Exam 3 Review American Federal Government

A member of Congress who wants to act on what the majority of his or her constituency thinks on a particular issue would be advised to respond to what indicator?
A poll based on a random sample of constituents
What are the key factors in determining the accuracy of an opinion poll?
Size of the sample and whether the sample was selected from the population by a random method
The accuracy of a poll is usually expressed in terms of what?
Sampling error
What is the process by which individuals acquire their political opinions called?
Political socialization
As an agent of political socialization, the American family has its greatest effect on individuals’ what?
Party identification
Party identification refers to what?
An emotional attachment to a political party
Historically, dramatic change in party identification is uncommon and is almost always a consequence of what?
Major upheaval
In general, public opinion affects government action in what way?
Sets limits on government action
Libertarians are opposed to government intervention in which spheres?
in both economic and social spheres
A conservative is opposed to government intervention in which spheres?
in the economic but not the social sphere
When the nation was founded, who was eligible to vote?
only males who owned property
When did women gain the right to vote?
early in the twentieth century
In the twenty-first century, voting rates in the United States have changed how?
remained lower than in nearly every other democracy
In the United States, the primary responsibility for registration of the individual voter rests with whom?
individual
Voter identification cards find the most support among which political party?
Republicans
The frequency of elections in the United States reduces voter turnout in what way?
increasing the personal effort needed to participate in all elections
Compared with U.S. citizens of higher incomes, those of lower incomes are more or less likely to vote?
much less likely to vote in elections
As distinct from alienation, apathy is defined as what?
a general lack of interest in politics
Regular voters tend to be characterized by what?
a strong sense of civic duty
How are political protests seen by most Americans?
as something to be accepted but not admired
Organizationally, the U.S. major parties are structured in what way?
decentralized and fragmented
______ warned Americans of the “baneful effects” of factions (political parities) in his 1797 farewell address.
George Washington
Democrats and Republicans have endured as the two major U.S. parties primarily due to what reason?
their ability to adapt to changing circumstances
What are the major emerging voting blocs?
Hispanics and young people
The major reason for the persistence of the American two-party system is what?
the existence of single-member election districts
Proportional representation systems encourage the formation of smaller parties by enabling parties to do what?
win legislative seats even though they do not receive a majority of votes in elections
Which demographic is key to the future of both parties?
Hispanic voters
If a minor party gains a large following, it is almost certain that what will happen?
one or both major parties will absorb its issues, and the minor party will lose support
Prospective voting is characterized by what choices?
choices based on what candidates promised to do if elected
What is an accurate representation of the public’s opinion about leaders and their accountability?
most citizens have a low opinion of Congress as a whole but say they have confidence in their local representative in Congress
What is the theory that society’s interests are most effectively represented through group?
pluralist theory
The most fully organized interests are those that have which of the following as their primary purpose?
economic activity
Some groups pursue collective goods. What is a collective good?
cannot e selectively granted or denied to individuals; it must be shared
The situation in which individuals are tempted not to contribute to a cause because they will get the benefits even if they do not participate is called what?
free-rider problem
Effective inside lobbying is based upon what?
providing useful and persuasive information to key officials
What does “agency capture” occur?
regulatory agencies side with the industries they are supposed to regulate rather than with the public
Grassroots lobbying is based on the assumption that officials will respond to what?
pressure from constituents
PACs tend to contribute the most money to whom?
incumbents
The Supreme Court decision in Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission (2010) allows what?
allows corporations and labor unions to spend unlimited funds on campaigns
James Madison’s solution to the problem of factions (special interests) has, in the modern policy process, actually contributed to the problem by doing what?
resulting in a fragmentation of authority among policymakers, thereby providing groups more opportunities to get their way
The term “framing” is used to describe what?
process of selecting certain aspects of reality and then crafting news stories around those aspects
In comparison with today’s newspapers, early American newspapers could not have done what?
could not have survived without political party support
The yellow journalism of the late nineteenth century was characterized by what?
the emphasis on sensationalism as a way of selling newspapers
Objective jornalismo is based on the idea that the reporter’s job is to do what?
report the facts and cover alternative sides of a partisan debate
Partisan talk radio got its start when?
after the abolition of the Fairness Doctrine
MSNBC responded to Fox’s ratings success by doing what?
recasting themselves as the liberal alternative to Fox
One special contribution of Internet-based news is that it provides what?
provides the ordinary citizen with an opportunity to be a party of the news system
The rise of the Internet as a news source has done what?
substantially increased the partisan divide
One consequence of today’s high-choice media system is what?
a widening in the partisan divide
What development brought about a dramatic reduction in television’s capacity to generate an interest in news?
the rapid spread of cable