AP Government Final Questions

When we analyze policy proposals such as electric cars that reduce the nation’s need for oil but increase the demand for the electricity produced by coal-fired plants, we are using
cost-benefit analysis
One reason why the federal government adds new programs to its agenda, despite the absence of public demand, is the
behavior of interest groups
The winning interest in the debate over the creation of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) was
Farm subsidies are a by-product of which of the following?

I. a fair assessment of the market.
II. tradition, or the legacy of the Great Depression.
III. the fact that most Americans are farmers.
IV. politics, because farmers are key and changeable voters.

II and IV only
Public support for automobile-safety measures in the 1960s increased greatly when
General Motors was caught in an attempted frame-up
The Superfund program illustrates entrepreneurial politics in action concerning the issue of
hazardous wastes
An example of client politics is
agricultural price supports
“Logrolling” is the equivalent of saying,
“you scratch my back and I’ll scratch yours.”
An example of pork-barrel politics is when Congress
enacts a program that benefits a few districts to gain their votes
Improving police patrols by increasing taxes is an example of
majoritarian politics
Jury trial in civil cases where the value of the case exceeds $20
Amendment 7
Powers reserved to the states
Amendment 10
Right to a fair and speedy trial
Amendment 6
Freedoms of religion, speech, press, assembly, and petition
Amendment 1
Freedom from unreasonable search and seizure
Amendment 4
No quartering of troops
Amendment 3
Freedom from excessive bail, fines, and cruel and unusual punishments
Amendment 8
Right to keep arms
Amendment 2
Rights of accused persons, including due process and double jeopardy
Amendment 5
One of the basic liberties sought by the colonists through independence from Great Britain was
freedom from taxation without representation
If the United States operated today under the Articles of Confederation, issues such as the effect of carbon emissions on the environment would be handled by
the individual states
The national legislature would have had the power to veto state laws under the
Virginia Plan
The power of the people-popular majority rule-was limited by the U.S. Constitution in several ways, including
making the amending of the U.S. Constitution relatively difficult
A person cannot be imprisoned without first being brought before a judge, who in turn finds sufficient cause for his or her detention. This protection is known as
habeas corpus
Which of the following is NOT a way in which Congress can check the federal courts?
Overturning a court decision with a two-thirds vote in the Senate
Which of the following statements was James Madison’s main argument about factions in Federalist Paper No. 10?
They occur naturally but can be controlled by institutions
Which of the following is a system of government where those who have authority get that authority as a result of winning free and relatively frequent elections?
representative democracy
Which of the following best describes the system the United States operates under?
constitutional democracy
James Madison examined historical data on republics, confederations, and aristocracies to learn about the formation of a government. His conclusions are found in
the Federalist Papers
For the Founders, federalism was a device to
protect liberty
Applying the principles of Thomas Jefferson to current political issues would probably dispose one to
favor the decentralization of government power
According to the text, the grant-in-aid system grew rapidly because it helped state and local officials resolve what dilemma?
How to get federal money into state hands without violating the U.S. Constitution
The term intergovernmental lobby is used in the text to refer to lobbying activities by
state and local officials at the national government
One reason why revenue sharing has proved unsuccessful as a means of distributing federal money to local governments is because it
lacks strong local political support
“Enumerated” powers in the Constitution are given to
the national government
A confederate system of government is organized
to place power at the regional level, with the central government exercising only such influence as the regional governments give it
The Founders did not include in the U.S. Constitution an explicit statement of state powers but added it later in the
Tenth Amendment
By ruling that the federal government cannot require local police to conduct background checks on all gun purchases, it held that to do so would be a violation of the __________ Amendment
The early chief justice whose decisions generally gave the broadest interpretation of federal powers was
John Marshall
Which of the following statements can be supported by the information in the article on exit polling in the 2004 election?
In this particular election, exit polling did not accurately reflect the final vote
Problems with exit polling have coincided with an increase in
computerized voting equipment
According to the article, what is one flaw in the exit poll design?
Exit polls do not allow for totally randomized sampling, since they are conducted in a limited number of voting precincts
The article cites all of the following as potential sources of problems with the reliability of the voting system in the United States EXCEPT:
DRE, or touch screen machines, produce a paper trail.
One argument put forward to explain the discrepancy between exit polling and voting results in the 2004 election was that
Bush voters were less likely to participate in exit polls.
Margin of error refers to
the level of confidence in the findings of a public opinion poll.
Political elites have a disproportionate influence on public issues in the United States for all of the following reasons EXCEPT
they define most economic and social problems
Political elites have influenced or framed political issues in the past. Which of the following issues have they NOT impacted?
The belief that unemployment is low.
Which of the following is true concerning today’s college students?
They believe that volunteering is a more significant civic act than voting.
A gender gap is most likely to occur in an election in which the major issue is
gun control
What effect does attending college have on political attitudes?
Students generally become more liberal.
Among the following groups, the group that is most likely to hold political views that are similar to Anglo-whites are
An individual with an inconsistent political ideology, in the view of the text, would be someone who believed in both legalizing marijuana and
greater defense spending.
The term liberal came to mean someone who favored an active national government around the time of
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Conservatives are likely to support all of the following EXCEPT
freedom of choice in abortions
Compared with the early years of the republic, the power and autonomy of newspaper editors and reporters in the United States today is
An important factor in the development of less partisan newspapers in the 19th century was the growth of
paid advertising, which reduced the need for party subsidies
Most of the national news that local papers publish comes from
wire services
Which of the following best categorizes the Federal Communications Commission (FCC)?
an independent regulatory agency
The relationship between public officials and the media can best be described as one of
A war between the United States and Spain was fomented by the publisher
William Randolph Hearst
Who will most likely be able to influence the policy agenda by using the national media effectively?
Unlike big-city newspapers, radio and television stations must
have a government license to operate
Which of the following is the main focus of the media during a presidential campaign?
personal mistakes of candidates
Which of the following best describes the relationship between the media and trust in government?
As the availability of news has increased, trust in government has decreased.
Which of the following has decreased the reporting of voter turnout over the years?
expansion of those who are eligible to vote
The most obvious negative consequence of strict voter registration procedures, such as those that exist throughout the United States, is
a reduction in voting generally
Political participation encompasses all of the following activities EXCEPT
paying your taxes
Which amendment stated that “the right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude?”
the 15th Amendment
Which of the following statements describes the correlation between eligible voters’ distrust of political leaders and the likelihood that they will vote?
No apparent correlation exists
Compared to the role they used to play, political parties today tend to be
more distant, national bureaucracies
Which of the following statements about elections in the United States is correct?
The U.S. Constitution left entirely to the states the decision of who could vote and for what offices
The _____ Amendment gave voters in Washington, D.C., the right to vote in presidential elections
The willingness to engage in partisan competition separates which two of the participation groups described by Verba and Nie?
communalists from campaigners
The text suggests that one reason religious involvement increases political participation is because
it puts one in contact with like-minded people.
The United Auto Workers (UAW) in Detroit is politically involved with the Democratic party, which is an example of a(n)
sponsored party
Even though minor parties have had little success in national elections, they have played an important role in many elections by
influencing the public-policy positions of the two major parties
A Northerner who opposed the Civil War most likely belonged to which party?
Between the national conventions, party affairs are managed by a ______________ made up of delegates from each state and territory
national committee
One effect of the geographic split in parties that occurred as a consequence of the Civil War was
the emergence of strong party factions such as the mugwumps
Which of the following were major issues in the three clearest cases of critical or realigning periods?
slavery and economics
Today, a person wanting to win an election will most often seek the support of
a personal following
All of the following present obstacles to third-party success EXCEPT
access to social media attention
Procedures such as the initiative and the referendum arose as efforts to give
citizens a direct say in making laws
Which of the following is true of the winner-take-all rule for electoral-college votes?
It is used in all states except Maine and Nebraska
Many scholars argue that the foremost factor in determining how people vote is
party identification
When a voter votes based on how things have been going and which party is in power, it is referred to as
retrospective voting
Legislators who think of themselves as delegates are most likely to
follow their constituents’ wishes closely.
The kind of campaign activity most notably on the increase in recent elections is
One advantage that incumbents ALWAYS have over challengers is
their use of free mailings, or franks
Which of the following best describes primary?
open or closed election to choose candidates
Which of the following best describes the use of superdelegates?
used by Democrats to ensure a voice for party officials and for particular constituencies
In a presidential election, where is the first caucus held?
In the 2004 election, George W. Bush wanted to let people put some of their Social Security money into private savings accounts; John Kerry opposed this. This is an example of a ________ issue.
Who can receive federal matching funds?
presidential candidates
Which of the following interest groups has the largest membership size?
American Association of Retired Persons (AARP)
Unlike other types of mass-membership organizations, public-interest lobbies principally benefit
A feminist organization that takes strong political positions on sensitive issues will probably attract members with what type of incentives?
The 1993 Brady Bill was opposed by which of the following interest groups?
the National Rifle Organization (NRA)
According to the text, one of the important activities of public-interest law firms is to
file amicus curiae briefs.
All of the following are methods used by lobbyists to convince undecided legislators that public opinion on an issue is inclined toward their direction EXCEPT
supply them with technical information
Which of the following statements is correct regarding money and PACs?
Campaign finance laws place restrictions on the amount of money that interest groups give to candidates
When an individual leaves a federal government job and goes to work as a lobbyist, consultant, or key executive for a business, this is called the
Revolving Door
The growth of numerous public-interest lobbies in the 1960s was an example of interest groups forming as a result of
the emergence of talented leadership
All of the following are examples of a material incentive EXCEPT
the appeal of the organization’s stated goals
Which of the following principles from John Locke’s Second Treatise of Civil Government supports limited government?
A government’s legitimacy is determined by the public’s consent
Which of the following statements best justifies the framers’ reasons for omitting language about slavery from the Constitution?
The framers wanted to ensure the Southern states would ratify the Constitution
How do the three branches of federal government work together to craft and ensure just laws for the United States?
Legislature writes laws. Executive enforces the law. Judiciary interprets the law.
Which of the following are examples of the separation of powers in action?

I. The Senate refused to pass the Treaty of Versailles in 1920.
II. State governments have established different criteria for issuing marriage licenses.
III. The power to establish school systems is reserved to state and local governments.
IV. In 1913, Congress passed the 16th Amendment, establishing a federal income tax.

I and IV
Which of the following shows the impact of the separation of powers on voting rights in the United States?
The 17th Amendment granted the people the right to directly elect senators
The U.S. Constitution gives impeachment power to
the House of Representatives
In the U.S. Constitution, which of the following powers are shared by both Congress and the president?

I. Treaty negotiations
II. Supreme Court justice impeachments
III. Supreme Court appointments
IV. Interpretation of laws
V. Legislation enactment

I, III, and V
Which of the following actions involves all three branches of the federal government?
Appointing new Supreme Court justices
In the U.S. system of government, concurrent powers are those that are exercised by
the state governments and the federal government
During the period of dual federalism, the states and the federal government
divided most government functions
According to the U.S. Constitution, what obligation do states have to other states?
To recognize contracts created in other states
According to Aristotle, the term “democracy” means
rule by the many
Which of these is an argument in favor of democracy?
People who cannot choose for themselves are not really free
American political culture has greatly encouraged the development of the
free-market economy
Which of the following values contributed to the early development of American political culture?

I. Civic duty
II. Personal liberty
III. Economic equality
IV. Social harmony

I and II
The American value of equality is most strongly reflected in which of the following statements?
Votes and public opinion are not determined by class distinctions
Americans’ beliefs about the trustworthiness of their government could most likely be affected by
high-level political scandals
A member of the political elite would most likely agree with which of the following sources of political information?
Cable opinion programs
Which statement best explains the effect that the rise of mass media had on American politics during the 1920s and 1930s?
The radio allowed politicians to directly address American citizens.
Due to the vast differences in Americans’ races, religions, and regions, which of the following groups has the least impact?
Registered voters
Which of the following statements best explains the relationship between political culture and political ideology?
Political culture contributes to an individual’s political ideology
Which of the following demonstrates belief in one’s civic duty?

I. Voting
II. Running for office
III. Paying minimal or no taxes
IV. Volunteering at a local food pantry
V. Taking time to learn about current events

I, II, IV, and V
Despite the separation of church and state, religion has played an important role in citizens’ political activities by
motivating citizens to campaign for and vote on issues according to their beliefs
Which of the following is not a factor in a citizen’s development of his or her political socialization?
Campaign advertising
Political views on bilingual education show that which of the following factors most influence political beliefs and attitudes on this issue?
How are superdelegates different from other delegates at the Democratic National Convention?
Most superdelegates have received an automatic seat at the Convention
Which of the following best justifies why a factionalized party is less likely to succeed at electing its candidates than a bureaucratized one?
Factionalized parties are more likely to split their own vote than are bureaucratized parties
Which of the following describes the effect regional bipartisanship had on the parties in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries?
Most states became one-party states, leading to factionalism within the two major parties
Which of the following best justifies why Progressives pursued policies to weaken political parties?
As the Republican Party gained power, Progressives felt that they had less and less of a voice in policy-making
Which of the following is most strongly affected by political party affiliation?
Retrospective voting
What impact has the two-party system had on the mindset of many voters?
Many voters fear that a vote for minor-party candidates is a wasted vote
Which of the following Constitutional Amendments established a national standard for voter eligibility?
The Fifteenth Amendment, ratified in 1870
Under the electoral college system, all of the following statements are true EXCEPT
states may choose electors who are also senators, representatives, or elected officials.
The United States has a large number of nonprofit organizations because it
offers legal arrangements that favor the formation of nonprofit organizations
Which of the following explains why organizations form political action committees (PACs)?
To contribute money to political candidates
The most important tactic used by interest groups to influence lawmakers is
supplying credible information to key legislators
A political cue signals to an official

I. who is for a specific issue
II. who is against a specific issue
III. which direction he or she should vote
IV. how the issue fits into his or her political beliefs

II and IV
The way in which legislators vote on most issues can be explained by
their general ideological outlook and the characteristics of their constituents
Since the 1960s, interest groups have grown, and as a result
more groups represent specialized issues
Which of the following best describe Americans’ perceptions of interest groups?

I. Interest groups spend too few dollars when trying to get senators and representatives to vote for a certain bill.
II. Interest groups’ contributions to re-election committees are excessive and wasteful.
III. Legislative reform is necessary to limit interest groups’ contact with government officials.
IV. Former lobbyists who become government officials have an unfair advantage over officials who were not lobbyists.

II, III, and IV
The primary factor behind the initial creation of PACs was
campaign finance reform.
One way that PACs have affected the American political process is by
providing campaign funding to candidates of a variety of political beliefs
Which of the following expresses the role that wire services, such as the Associated Press and United Press International, play in the news media?
Supplying most national news coverage printed by local newspapers
Which of the following describes the impact of successive technological developments, such as the telegraph, the rotary printing press, radio, television, computers, and the Internet, on the news media?

I. Broadened and diversified the coverage of news stories
II. Made news and information more accessible to consumers
III. Increased the cost of print media relative to the cost of non-print media
IV. Consolidated the dissemination of news among a few national organizations

I and II
Which of the following describes the effect of the rise of the sensationalist press at the end of the nineteenth century?
It led to increased voter apathy.
The spread of magazines of opinion during the early twentieth century resulted in which of the following?
A rise in the number of interest groups
Talk shows and town meetings as political forums have
increased politicians’ access to the electronic media.
What obligation does the government have to the public?
To release its records and to open meetings
The right to apportion representatives among the states according to the population is the authority of the
District lines for the House of Representatives are drawn with the authority of the
State Legislatures
The term “Gerrymandering” is used
when the party in control draws the lines to enhance their own political fortunes
Redistricting of Congressional constituencies occurs
every 10 years after each national census
After the 2000 census
both a and b
a. eastern and northern states lost House seats
b. western states gained seats
The term “gerrymandering” is named after the cartoonist of the political cartoon
One of the rules of congressional redistricting is that the districts must be contiguous
It is not important if districts have equal populations
The court case, Wesberry v. Sanders (1964), is about the state of Georgia having grossly unequal populations in districts. The Court recognized that “no right is more precious” than that of having a voice in elections
The court case Shaw v. Reno is about a bizarrely shaped district, created to form a black- majority voting district
The general trend in power distribution and decision making throughout the evolution of Congress has been toward
decentralization: more power for individual members
Until recently, in terms of its percentage of women and nonwhite members since 1950, the Senate, compared with the House, has
been slower to change
As a member of Congress, you vote for a dairy-support bill because it is consistent with your thinking as a liberal Democrat. Political scientists would describe your vote as
A bill to raise taxes would first be referred to the
House Ways and Means Committee
A discharge petition is used by the House to
get a bill stalled in committee onto the floor
Of the following demographic groups, which is the most underrepresented in Congress?
All of the following help determine a candidate’s chance of getting elected to Congress. Which one will provide the biggest advantage?
incumbency status
Before a bill can be introduced on the floor of the House, the bill goes to the
House Rules Committee
One important effect of bicameralism is that it
balances large and small states
A marginal district is one in which
the winner in an election gets less than 55 percent of the vote
From the examples of Andrew Jackson and Abraham Lincoln, one learns that emergency conditions and ________ can offer presidents the opportunity for substantial increases in power
a strong Congress
A classic example of the honeymoon phenomenon occurred during the presidency of
Franklin D. Roosevelt
The method of staff organization that risks isolating or misinforming the president is called
The Cabinet officers consist of the heads of
the major executive departments
One reason a president has relatively little power over his Cabinet departments is because he
cannot appoint more than a fraction of their employees
When no candidate receives a majority of votes in the electoral college, the House of Representatives decides who will win a presidential election. This circumstance
has occurred only twice
Under the original provisions of the U.S. Constitution, the states were to choose presidential electors
however they wished
A bill is passed to the president for action while Congress is still in session. After 10 days he has still not approved it. What happens to the bill?
It becomes law
Which of the following methods allows Congress to override a presidential veto of legislation?
With a two-thirds vote in both houses of congress
A president is most likely to gain public support for a policy proposal by
using the media to appeal to the public directly
Most federal agencies must share their functions with
related agencies
Those federal bureaucrats not appointed on the basis of qualifications designed by the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) are called
the excepted service
Which of the following statements concerning the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act is NOT true?
It enhanced the power of patronage in federal appointments
Using the buddy system, an agency can circumvent the usual Office of Personnel Management (OPM) search process by
tailoring a job description to a specific candidate
The Whistleblower Protection Act of 1989 is designed to protect
bureaucrats who tell on their bosses
Which of the following is NOT an important official service performed by the federal bureaucracy?
Solving disputes between the executive and legislative branches of government
In the United States, civil servants often must obey both the heads of their agencies and
Which of the following are ways that presidents attempt to exercise control over the bureaucracy?

I. Appointing heads of federal agencies that are loyal to them
II. Issuing executive orders
III. Altering an agency’s budget
IV. Providing bonus pay to senior agency officials

I, II, and III
A legislative veto
gives Congress control over certain executive decisions
Rulings by the Supreme Court in Marbury v. Madison and McCulloch v. Maryland established all of the following principles EXCEPT
the federal government has the power to regulate commerce among the states
In Federalist Paper #78, Alexander Hamilton described the judiciary as
“least dangerous” to political rights
The principle that the Supreme Court used in overturning Fulton’s monopoly on a New York steamboat operation was that
state law cannot prevail over federal law
___________ are established in the federal judiciary for a special purpose and are staffed by people who have fixed terms of office and can have their salaries reduced
Legislative courts
What does the U.S. Constitution have to say about the size of the Supreme Court?
It does not indicate how large the court should be
A judicial activist is a judge who holds
that courts should make as well as interpret law
Senate conservatives, for example, might make their approval of a Supreme Court nominee contingent on that individual’s personal views about the death penalty. Such concern for a nominee’s ideology is known as
a political litmus test
The function of the U.S. solicitor general is to
approve every case the federal government presents to the Supreme Court
All of the following are ways that interest groups play a role in the federal judicial process EXCEPT
placing advertisements to endorse a judicial nominee
The dual-court system of the United States refers to
federal and state courts
In which of the following cases, did the Supreme Court make decisions regarding religious freedom?

I. Mapp v. Ohio (1965)
II. Texas v. Johnson (1989)
III. Lee v. Weisman (1992)
IV. Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971)

III and IV
The earliest immigrant group to arrive in large numbers and thus alter the scope of civil-rights issues consisted of
Irish Catholics
The Supreme Court has ruled that certain kinds of government involvement in religious activities are acceptable. One condition of such involvement is that it
not foster an excessive government entanglement with religion
All of the following are true concerning the Supreme Court’s 1989 flag burning case EXCEPT
the public clearly supported the decision
A basic difference between the Bill of Rights and the U.S. Constitution proper is that the former
covers what government cannot do
If you as a public individual are defamed by someone who cannot prove that the defamation is true, you
can collect damages if you demonstrate malice
The Supreme Court has required those who claim exemption from military service on the grounds of conscientious objection to
have deeply held beliefs against military service
The United States deals with the problem of illegally obtained evidence by
allowing only conclusions drawn from it to be presented in court
Which of the following statements regarding the warrant requirement is incorrect?
The Sixth Amendment protects against unreasonable searches and seizures
The Supreme Court first suggested that basic liberties might be applied to the states in the case of
Benjamin Gitlow
According to the text, one reason that restrictions on black Americans continued for so long was that
most whites did not support black rights
In 1971 a Supreme Court decision involving Charlotte, North Carolina, confirmed that ________ could be ordered by federal judges
Which of the following statements most accurately describes the 1992 Supreme Court ruling concerning school integration?
Busing can be ended if segregation is caused by shifting housing patterns
One factor helping to break the deadlock that developed in the civil-rights movement during the early 1960s was
a change in public opinion toward civil rights
Which of the following statements about a woman’s right to abortion is correct?
Until 1973 it was decided by states
The test that the Supreme Court has applied to laws making distinctions between the genders is called
reasonableness standard
An example of a court decision allowing gender-based differences is
all-boy and all-girl public schools are permitted if enrollment is voluntary and quality is equal
A supporter of equality of opportunity as a way of redressing past civil-rights inequities would be most likely to advocate
high-quality schools for all children
All of the following are correctly paired EXCEPT

I. Thirteenth Amendment-Right of women to vote
II. Fifteenth Amendment-Right of African American males to vote
III. Fourteenth Amendment-Equal protection of the laws
IV. Twenty-Sixth Amendment-Right of 18 year-olds to vote

I only
Civil rights and civil liberties are different because civil liberties
have to do with individual protections while civil rights are protections based on group attributes
One reason that politicians did not stop allowing a deficit was that
they were split between cutting spending and those who thought the deficit could be eliminated by raising taxes
The most obvious loophole in the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 is that
there is nothing in the process that requires Congress to tighten the government’s financial belt
Which of the following did the Gramm-Rudman Balanced Budget Act of 1985 call for?
The budget would automatically be cut until the deficit was eliminated
The Budget Enforcement Act of 1990 did not limit mandatory spending for entitlements, but it did impose
a “pay-as-you-go” approach
What approach did Congress take toward trade restrictions when it passed the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)?
It put the need for free trade above protectionism
Typically, the economic adviser with the closest link to the financial community is the
secretary of the Treasury
The text suggests that, in theory and in practice, the Federal Reserve is independent
of both the president and Congress
Why should a U.S. shoe company be opposed to the elimination of trade restrictions on shoes?
because of competition from imported shoes
rom the inauguration of income tax up to the 1950s, tax rates tended to rise and fall with
war and peace
The main reason labor unions usually oppose free-trade policies is because they believe
cheaper labor in foreign countries causes domestic corporations to abandon workers