. We also oppose all patents on plants, animals ND humans, as well as patents on their genes. Life is not an industrial commodity.

When we force life forms and our world’s food supply to conform to human economic models rather than their natural ones, we do so at our own peril. Governments have taken different approaches to assess and manage the risks associated with the use of genetic engineering technology and the development and release of genetically modified organisms (GYM), including genetically modified crops and genetically modified fish. There are differences in the regulation of Smog between countries, with some of the cost marked differences occurring between the USA and Europe.

Regulation varies in a given country depending on the intended use of the products of the genetic engineering. For example, a crop not intended for food use is generally not reviewed by authorities responsible for food safety. [20] One of the key issues concerning regulators is whether GM products should be labeled. Labeling can be mandatory up to a threshold GM content level (which varies between countries) or voluntary. A study investigating voluntary labeling in South Africa found that 31% of products labeled as GYM-free had a GM content above 1. %. 96] In Canada and the USA labeling of GM food is while in Europe all food (including processed food) Or feed which contains greater than 0. 9% of approved Smog must be labeled. [98] As of 2013, 64 countries require GYM labeling. [99] Reprocessing is an offshoot of an established medical procedure called overexploitation genetic diagnosis (PIG). Also known as embryo screening, PIG allows couples at risk of transmitting a genetic disease to ensure their future children are unaffected by the disease without going through the process of prenatal diagnosis (I. . , testing of fetal tissue for the presence of eases genes) and being forced to make the difficult decision regarding pregnancy termination. Basically, PIG involves extracting a single cell from an eight-cell embryo (created via in vitro fertilization) and analyzing the DNA of that single cell for the presence of one or more disease-associated genetic alterations. Then, only those embryos without the disease mutation are implanted in the mother’s uterus.

Introduced into clinical care in the early sass, PIG was first used for determining the sex of embryos to minimize the likelihood of transmitting fatal sex-linked disease genes to offspring. If there were a family history of Dutchmen muscular dystrophy (DAM), for example, parents might choose to undergo embryo screening to identify female versus male embryos and then have only the female embryos implanted. (DAM is a recessive X-Inked disease that affects mostly males. ) Since the sass, clinical use of PIG has expanded from embryo sexing to single-gene diagnostic testing, such as for Huntington disease.

Today, reproductive clinicians regularly use PIG to diagnose some 170 different conditions, with two of the more common being cystic fibrosis and hemoglobin disorders (e. G. , Cooley’s anemia). A third and more controversial use Of PIG involves screening for chromosomal abnormal embryos in an effort to improve the relatively low pregnancy rates and decrease the relatively high miscarriage rates associated with in vitro fertilization procedures (which are often due to chromosomal abnormalities).

While some experts have gone so far as to suggest that this type of PIG should be routine for in vitro fertilization procedures because it increases their success rate, others warn that data have yet to show that PIG actually improves pregnancy rates or decreases miscarriage rates following in trio fertilization (Ukulele & Berliners, 2003; Gigglier et al. , 2008). The latter group argues that the use of PIG for chromosomal screening is still “experimental. ” What is genetic engineering ?

The correct definition of genetic engineering is the deliberate modification of the characteristics of an organism by manipulating its genetic material. ” We could say G E is about scientists altering the recipe for making life. ; The USA is the largest commercial grower of genetically modified crops in the world. [4] For a genetically modified organism to be approved for release it is assessed by the USDA the FDA and the EPA. USDA evaluated the plants potential to become weeds, the FDA reviewed plants that could enter or alter the food supply and the EPA regulated the genetically modified plants with pesticide properties.

Most developed genetically modified plants are reviewed by at least two of the agencies, with many subject to all three. [5] Final approval can still be denied by individual counties within each state. In 2004, Mendocino County, California became the first and only county to impose a ban on the “Propagation, Cultivation, Raising, and Growing of Genetically Modified Organisms”, the measure passing with a 57% majority. He characteristics of an organism by manipulating its genetic material. The correct definition of genetic engineering is the deliberate modification Of the characteristics of an organism by manipulating its genetic material. ” The correct definition of genetic engineering is the deliberate modification of the characteristics of an organism by manipulating its genetic material. ” ;of the characteristics of an organism by manipulating its genetic material. ” GYM is ; PDP is Cons: – There are still some missing understandings in the whole genetic process so there will be mistakes along the way.

The techniques of laboratory reproduction still needs some refinement so there will be more mistakes along the way. – With such a complicated and life effecting procedure there are lots of ethical issues involved, fanatics on both sides will protest and divide society like abortion and the death sentence. – It maybe difficult for the individuals created to live with a lower race with the discrimination and stupidity they have to put up with. – Humans will no longer be at the top of the food chain, some may consider this as a pro. A complicated world will become a more complicated world, but this is going to happen anyway. Religion is not happy about this issue, but they are rarely happy with science as they have to review their beliefs and material. This does provide some solid foundation to avoid silly science, but can be stifling at times. Some may consider this a pro. – Where do we stop and who is in control. Once the information is known what will stop a mad scientist on a quest for global domination with an army of mutant solders. Egg, nuclear proliferation. -This is only one chip of the tip of this iceberg.

A fully detailed analysis will take many different science streams many years of debate, with the people with money ND power doing what they want anyway Cloning – One of the most controversial uses of genetic engineering has been cloning, or producing a genetically identical copy of an organism. While the ethics of cloning are hotly debated, the first ever sheep (named Dolly) was cloned in 1 996 by scientists. ; Glow-in-the-dark cats – It sounds strange, but in 2007, scientists in South Korea altered the DNA of a kitty so that its fur would glow in the dark, and then cloned other cats from it, making the world’s first glowing cats. Pesticide-resistant rapeseed plants – Rapeseed is a flowering plant used to cake certain types of vegetable oil. Genetic engineering has allowed these plants to be resistant to certain types of pesticides, so that when the fields are treated to remove pests, the plants will remain unscathed. ;Cows that pass less gas – Methane is produced by cow flatulence, and the chemical is a huge contributor to global warming. Cows that fart less than average have been produced to fight the deleterious effects that cow flatulence can have on the environment. Plants that fight pollution – Poplar trees developed by scientists at the Leistering of Washington can absorb polluted water through heir roots and clean it before the water is released back into the air. The plants were many times more efficient at cleaning certain pollutants than regular poplars. ; Golden rice – Genetic modification is often used to make “healthier” foods, such as golden rice, which contains beta-carotene – the very same vitamin that makes carrots orange. The result is that people without access to many vitamins will get a healthy dose of vitamin A when the rice is consumed. Environmentally friendly pigs – Genetic modification has helped to create pigs that can digest phosphorous better, which decreases the pig’s houseroom output. The result is that manure, which is often made from pig waste, is less destructive to the environment due to its lower phosphorous ; Faster-growing trees – Demand for wood can be met by trees that content. Grow faster than average. Genetic engineering has produced trees that can ward off biological attacks, grow more quickly and strongly, and create better wood than trees that are not genetically modified. Bigger, longer-lasting tomatoes – When tomatoes are genetically engineered, they can be made bigger and more robust. These are engineered to produce tomatoes that can main fresh for longer, can be shipped farther from where they are grown, and can be harvested all at the same time rather than harvesting only parts of a field at each harvest. ; Salmon that grow faster – Salmon do not produce growth hormones year-round, so scientists have looked toward genetic engineering and found a solution: a modification that allows salmon to grow twice as fast than those that are not engineered. Insecticide corn – Instead of spraying insecticide on plants, why not genetically engineer crops that kill pests on their own? Corn was developed through genetic engineering to reduce a poison that kills insects. While this corn may also harm beneficial insects such as butterflies, supporters say that the pros outweigh the cons. ; The banana vaccine – Bananas were developed through genetic modification that offer vaccine against diseases such as cholera and hepatitis. Just like with a needle vaccine, people who eat them develop disease-combating antibodies that make them immune to a disease. he LISA is the largest commercial grower of genetically modified crops in the world. [4] For a genetically modified organism to be approved for release it is assessed by the SAID, the FDA and the EPA. USDA evaluated the plants potential to become weeds, the FDA reviewed plants that could enter or alter the food supply and the EPA regulated the genetically modified plants with pesticide properties. Most developed genetically modified plants are reviewed by at least two of the agencies, with many subject to all three. [5] Final approval can still be denied by individual counties within each state.

In 2004, Mendocino County, California became the first and only county to impose a ban on the “Propagation, Cultivation, Raising, and Growing of Genetically Modified Organisms”, the measure passing with a 57% majority. The regulation of emetic engineering concerns the approaches taken by governments to assess and manage the risks associated with the development and release Of genetically modified crops. There are differences in the regulation of GM crops between countries, with some of the most marked differences occurring between the LISA and Europe.

Regulation varies in a given country depending on the intended use of the products of the genetic engineering. For example, a crop not intended for food use is generally not reviewed by authorities responsible for food safety. The European Union (ELI) may have the most stringent GYM regulations in the world . 1] All Smog, along with irradiated food, are considered “new food” and are subject to extensive, case- by-case, science-based food evaluation by the European Food Safety Authority (FEES).

The FEES reports to the European Commission, which then drafts proposals for granting or refusing authorization. Each proposal is submitted to the Section on GM Food and Feed of the Standing Committee on the Food Chain and Animal Health. If accepted, it is either adopted by the SEC or passed on to the Council of Agricultural Ministers. The Council has three months to reach a qualified majority for or against the proposal. If no sorority is reached, the proposal is passed back to the SEC, which then adopts the proposal. L] The USA is the largest commercial grower of genetically modified crops in the world. [4] For a genetically modified organism to be approved for release it is assessed by the USDA, the FDA and the EPA. USDA evaluated the plants potential to become weeds, the FDA reviewed plants that could enter or alter the food supply and the EPA regulated the genetically modified plants with pesticide properties. Most developed genetically modified plants are reviewed by at least two of the agencies, with many subject to all three. 5] Final approval can still be denied by individual counties within each state.

In 2004, Mendocino County, California became the first and only county to impose a ban on the “Propagation, Cultivation, Raising, and Growing of Genetically Modified Organisms”, the measure passing with a 57% majority. ; The LISA is the largest commercial grower of genetically modified crops in it is assessed by the LASED, the FDA and the EPA USDA evaluated the plants Genetically modified organisms (Smog) are organisms, such as plants and animals, whose genetic characteristics are being modified artificially in order o give them a new property.

Food and feed which contain or consist of such Smog, or are produced from Smog, are called genetically modified (GM) food or feed. In order to ensure that the development of modern biotechnology, and more specifically of Smog, takes place in complete safety, the European Join has established a legal framework regulating genetically modified (GM) food and feed in the EX.. This framework pursues the global objective of ensuring a high level of protection of human life and health and welfare, environment and consumer interests, whilst ensuring that the Internal market works effectively.

Genetic engineering is a complicated process that can be used for many things from modifying organisms such as plants to serve humankind better, to developing helpful pharmaceutical products, and even providing clues to the evolutionary process (Levine). Despite the fact that the genetic manipulation process seems to result in more damage than help, these views are often exaggerated.

Although no one can predict the future of any field of human endeavor, genetic engineering appears to be a feasible mechanism through which many problems of modern society can be solved. Disease could be prevented by detecting people/plants/animals that are unethically prone to certain hereditary diseases, and preparing for the inevitable. Also, infectious diseases can be treated by implanting genes that code for antiviral proteins specific to each antigen. ; Animals and plants can be ‘tailor made’ to show desirable characteristics.

Genes could also be manipulated in trees for example, to absorb more CA and reduce the threat of global warming. ; Genetic Engineering could increase genetic diversity, and produce more variant alleles which could also be crossed over and implanted into other species. It is possible to alter the genetics of wheat lanes to grow insulin for example. ;Cloning – One of the most controversial uses of genetic engineering has been cloning, or producing a genetically identical copy of an organism.