Exam 3 Review 2016

Database
a collection of information stored on computer disks
Database software
application software (like word processing ad spreadsheet software) designed to maintain databases (collections of information)
Field type
The Electronic File Cabinet: Database Basics

The type of information a field can hold is determined by its:

Data type or Field Data type
Field type is sometimes called:
text or numeric
data type can be
data, GPA, account balance
numeric data type:
Name, Major, Outstanding Arrest Warrants
Text data type:
Form views and list views
Database programs provide you with more than one way to view data:
Form views
show one record at a time
List Views
displays several records in lists similar to the way a spreadsheet displays data
record
The Electronic File Cabinet: Database Basics

the information relating to one person, product, or event

field
each discrete piece of information in a record is a ___
SQL
Most modern database management programs support a standard language for programming complex queries called
Structured Query Language
What does SQL stand for?
SQL
-Available for many database management systems
-Programmers and sophisticated users don’t need to learn new languages when they work with new systems
-Graphical user interfaces allow point-and-click queries
—Insulates users from the complexities of the query language
data mining
The discovery and extraction of hidden predictive information from large databases is:
statistical methods and artificial intelligence technology
Data mining uses
trends and patterns in data that would have been overlooked by normal database queries
Statistical methods and artificial intelligence technology locates:
4
What amendment in the constitution of the US states that The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
computer network
any system of two or more computers that are linked together
reducing costs; increasing efficiency and production; work together
How is networking important?
-People share computer hardware, thus ____ ____
-People share data and software programs, thus ____ ____ ____ ____
-People ____ ____ in ways that are otherwise difficult or impossible
local area network (LAN)
computers are physically close to each other, usually in the same building
wireless network
In a ____ ____each node has a tiny radio (or, less commonly, infrared) transmitter connected to its network port
Sends and receives data through the air
A wireless network ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ rather than through cables
building or cluster of buildings
In a wireless network, Computers are linked within a
individual node on the network
In a wireless network, each computer and peripheral is an
LANs and WANs
Communication frequently happens between
Bandwidth
the quantity of information that can pass through a communications medium in a given amount of time
Bridges and gateways
hardware devices that can pass messages between networks
obey different software protocols
Bridges and gateways often translate messages so they can be understood by networks that
Router
hardware devices or software programs that route messages as they travel between networks
Mesh networks
an alternative to traditional networks, creates individual nodes for communication.
small, temporary communication systems
Mesh networks are used to set up:
emergency personnel use at fire scenes to coordinate actions
What’s an example of a mesh network?
Broadband connection
a connection with much greater bandwidth than modems have
DSL
uses standard phone lines and is provided by phone companies in many areas
cable television networks in many areas
Cable modems provide fast network connections through
radio waves
High-speed wireless connections can connect computers to networks using ____ ____ rather than wires
Satellite dishes
can deliver fast computer network connections as well as television programs
fiber optic cables
DSL and cable modems have nowhere near the bandwidth of the:
fiber optic cables
replacing copper wires in the worldwide telephone network
rapidly and reliably transmit masses of multimedia data at the same time that it’s handling voice messages
A fiber optic network can
Voice mail
a messaging system with the ability to store, organize, and forward messages; An example of a growing trend toward computer telephony integration (CTI)
computer telephony integration (CTI)
the linking of computers and telephones to gain productivity
computer telephony integration
What does CTI stand for?
Voice Over Internet Protocol
What does VOIP stand for?
VOIP
Sending voice signals through the Internet, bypassing the phone companies (and their charges) altogether
wiretapping
VOIP is not as legally secure against
Private browsing
available on most web browsers, disables your browser history to keep it private from others with access to that computer

This does NOT delete any records kept by other networks you are connected to

TOR Browser
much more private browsing, connects to an anonymizing network that doesn’t reveal your true IP address to any site you connect to
-Can be slow, is not completely invulnerable to dedicated investigation
An IP address
is not a person
additional verification
If a legal offense is tied to a particular IP address, ____ ____ is necessary to prove what person committed that offense
Advanced Research Projects Agency NETwork
What does ARPANET stand for?
ARPANET
the predecessor to the Internet
visionary computer scientists
The Advanced Research Projects Agency NETwork (ARPANET) is the predecessor to the Internet:
Developed at the request of the Department of Defense by a team of
1969
When was ARPANET launched?
peer-to-peer networking philosophy and protocols
The Advanced Research Projects Agency NETwork (ARPANET) is the predecessor to the Internet:
Its ________ ____ ____ ____ ____ were copied in other networks in the 1980s
1990
The Advanced Research Projects Agency NETwork (ARPANET) is the predecessor to the Internet:
Disbanded in 1990, having fulfilled its research mission, but its technology spawned the Internet
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
TCP/IP
TCP/IP
Allows cross-network communication
At the heart of the Internet
TCP
breaks messages into packets
travel from network to network
Each message TCP breaks into packets has all the information needed to
routers
TCP breaks messages into packets
-host system called ____ determine how to route transmissions
IP
the address for the packets
unique IP address
Each Internet host computer has a
four; 0 and 255
Each address is comprised of ____ sets of numbers between __ ____ __ separated by periods, such as 128.114.113.19
DNS
The host is named using
domain name system
What does DNS stand for?
DNS
translates IP addresses into a string of names
Internet addresses
Has led to legal fights over rights to certain domain names
Cyber-squatting
grabbing domain names to resell later
educational sites
Top-level domains include:
.edu
commercial sites
Top-level domains include:
.com
government sites
Top-level domains include:
.gov
military sites
Top-level domains include:
.mil
nonprofit organizations
Top-level domains include:
.org
pull technology
The Web was built with ____ ____

-Browsers on client computers “pull”
information from server machines
-Browser asks for information

push technology
information is delivered automatically to the client computer
-New product descriptions
-Automatic software upgrades
-Updated news
RSS Feeds
-Open standard for subscription feeds
-Instead of regularly visiting a dozen web pages. Look for the Feed Icon:
-Google Reader abandoned July 1, 2013
-Feedly still works
Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Computing
Users share music, movies, and other files without going through a central directory
Grid Computing
Anyone can plug in from anywhere and rent processing power and software from anywhere on the Net

Example: [email protected], [email protected]

Spoofing
Common types of computer crime:

presenting a false identity to trick others into divulging passwords and other private information

Identity theft
Common types of computer crime:
the use of computers and other tools to steal whole identities
Phishing
Common types of computer crime:
users “fish” for sensitive information under false pretenses
Take this online quiz! What’s your birthday? Your mother’s maiden name?
Online fraud
Common types of computer crime:
-Most related to online auctions – while auctions are statistically safe, check user feedback
-Also, spam-based work-at-home schemes – selling “business opportunities” that cost money to get involved in
Malware
malicious software, or any type of intentionally invasive, unwanted software.
Trojan horse
Malware can include:
____ ____ performs a useful task while also running undesired, unrequested, or actively harmful routines
Virus
Malware can include:
-spreads by making copies of itself from program to program or disk to disk
-Can corrupt data, damage systems, spread malware/spyware – or often do nothing at all, created only as an intellectual challenge.
–Examples: Macro viruses and email viruses
Antivirus
____ programs are designed to search for viruses, notify users when they’re found, and remove them from infected disks or files
McAfee, Norton Anti-Virus
Common commercial software:
Commercial anti-virus software
tends to be bloated, consuming unnecessary system resources. Can be very hard to completely uninstall.
Recommended Freeware anti-virus
AVG Free, Avast!, MS Security Essentials (Windows 7), or MS Defender (Windows 8)
Malwarebytes
Good all-purpose scanning program
ransomware
Beware of ____ or any anti-virus program suggested via pop-up ad
combat new viruses as they appear
Programs need to be frequently revised to:
Spyware
is technology that collects information from computer users without their knowledge or consent
Tracking software or Spybot
Spyware is also called
Internet
Spyware information is gathered and shared with outsiders via ___

-Your keystrokes could be monitored
-Web sites which you visit are recorded
-Snapshots of your screen are taken
-Cause pop-ups to appear

61%; drive-by downloads
____% of PC users have spyware on their computers
-In _______ ____ just visiting a Web site can cause a download
(Mozilla Firefox is somewhat more secure than Internet Explorer)
Hacker
____ (or cracker) refers to people who break into computer systems
Webjackers
____ hijack Web pages and redirect users to other sites
Denial of Service (DOS) attacks
____________ bombard servers and Web sites with traffic that shuts down networks
Token ID; smart card
Depending on the security system, you might be granted access to a computer based on:
_____– Something you have
A key, an ID card with a photo, or a ____ ____ containing digitally encoded identification in a built-in memory chip
smart card
contains digitally encoded identification in a built-in memory chip
Passcode ID
Depending on the security system, you might be granted access to a computer based on:
______:- Something you know
A password, an ID number, a lock combination, or a piece of personal history, such as your mother’s maiden name
Signature ID
Depending on the security system, you might be granted access to a computer based on:
– Something you do
Your signature or your typing speed and error patterns
Biometric ID
Depending on the security system, you might be granted access to a computer based on:
___: Something about you
biometrics
Biometric ID – something about you

A voice print, fingerprint, retinal scan, facial feature scan, or other measurement of individual body characteristics; these measurements are collectively called _____

passwords
most common tool for restricting access to a computer system
effective ___:
-Not real words
-Not names
-Changed frequently
-Kept secret
-A combination of letters and numbers
-Not shared across multiple accounts
dictionary attack
Choosing a real word or name for your password leaves it susceptible to a
dictionary attack
a comparison of your password to every word in the dictionary, which can be accomplished quickly
Keyloggers
Beware of _____
– usually running on other people’s computers
Keyloggers log all keystrokes
-Often USB devices placed between external keyboards and desktop computers.
-Keylogger hardware often can’t be detected by software
encryption software
Making a message secure from outsiders requires
key
Encryption software scrambles the sent message using a
different key
A ____ ____ is needed to unscramble the received message
creates, encrypts, and sends
the sender __________________ the message
transmitted through the network
the encrypted message is
received and decrypted
After the sender creates, encrptys, and send the message, the encrypted message id transmitted through the network. Then, the message is ___________________.