Scholars who study Agenda Setting agree that
The media often guide people on what to think about through selective focus on issues
The “magic bullet” concept of mass communication
Held that mass communication was powerful and direct
The concept of the active audience play a key role in uses-and-gratifications research
What is the theory that posits that more highly educated segments of a population know more about the issues early on and, in fact, acquire information about that issue at a faster rate than the less educated segments
Knowledge gap theory
The Payne Fund Studies revealed that reactions to films depended on social and psychological differences
Media activist Robert McChesney has argued that a journalistic system that focuses more on attracting the attention of audiences rather than trying to build an informed society threatens the ability of citizens to participate in public affairs
What focuses on the “corrosive influence of capitalism on culture?”
Critical theory
Whenever a new medium surfaces a lot of research is conducted focusing on its effect on children
Suppose you go to a trusted friend to ask what is the best movie to go see this weekend. This was an example of what media theory?
Two-step flow
Cultivation research
Tends to regard TV violence as a factor that reinforces power
Media managers must think of audiences of consumers of media materials and other products.
Intuition plays no part of this process. It requires only solid knowledge of the marketplace
*The general name for characteristics by which people are divided into particular social categories
*The process of mixing media genres within and across cultures is known as
A news story marked by timeliness, unusualness, conflict, and closeness is categorized as
None of the Above (editorial, infotainment, Inverted pyramid, soft-news)
A format is a patterned choice and arrangement of elements that make up specific media material
The amount of area or time available for presenting media products to audiences would be known as
Shelf space
*Amount a cable system or satellite firm pays to a broadcaster for the right to pick the broadcaster’s signal off the air and send it to cable or satellite suscribers
Retransmission fee
*Government regulations prohibit media production companies from also being the company that distributes the finished product
*Vertical integration…
Exists when one company controls the entire media product, from production to distribution and exhibition
Employees in this department of a PR firm typically handle calls and email requests from journalists
Media relations
Helps companies that depend on government contracts to prevent legislation that may have negative effects on a firm
Public affairs
A media vehicle that has in the past been open to input from public relations practitioners
Publicity outlet
Situation in which companies pay money to be associated with particular activities that their target audiences enjoy or value
Event Sponsorship
The process of getting people or products mentioned in the news and entertainment media in order to get members of the public interested in them
A public relations activity usually hides its presence and its sponsor
Suppose a firm sponsors a coast-to-coast solar-car race named after the company on college campuses and makes sure all the local TV and radio stations in the areas cross cover the race. This is and example of
*Hard News coverage of a corporate communication activity
What is the term for a short essay that is written in the form of an objective news story?
*A press release
Any of the late-night TV commercials you’ve watched that urge you to phone them via an 800 number or a web ad that asks you to click to buy a product or service
Direct marketing
Some TV industry executives acknowledge that they create and produce some shows to turn off viewers whom they don’t want in their audience
The supreme Court has ruled in support of the long-held belief that the First Amendment applies to restraint of the federal government, but that states are more free to restrict speech if they decide to
Which of the following forms of mass media are viewed to be protected by the first Amendment
(All of the Above)
All forms of newspapers
Television news shows
Primetime TV shows
Pornographic materials are subject to restraint if
None of the above
(They are sexually explicit, they are with sexually explicit images on the outer packaging, They contain material that a majority of the people in the country would thin would be obscene.
Critics raise a concern that this type of reporting may lead to a tendency to sympathize with the military personnel they write about…..
Embedded reporting
*Fair use regulations allow a person or a company to use a small portions of copyrighted work without asking permission of the copyright holder
Spoken communications that is considered harmful to a person’s reputation
A form of defamation, and slander.
Suppose a national cancer research center tries to increase charitable donations by creating a “We are Winners” website showing photographs of living cancer survivors without their permission
In public disclosure privacy cases, if a journalistic organization obtains information unlawfully— whether or not the information is truthful—the organization may be held liable for invasion of privacy under the rules of public disclosure.
*Which government body is in charge of creating technical order of the frequency spectrum?
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
What is not a recognized duty for a member of the media industry

A duty to maximize ratings

(Duty to self, duty to your audience, duty to society, duty to promise holder)

Paying for media space or time in order to direct favorable attention to a product or service is known as
*Ad agency holding companies have exclusivity clauses that prevent them from serving competing clients. For example, no holding company could have both Ford and Chevrolet as a client.
Suppose the Canon copy company created an advertising campaign directed at major Big 10 universities to convince them to purchase their copiers instead of Xerox copiers. This is an example of what type of advertising.
Business to Business advertising
An internet ad agency is an example of a specialty ad agency
What is not considered a basic function of ad work
Sales pitches
What department of an ad agency decides where specific ads will be placed for exhibition?
The Media Planning Department
*CPM stands for ‘Cost per Million’ and is a measure of advertising efficiency
It stands for Cost per thousand
*Creating a specific image of a product or service to make it stand out in the minds of consumers is known as
Which department will likely be most involved in determining if an advertising campaign was a success?
None of the Above
(Creative services, Account services, Media planning, office management)
Dividing society into different categories of consumers is known as psychographic positioning
Which of the following is true about the internet: It is the same as the Web, It was designed as a military tool, It was designed under the same principles as the land-line phone system
It was designed as a military tool
According to Table 6.1, most of the people who us the internet earn over $75,000 a year
The first email program was created in response to the popularity of Apple computers
*What is the general name for firms that provides the technology through which the person can access the internet?
internet service providers (ISPs)
The net neutrality issue focues on the desire by websites and advocates to make sure that ISPs do not charge sites for
information that a website puts on your computer’s hard drive so that it can remember something about you at a later time
an online location where people can interact with others around information, entertainment, and news of their own choosing and, often, making
Social media site
a complex set of mathematically based rules that search engines use to come up with sites that relate to your search terms
creative products, such as videos and music, generated by people who visit websites
User generated content (UGCs)
Computer jargon used to describe user movement through websites
Which of the following is not a kind of newspaper advertising that can easily be replaced by the internet
Freestanding insert advertising
Newspaper strategies for competing with the internet have stopped long-term declines in circulation and revenue
A newspaper publisher sets the advertising/editorial ratio which determines how large the paper’s newshole will be. In a typical daily newspaper this ratio is:
A strategy in the newspaper industry mentioned in the chapter is to publish niche newspapers, intended to reach
Particular ethnic communities
Your textbook mentions that reporters are increasingly expected to: A, Create stories for print and online publication, B, Write a web log, or blog that is available online, C, Sell advertising space
A & B
The Audit Bureau of Circulation–the organization that tracks newspaper readership–does not count the number of paying online subscribers to a paper’s online version.
*Direct mail firms, marriage mail outfits, and so-called “shoppers” compete with newspapers to provide
Total Market coverage
A digital strategy for building newspaper readership would be: A, Continuous updates to keep readers coming back, B, A use of an *RSS Feed, C, A greater focus on national issues
A & B
A barrier that prevents people from accessing digital material without first paying money
A paywall
The circulation of printed daily newspapers has moved downward over the past quarter-century, even though the nation’s adult population has grown by more than a third.
B2B and other magazines that are only distributed to specific audience have
controlled circulation
Large Magazines can afford to pay ____ to get their magazines the best available display space
Slotting fees
Consumer magazines are aimed at manufacturers of specific consumer items
Which of the following is NOT true about newsletters: They tend to have a wide circulation, They are elaborately constructed, As a category they have resisted the migration to digital distribution, Most are published only twice a year
None of the above are true about newsletters
_____________ are databases compiled by magazines that tell potential advertisers attractive key facts about their readers
*Media kits
Close to 40% of magazine sales come from single-issue purchases from bookstores, grocery stores, and newsstands.
What is the percentage?
A magazine publisher is responsible for making the content in the magazine
Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS), A, collects and sells info about magazine audiences, B, Collects and sells info about advertising rates, C, devotes an entire reference directory to B2B magazines.
All of the above
Sworn circulation figures are certified by an external auditor
Advertisers who want their magazine ad to be targeted geographically can expect a lower CPM because they are reaching fewer readers.
*A recording company’s A&R (artist and repertoire) employees
Search for promising new artists
Singles are important, because
They’re the building blocks of radio formats
A major record label can provide an artist
Sustained cross-media exposure
Distribution advantages
In another example of attempting to control risk, radio station Program Directors give preference to established artists with a track record of success.
In order to stop unauthorized downloading, the RIAA (Recording Industry Association of America)
Began suing individuals for copyright infringement in 2003
*ASCAP and BMI are two major
Music societies that collect musical royalties on behalf of publishers and composers
The term payola refers to the money a musical composer receives every time their music is played on the radio.
The sales of musical ringtones in the US is a growing market
*Itunes Radio, Pandora, and IHeartRadio are examples of
Internet Radio Stations
Just like advertising holding companies own many agencies, music recording companies each own many labels.
The overall sound of a radio station is the primary responsibility of the
Program Director
The name of a form of advertising in which airtime is purchased from a local radio station by national advertisers or their representatives
National spot advertising
The Telecommunications Act of 1996
Encouraged the concentration of station ownership
A format clock is an electrical device required by the FCC to make sure that allU.S. radio stations are technologically coordinated in the event of a national crisis.
The term noncommercial stations refer to stations that receive no corporate funding.
What is the term used to refer to one percent of the population in a media market?
A rating point?
practice in which a syndicator provides the radio program and keeps a number of minutes for the sale of commercials to advertisers
form of radio advertising in which national advertisers or their representatives purchase airtime not from local radio stations but from the network that serves the radio station
Network Advertising
the personality of a station, designed to attract a particular audience segment
early weekday mornings and late afternoons, when radio stations expect to capture their largest audience
The Paramount Consent Decree of the late 1940s
Prohibited vertical integration
In 2011 the largest demographic group to watch theatrical releases in movie theaters was 12-24
*When you see the phrase “A Warner Bros. Theatrical Release” you know that the film was produced by Warner Bros.
Which of the following is NOT one of the “majors”
*Which of the following statements are true about independent producers?
A, They help reduce the risk of the big six, B, They are not owned by a distributor, C, They have harder time generating production investment capital
All of the above are true
*A deal in which a production firm convinces a famous actor or director to take a lower salary in exchange for getting a percentage of the money that the production firm receives from the distributor is known as
Back-end deal
US comedies are not historically successful in foreign markets and therefore are budgeted in order to make profit on US revenue alone.
Which of the following distribution patterns is the most popular in the United States?
Wide Release
The amount of profit that movie theater owners make for exhibiting a film is about 40% of ticket price
In the motion picture industry Guilds operate
as unions
The gaming population is made up of almost twice as many males as females
The industry name for puzzle, card, board, and word games is
Casual games
The largest percentage of games are made by companies that also produce hardware like consoles and handheld gaming devices
*Observers of the gaming industry agree that since 2000 game production has become more
Characterized by their focus on exploration and a story rather than on challenges that require the quick use of reflexes.
Adventure games
Teaching-oriented video games that are designed to have educational outcomes for specific groups of learners
Another term for a custom game created by advertisers to promote the brand through placement on a website or Facebook page is ‘advergame.’
Dynamic in-game advertising
A, is a form of embedded advertising, B, involves changing the ads depending on a player’s game setting level, C, Is a highly sophisticated process of targeting players
All of the above
A MMORPG (Massively multiplayer online role-playing game) player typically uses
A server
An avatart
Unlike many other media industries, the video game industry has not yet adopted a ratings system
ERSB (Entertainment Software Rating Board)
*Off network syndication
When a distributor takes a program that has already been shown on network TV and rents episodes of that program to TV stations for local Airing. Stripping is a popular tactic in off-network syndication
The strategy by which different levels of television programming are priced differently
*Channel Multiplexing
Sending multiple signals or streams of info on a carrier at the same time in the form of a single complex signal and then recovering the separate signals at the receiving end
*are cablevision, comcast, and direct tv ovpds