In order to make informed decisions about which types of services are required in a program, evaluations must be conducted. People and the community can be best served through criminal justice programs, and evaluations Improve the services provided by each program while ensuring the program best serves the people designed to serve. Evaluation designs according to the Handbook of Human Resources text, urges personnel to perform their duties better, quicker, and to become more responsive to the needs of their clients.
Evaluations assist staff In improving accuracy, changing strategies, avoiding legal issue incidents, and improving customer service. The Handbook of Human resources continues explaining the importance of evaluations as they allow the organization, program or company to, ” take on broader functions, improve productivity-employee motivation-organizational design, and places emphasis on Integration of the organizations missions and future direction” (Handbook of Human Resources).
Criminal justice organizations or programs implemented throughout communities to deter criminal activities are evaluated in a number of ways, according to The Handbook of Human Resource [Management In Government text. Different types of evaluation designs and methodologies used in criminal Justice programs and organizations assist in improving functions, processes, values, and laws or rules (Handbook of Human Resources). Finding the correct form of evaluation and methodologies requires knowledge of the program, experience in conducting evaluations, and trial and error.
The improvement of functions, processes, values, and rules in criminal Justice can mean the matter of life or death as criminal Justice employees and programs attempt to save lives and improve the quality of life in neighborhoods or communities. Finding the correct forms of fighting crime Is necessary and evaluations are crucial. Single group nongovernmental outcome evaluations, quasi experimental approaches to outcome, experiments, and experiments to evaluate programs, and qualitative evaluation methods, are all forms of evaluations used In monitoring the success of criminal Justice or other programs.
Each form of evaluation for a program requires dedication, thorough investigations, and follow ups (Carrey & Possesses, 2003). Often more than one form of evaluation designs and methodologies are necessary to make sufficient decisions about the aerogram. Carrey and Possesses discuss the Importance of different evaluation designs, methodologies, and sources. One form of evaluation will lead to Inaccurate results as well as the, “corruption of the outcome. ” The example used by Carrey and Possesses was that of standard test scores at a school. The results of that test alone do not accurately depict the success of the curriculum at the school.
A number of evaluations must be considered when deciding how successful a school Is and If the students are educated properly (Carrey & Possesses, 2003). Carrey and Possesses intention by using the measuring of police performance. Many areas must be police performance in a community (Carrey & Possesses, 2003). Using multiple forms of evaluations improve the quality of a criminal Justice program and the community as a whole. Different methodologies and designs used for each type of program vary. Measuring programs through varying evaluation methods will lead to adequate information to assist in improving the program.
Single Group, Non Experimental Outcome Evaluations Single group, nongovernmental settings are usually courses such as parenting classes, drug classes, and college courses. According to Posada and Carrey such programs, “usually start and end at specific times, directed to a group of people with similar needs, and are planned to impart similar benefits to all participants” (Posada&Carey, 2003). Posada and Carrey explain observations are conducted through success of participant after completion of the program or observing individuals before and after the program completion.
Observation of individuals after completion of the program usually leads to results such as the number of successful participants or “if the participant finished the program with the bevel of achievement matching programs explicit goals” (Posada & Carrey, 2003). Single group, nongovernmental outcome evaluations according to Posada and Carrey usually allow researchers to decide: if participants met a certain criterion, if the subjects improved and was the improvement adequate.
Researchers are also able to define threats to internal validity and relate change to service intensity and participants characteristics through single group, nongovernmental outcome evaluations (Posada & Carrey, 2003). Quasi Experimental Approaches to Outcome Evaluations Quasi experimental approaches to outcome evaluations according to Posada and Carrey, explore deeper into the outcomes through intense study of before and after the program or experiment, and observe others who have not participated in the program or experiment before drawing upon any conclusions (Posada & Carrey, 2003).
Posada and Carrey explain longer studies of before and after lead to more concrete conclusions as well as observing others not participating in the experiment or program. Inaccurate interpretations are less likely to occur through quasi experimental approaches to outcome evaluations. Types of evaluations include time series designs and observation of other groups or the combination of the two (Posada & Carrey, 2003). Time series designs are graphs shown in books or articles. Grade school, high school, and college students have seen the graphs in text books covering different topics.
The murder rate per year for a 20 year period in a country, number of successful participants in a drug program over a period , number of teenage pregnancies over a set amount of time in a specific area and other similar topics are examples of a time series design type of evaluation. Posada and Carrey explain that in a time series design a specific issue is addressed, statistical facts are given, statistics are from over a set amount of time , and the results are “explained by some controlled or natural intervention” (Posada & Carrey, 2003).
Researchers for example monitor the behavior and lifestyle of drug users, a number of the users enter rehabilitation and others do not enter rehabilitation. Continuous monitoring of the subjects before, during, and after for long periods of time and many different the results lead researchers to decide if the rehabilitation is adequate or if changes deed to be made within the structure of the rehabilitation program.
Observing participants and non participants, those who are in other rehabilitation programs, other areas, different environments, different economic backgrounds, different races, from different countries and doing so over time also enable the results to be more accurate and informative. Posada and Carrey refer to the observation of different variables over a set amount of time combining designs to increase accuracy. Accuracy is not 100% in such evaluations leading to other forms of evaluations. Experiments to Evaluate Programs Experiments vary depending on the researcher.
Randomly choosing individuals to participate in programs to conduct research is a method type of experiment but has many drawbacks. Successful experiments would consist of willing subjects testing experimental medications for AIDS, hepatitis, or cancer cures. Evaluations could be accurate but finding willing participants is not always an easy task. Choosing random subjects to participate in rehabilitation programs or randomly observing activities of random individuals to evaluate behavior or success of a program is not recommended.
Posada and Carrey explain experiments also consist of scientists conducting tests, nurses on one floor practicing one way and nurses on another floor practicing in a different manner, and new programs in different areas on different subjects (Posada & Carrey, 2003). Some experiments are fairly accurate and others are not accurate and other forms of evaluations are necessary to sufficiently to evaluate . Experiments require dedication, time, and effort and accuracy varies depending on the type of experiment being conducted.
Posada and Carrey discuss the ease in which certain experiments are interpreted and the advantages of certain experiments. Success in conducting experiments according to Posada and Carrey depend on “the monitoring of the subjects or other testing materials, how the program or experiment is conducted, how data is gathered, and implementation of the program” (Posada & Carrey, 2003). Qualitative Evaluation Methods Qualitative evaluation methods are according to an online source, processes which answer the question how well a program has done.
The evaluation process usually attempts to find out, “what was learned, are the subjects using their knowledge, attitudes of the subjects, were the teachers in a program supportive or immunization information well to the subjects, is the program accepted through the community, and the cost in relation to what was achieved” (Sill, 1999). Qualitative evaluation methods consists of questionnaire’s, impressions, reactions, data, notes, records, recordings of conversations, observation, and counts of artifacts according to Posada and Carrey (Posada & Carrey, 2003).
Posada and Carrey continue by discussing the disadvantages of qualitative evaluation methods. The procedures are: “vague, predicting future successes unreliable and program context is complicated” (Posada & Carrey, 2003). This form of evaluating according to Posada and Carrey can be subjective and rigorous. The process can also be more intimate as at times the researcher conducts the actual study of the individuals or program. The goal of researchers is to understand how a program operates (Posada & Carrey, 2003). Qualitative interviews differ from other forms of interviews.
The interview interviewer tries to form a bond with the subject and probes for a lot of information (Posada & Carrey, 2003). The interviews and other forms of qualitative evaluation methods are useful but other forms of evaluations should be combined with alliterative evaluation methods before drawing a conclusion to fairly depict the program. Closing Various evaluation methods have advantages and disadvantages. In order to properly release accurate results to the public about any event studied the researcher must take many factors into consideration.
Combining different types of evaluations and experiments lead to more reliable results. Evaluations and experiments are necessary according to Weber and Hubbell, to determine the success of programs, forming of a hypothesis, testing medications, disproving or proving statements, and determine reliability of a service or product. Evaluations identify errors in programs or services and allow for restructuring or discontinuing of a product or service (Weber and Hubbell). Those conducting evaluations must be ethical and unbiased.
The results of evaluations must not be twisted to fit the need of the evaluator or program. In order to effectively decide if a program or service is adequate the results from single group, nongovernmental outcome evaluations, and quasi experimental approaches to outcome evaluations, experiments, and qualitative valuations should all be considered. The individual studying a drug rehabilitation program should use many forms of evaluations and the results of other studies before making a concrete decision about the program.
Conducting research properly involves: studying the topic for a long amount of Tim , studying different programs, monitoring different individuals from different backgrounds, experimenting, and gathering relevant data. Making a decision based on 50 of 100 people completing a program successfully is not a practice which is Just or fair and the results are not accurate of a program as more goes into studying success of a program then making decisions based on such inadequate research.