Chapter 34*

The primary cause of the dramatic change in the nation’s ethnic mix; Hispanics became the largest minority; for the first time in history most of the immigrants weren’t from europe
Traditional family unit
This continued decline as single mothers became more accepted and divorce rates rose
George H W Bush
although he had seemed unbeatable because of his foreign policy and handling of the first Gulf War, he was not successful in handling the economic recession and Bill Clinton won the 1992 election
Saddam Hussein
remained of the leader of Iraq after the first Gulf War; In 2003, he was overthrown and captured when the United States invaded. He was sentenced to death by hanging in 2006.
Soviet Union
The Cold War ended with the dismemberment of this nation and it’s 15 constituent republics; as a result the United States had become the world’s only dominant military power
Patrick Buchanan
The conservative commentator and former White House aide who adopted the slogan “America first” and challenged Bush for the Republican nomination in the 1992 election
Democratic Leadership Council
This Council where Bill Clinton figured prominently had been pushing the party from the liberal left to the center of the political Spectrum
William Jefferson Clinton
The governor of Arkansas won the 1992 presidential election against President George H. W. Bush. In his first term, he pushed through Congress a tax increase, an economic stimulus package, the adoption of the North America Free Trade Agreement, welfare reform, a raise in the minimum wage, and improved public access to health insurance. However, he failed to institute major health-care reform, which had been one of his major goals. In 1996, he defeated Republican presidential candidate Bob Dole. He Was scrutinized for his investment in the fraudulent Whitewater Development Corporation, but no evidence was found of him being involved in any wrongdoing. In 1998, he was revealed to have had a sexual affair with a White House intern. He had initially lied about the affair and tried to cover up it, which led to a vote in Congress on whether or not to begin an impeachment inquiry. The House of Representatives voted to impeach him, but the Senate found him not guilty. His presidency faced several foreign policy challenges. In 1994, he used U.S. forces to restore Haiti’s democratically elected president to power after he had been ousted during a coup. In 1995, his Administration negotiated the Dayton Accords, which stopped the ethnic strife in the former Yugoslavia and the Balkan region. He sponsored peace talks between Arabs and Israelis, which culminated in Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and the Palestine Liberation Organization leader Yasir Arafat signing the Oslo Accords in 1993. This agreement provided for the restoration of Palestinian self-rule in specific areas in exchange for peace as provided in UN Security Council resolutions.
Progressive centrism
Bill Clinton’s concept of a third way position in between conservatism and liberalism
Al Gore
He served as a senator of Tennessee and then as President Clinton’s vice president. In the 2000 presidential election, he was the Democratic candidate and campaigned on preserving Social Security, subsidizing prescription-medicine expenses for the elderly, and protecting the environment. His opponent was Governor George W. Bush, who promoted compassionate conservatism and the transferring of power from the federal government to the states. The election ended in controversy. The close election came down to Florida’s electoral votes. The final tally in Florida gave Bush a slight lead, but it was so small that a recount was required by state law. While the votes were being recounted, a legal battle was being waged to stop the recount. Finally, the case, Bush v. Gore, was presented to the Supreme Court who ruled 5-4 to stop the recount and Bush was declared the winner.
H Ross Perot
The independent candidate in the 1992 election who got the most votes as a 3rd party candidate since Theodore Roosevelt in 1912; opposed the North American Free Trade Agreement
“Don’t ask, don’t tell”
Bill Clinton’s ambiguous policy for allowing gays in the military
Economic stimulus package
Clinton called for this package for investment in public works( Transportation, utilities and the like) and human capital( education, skills, Health, and Welfare); passed very closely in the legislature
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
Approved in 1993, the agreement with Canada and Mexico allowed goods to travel across their borders free of tariffs; critics argued that American workers would lose their jobs to cheaper Mexican labor.
the complicated proposal to give access to health insurance to every citizen and legal immigrant (universal medical coverage); people would no longer purchase health insurance from their employers
Regional health alliances
part of Hillary’s proposed Medicare Plan; Workers would be grouped into these alliances run by states that would offer private insurance options and employers would pay most of the premiums
Sin tax
part the Hillarycare proposal that would tax tobacco products and alcoholic beverages to pay for the program
Newton Leroy Gingrich
Republican Speaker of the House who proposed the contract with America, how to mobilize religious and social conservatives associated with the Christian coalition, Led the effort to impeach Clinton over the Lewinsky scandal
Contract with America
A ten-point document released by the Republican party during the 1994 Congressional election campaigns, which outlined a small-government program featuring less regulation of business, diminished environmental regulations, and other core values of the Republican revolution.
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996 (PRWOA)
A Centrist measure that Illustrated Clinton’s efforts to move the Democratic party away from the tired liberalism it had premoted since the 1930s; was a comprehensive welfare reform measure that ended the federal government’s open guarantee of aid to the poor
Temporary Assistance for Needy Families
PRWOA abolished the aid to families with dependent children and replaced it with this, which limited the duration of welfare payments to the unemployed to 2 years; also tighten restrictions on the issuance of federal food stamps
Welfare reform
Reforms signed by Clinton in 1996 which scaled back social spending , reversed welfare legislation dating back to the New Deal, and boosted Clinton’s popularity just before the election.
Bob Dole
Senate majority leader who resigned his seat in order to devote his attention to defeating Bill Clinton in the 1996 election
New economy
By the end of the twentieth century this was centered on computer, software, telecommunications, and internet firms
Dot-com enterprises
these Enterprises had come to represent almost a third of stock market values even though many of them were hollow shell companies fueled by speculative Mania; as a result the financial bubble soon burst
Alan Greenspan
the Federal Reserve board chairman who suggested that we had moved Beyond history into an economy that seemed only to grow; he was wrong
Peace dividend
One major factor producing the economic boom of the 90 s was this which enabled the US government to reduce the proportion of the federal budget devoted to defense spending
Per worker productivity
most important reason for the economic surge in the 1990s as new technologies and high-tech production processes allowed for greater efficiency (Frederick Winslow Taylor would be proud)
a major feature of the new economy made possible with globe spanning Technologies; saw prosperous foreign trade and new s manufacturing companies turning to Outsourcing for cheaper labor and laxed workplace regulations which turned out amazing :/
Affirmative action
This created gains in college admissions and employment but was overruled in 1995 by the Supreme Court
Adarand Constructors v Pena
in this Supreme Court case in 1995, the court assess a program that gave some advantages to businesses owned by disadvantaged majority
Sandra Day O’Connor
Justice who said that affirmative action programs had to be narrowly tailored to serve a compelling National interest
Hopwood v Texas
in this court case in 1996, the Court ruled that considering race to achieve a diverse student body at the University of Texas was not a compelling interest under the 14th Amendment (outlawed affirmative action)
Proposition 209
in 1996 California passed this initiative that ruled out race, sex, ethnicity, and national origin as criteria for preferring any group
Whitewater Development Corporation
in his first term, Clinton dodged allegations of involvement in this fraudulent Corporation when he was governor of Arkansas
Kenneth Starr
This Republican appointed as the independent Counsel on the investigation of the Whitewater case did not uncover evidence that the Clintons were directly involved in the fraud, although several of their Close Associates had been caught and convicted of various charges
Monica Lewinsky
A White House intern who President Clinton had engaged in a prolonged sexual affair with and had pressed her to lie about their relationship under oath
Monica Gate
this Scandal captured public attention and led to the Clinton Impeachment by the house of Representatives
Starr Report
this report about the Monica Lewinsky scandal found substantial and credible evidence of presidential wrongdoing, prompting the House of Representatives to impeach the president
Clinton continued to the Bush administration’s military intervention in this country in Africa where the collapse of the government in early 1991 had left the country in Anarchy;The UN intervention here prove successful at its primary mission to relieve hunger and restore peace but it never resolved the political Anarchy that lay at the root of the population’s starvation
this country had emerged from a cycle of coups with the election of the popular priest, Jean Bertrand Aristide; the United States announced its intention with the aid of the UN to bring him back when an army general ousted Aristide
Jean-Bertrand Aristide
The popular Haitian priest who was elected in 1990 as president who was outsted by a Haitian army General and who the US and the UN fought to put back into power
Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO)
this organization was included in the negotiations between the Arabs and Israelis; resulted in an agreement that provided for the restoration of Palestinian South rule in exchange for land of Peace as provided in the UN Security Council resolutions
Yitzhak Rabin
the Israeli Prime Minister who agreed to a peace Accord between Israel and Palestine in September 1993
Yasir Arafat
the PLO leader who agreed to a peace Accord between Israel and Palestinian in September 1993
Benjamin Netanyahu
the conservative hardliner who narrowly defeated the US-backed Shimon Peres in the Israeli national elections
Wye River Accord
under this agreement Israel agreed to surrender land in return for security guarantees by the Palestinians
when this country collapsed in 1991 fanatics and tyrants triggered ethnic conflict as four of its 6 Republic seceded
in this country the war involved ethnic cleansing of Muslims; Clinton send food and medical supplies to the besieged citizens and dispatched war planes to retaliate for attacks on places designated safe havens by the United Nations
Ethnic cleansing
The act of killing an entire group of people in a region or country because of its ethnic background. After the collapse of the former Yugoslavia in 1991, Serbs in Bosnia attacked communities of Muslims, which led to intervention by the United Nations. In 1998, fighting broke out again in the Balkans between Serbia and Kosovo. Serbian police and military attacked, killed, raped, or forced Muslim Albanian Kosovars to leave their homes
Yugoslav Providence which had long been considered sacred ground by Christian serbs ;The Yugoslav president milojevic decided to reassert Serbian control over the Providence and stripped the nation of its autonomy and established de facto martial law ;In response to Nato launched air strikes against Yugoslavia
Slobodan Milosevic
the president of Yugoslavia who decided to assert Serbian control over Kosovo in 1998ish; Albanian kosovars resisted and joined the Kosovo Liberation Army, so Serbian soldiers and State Police responded ruthlessly
Kosovo Liberation Army
Albanian kosovars resisted the Yugoslav implemented martial law and began to join this Army
Clinton helped to bring peace and stability to one of the most fractious and violent regions in all of Europe…
George W Bush
In the 2000 presidential election, this Texas governor ran as the Republican nominee against Democratic nominee Vice President Al Gore. The election ended in controversy over the final vote tally in Florida. He had slightly more votes, but a recount was required by state law. However, it was stopped by Supreme Court and he was declared president. After the September 11 terrorist attacks, he launched his “war on terrorism.” He adapted the Bush Doctrine, which claimed the right to launch preemptive military attacks against enemies. The United States invaded Afghanistan and Iraq with unclear outcomes leaving the countries divided. In the summer of 2006, Hurricane Katrina struck the Gulf Coast and left destruction across several states and three-quarters of New Orleans flooded. He was attacked for the unpreparedness of the federal government to handle the disaster as well as his own slowness to react. In September 2008, the nation’s economy nosedived as a credit crunch spiraled into a global economic meltdown. He signed into law the bank bailout fund called Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP), but the economy did not improve.
Nation building
George W bush questioned the need to maintain US peacekeeping forces in Bosnia and urged a more humble foreign policy, one that would end us efforts to install democratic governments in on Democratic countries around the world, frequently called this
Ralph Nader
liberal activist who ran independently in the 2000 presidential campaign; lamented the corrupting efforts of large corporate donations on the public process and the need for more robust efforts to protect the environment
Election of 2000
Bush v. Gore; Bush won although Gore won popular vote; controversy over the final vote count in Florida; settled by Supreme Court decision in favor of Bush
Florida Recount
Because the final tally of votes in the 2000 election in this state showed with such a thin lead the state law required a recount and the presidential election remain in doubt for weeks after voting; resulted in Bush vs Gore
Bush v Gore
in this court case the Florida recount was resolved when a 5-4 majority ruled that any new recount would Clash with existing Florida law
Compassionate conservatism
Bush was confident that he would win over conservative Democrats and he promised to provide an explosion of legislation promoting his goal of this
No Child Left Behind
President George W. Bush’s education reform plan that required states to set and meet learning standards for students and make sure that all students were “proficient” in reading and writing by 2014. States had to submit annual reports of students’ standardized test scores. Teachers were required to be “proficient” in their subject area. Schools who failed to show progress would face sanctions. States criticized the lack of funding for remedial programs and noted that poor school districts would find it very difficult to meet the new guidelines.
World Trade Center (twin towers)
Where commercial airliners hijacked by Islamic terrorists slammed into on September 11th; These iconic buildings were occupied by thousands of employees and also held foreign Nationals working in the financial district
a 3rd hijacked plane crashed here in Washington DC on September 11th
Article 5
NATO invoked this part of its Charter which states that an attack on any member will be considered an attack on all members after 9/11
Al Qaeda (the Base)
The well-financed worldwide network of Islamic extremists led by Osama bin Laden; within hours of 9/11, officials had identified the hijackers as members of this group
Osama Bin Laden
The Saudi-born leader of al Qaeda, whose members attacked America on September 11, 2001. Years before the attack, he had declared jihad (holy war) on the United States, Israel, and the Saudi monarchy. In Afghanistan, the Taliban leaders gave him a safe haven in exchange for aid in fighting the Northern Alliance, who were rebels opposed to the Taliban. After the 9/11 terrorist attacks, the United States asked the Taliban to turn over him. Following their refusal, America and a multinational coalition invaded Afghanistan and overthrew the Taliban. In May 2011, he was shot and killed by American special forces during a covert operation in Pakistan.
years before the attack on September 11th, Bin Laden had declared this holy war on the United States, Israel, and the Saudi monarchy
On September 11, 2001, Islamic terrorists, who were members of al Qaeda terrorist organization, hijacked four commercial airliners. Two were flown into the World Trade Center and a third into the Pentagon. A fourth plane was brought down in Shanksville, Pennsylvania, when its passengers attacked the cockpit. In response, President George W. Bush launched his “war on terrorism.” His administration assembled an international coalition to fight terrorism, and they invaded Afghanistan after the country’s government would not turn over al Qaeda’s leader, Osama bin Laden. However, bin Laden evaded capture. Fearful of new attacks, Bush created the Office of Homeland Security and the Transportation Security Administration. Bush and Congress passed the U.S.A. Patriot Act, which allowed government agencies to try suspected terrorists in secret military courts and eavesdrop on confidential conversations
a coalition of ultraconservative islamist that had emerged in the mid-nineties following the forest withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan; leaders provided Bin Laden with a safe haven and enabled him to recruit Muslim militants and mobilize them and a global Strike Force; their goal was to engage in urban Warfare, assassination, Demolition, and sabotage, with United States and Europe as primary targets
War on terrorism
after 9/11 Bush declared this and mobilized America’s allies to assault terrorism worldwide; demanded that Afghanistan’s Taliban government surrender the al-Qaeda terrorist and launched operation enduring freedom; Office of Homeland Security was created
Operation Enduring Freedom
the United States and its allies launched This ferocious military campaign to punish terrorists or those harboring terrorists;
Afghanistan (Ground Zero)
two months after the us-led military campaign in this country had begun, the Taliban regime collapsed; the war here developed into a high-stakes manhunt for Bin Laden and his International network of terrorists; While reducing US military involvement in Iraq, Obama dispatched additional troops to this country which he called “Ground Zero” in the continuing battle against Global terrorism with the intention of defeating Al-Qaeda
USA Patriot Act
Gave government agencies the right to eavesdrop on a confidential conversations between prison inmates and their lawyers and permitted suspected terrorists to be tried in secret military courts
Transportation Security Administration (TSA)
created after 9/11 to assume responsibility for screening airline passengers for weapons and bombs
the capital of Afghanistan that Northern Alliance troops captured in November 2001
Sharia law
this law enforced by the Taliban required that women be covered from head to foot
Bush Doctrine
claimed the right to launch preemptive military attacks against enemies
Weapons of mass destruction (WMDs)
In 2002 President Bush urged the United Nations to confront the grave and Gathering danger posed by Saddam Hussein’s totalitarian regime and it’s supposed possession of these biological and chemical weapons; plot twist: they didn’t actually have any :/
Resolution 1441
in 2002 the UN Security Council passed this which ordered Iraq to disarm immediately or face serious consequences
Operation Iraqi Freedom
this involved a massive bombing campaign followed by a fast-moving Invasion across the Iraqi Desert from bases in Kuwait; within 3 weeks Allied Forces occupied Baghdad, the capital of Iraq
in 2003 bush issued an ultimatum to Saddam Hussein; that he and his sons must leave this country within 48 hours or face a us-led invasion;
Iraq War
this six-week war cost many more Iraqi soldier and civilian casualties than coalition casualties; a continued presence in Iraq was necessary to rebuild the nation in America’s image
John Kerry
Senator of Massachusetts and The Democratic candidate in the 2004 election who lambasted the Bush Administration for misleading the Nation about weapons of mass destruction in Iraq and for its inept handling of reconstruction of post-war Iraq
Social Security
Bush’s effort to privatize these retirement accounts, enabling individuals to invest their accumulated pension dollars and cells, went nowhere, and storing budget deficits made many fiscal conservatives feel betrayed
Hurricane Katrina
In the summer of 2006, this struck the Gulf Coast and left destruction across several states and three-quarters of New Orleans flooded;Martial law was declared to Prevent looting
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)
Local political officials in this organization were caught unprepared as the Hurricane Katrina disaster unfolded; public outrage crashed against the Bush Administration because of their unpreparedness for a natural disaster
The editors of this influential conservative news magazine declared that bush has become the least popular re elected president since Richard Nixon became embroiled in the Watergate Fiasco
2006 congressional elections
in these elections the Democrats capitalized on the public disapproval of the Bush Administration to win control of the House of Representatives, the Senate, and a majority of Governorships and state legislators; the Republican revolution of 1994 has officially ended; as a result the bush White House and the Democratic Congress became stuck in partisan gridlock
Nancy Pelosi
Californian representative who became the highest ranking woman in history of the US Congress upon her election as house speaker in January 2007
The Surge
In early 2007, President Bush decided he would send a ___ of new troops to Iraq and implement a new strategy. U.S. forces would shift their focus from offensive operations to the protection of Iraqi civilians from attacks by terrorist insurgents and sectarian militias. While this reduced the violence in Iraq, Iraqi leaders were still unable to develop a self-sustaining democracy.
Iraq Study Group
bush responded to declining public and political support for the Iraq War by creating this bipartisan task force whose final report recommended that the United States withdraw its combat forces from deteriorating Iraq by the spring of 2008
Great Recession
saw the end of the age of prosperity and lasted from December 2007 to January 2009 ;Begin as a decline in home prices but developed into a global economic meltdown fed by economic insecurity
Causes of the 2008 recession
caused by Rising home prices combined with irresponsible mortgage lending for new homes and a debt-fuelled consumer spending spree; the freezing of the nation’s credit Supply in 2008; the contraction of consumer credit, corporate spending, and consumer purchases
Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP)
In 2008 President George W. Bush signed into law the bank bailout fund called this, which required the Treasury Department to spend $700 billion to keep banks and other financial institutions from collapsing.
Hillary Rodham Clinton
In the 2008 presidential election, this Senator, the spouse of former President Bill Clinton, initially was the front-runner for the Democratic nomination, which made her the first woman with a serious chance to win the presidency. However, Senator Barack Obama’s Internet-based and grassroots-oriented campaign garnered him enough delegates to win the nomination. After Obama became president, she was appointed secretary of state.
Barack Obama
In the 2008 presidential election, this Senator mounted an innovative Internet based and grassroots oriented campaign that garnered him enough delegates to win the Democratic nomination. As the nation’s economy nosedived in the fall of 2008, he linked the Republican economic philosophy with the country’s dismal financial state and promoted a message of “change” and “politics of hope,” which resonated with voters. He decisively won the presidency and became America’s first person of color to be elected president.
John McCain
The Republican nominee in the 2008 presidential election; the oldest presidential candidate in history and a 25 year veteran of Congress; show Sarah Palin as his running mate to gain support among Republicans conservatives
Sarah Palin
super conservative Alaskan governor who John McCain chose as his running mate in the 2008 election; was the first woman on the Republican ticket
Joseph Biden
Delaware Senator and Obama’s running mate in the 2008 presidential election who was knowledgeable in foreign policy and National Security issues as he was chair of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee
Robert Gates
Obama renewed this Republican as Secretary of Defense
James Jones
Obama selected this retired General who campaigned for John McCain as his National Security advisor
Eric Holder
Obama appointed this man as the nation’s first African American Attorney General
Obama’s financial advisors
most of these advisors to Obama came from the gigantic Wall Street Investment banks, who were in part responsible for the Great Recession
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act
Hoping to restart the weak economy, President Obama signed this $787-billion economic stimulus bill in February of 2009. The bill included cash distributions to states, funds for food stamps, unemployment benefits, construction projects to renew the nation’s infrastructure, funds for renewable-energy systems, and tax reductions.
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA/Obamacare)
was modeled after the Health Care Program in Massachusetts and acted in 2006 under Mitt Romney; included numerous Provisions like and individual mandate which requires that the insured must purchase an improved private insurance policy made available through state agencies or pay a tax penalty; became a highly partisan issue
Mitt Romney
the Republican nominee in the 2012 election and a former Massachusetts governor;
Charity care
the “individual mandate” was designed to ensure that all Americans have healthcare insurance so as to reduce the skyrocketing costs of hospitals providing this for the 32 million uninsured Americans
Wall street reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank Bill)
bill that acknowledged the need to limit the amount of risk that Wall Street investment Banks could take with their clients money in order to generate revenue for the bank and huge bonuses for themselves; also called for government agencies to exercise greater oversight over highly leveraged and highly complex new financial instruments and protected consumers from unfair practices in loans and credit cards by establishing a new Consumer Financial Protection Agency
Obama Doctrine
this Doctrine stressed that the United States could no longer be the world’s only policeman; Obama believe that the United States was limited in resources and capacity; he also sought to mobilize Collective action against tyranny and terrorism rather than continue to go it alone and was successful
Transitional force
All US combat troops would be withdrawn from Iraq by the end of 2012; this was implemented to assist Iraqi Security Forces, protect Americans, and fight terrorism
Arab Awakening
A wave of spontaneous democratic uprisings that spread throughout the Arab world beginning in 2011, in which long-oppressed peoples demanded basic liberties from generations-old authoritarian regimes.
chronically poor Nation suffering from high unemployment, runaway inflation, political action, and authoritarian rule; The burning man Sparked waves of pro-democracy demonstrations across the nation that Forced the president to step down when his own Security Forces refused orders to shoot protesters
Mohamed Bouazizi (the Burning Man)
when this Tunisian street vendor, distraught over rough police treatment, set himself on fire in a Public Square waves of pro-democracy demonstrations were sparked
Hosni Mubarak
several thousand protesters led by University students demanded the end to this Egytian president’s long rule; he was a staunch American Ally who had treated his own people with contempt
Tahrir Square
where many Egyptian protesters converged for 18 days, singing songs, holding candlelight vigils, and waving flags in the face of a brutal crackdown by security forces; resulted in president Mubarak’s firing his cabinet and eventually his resignation
Muammar Gaddafi
dictator of Libya who ordered Libyan soldiers and foreign mercenaries to suppress rebellious “rats” with live ammunition; was killed by Rebel Fighters
led by dictator Gaddafi who suppressed Rebellion with violence; Obama handled the uprising with patience and ingenuity by responding with an allied bombing campaign that involved no American Ground Forces
Allied air strikes
Obama’s plan to aid Libya; allies included the Arab League, France, the u.s., and the UK
Graham Makohoniuk
A New York Stock Trader who sent out an email message urging people to send tea bags to the Senate and House of Representatives, beginning the Tea Party Movement
Tea Party
A decentralized, nationwide movement of limited-government conservatives that emerged during the early twenty-first century. Its members sent thousands of tea bags into congressional offices to draw a parallel between President Obama’s “tax-and-spend” liberalism and the British tax policies that led to the famous Boston Tea Party of 1773.
RINOs (Republicans in Name Only)
Members of the Tea Party were as frustrated by the old line Republican establishment (often called this) as they were disgusted by liberal Democrats
Inflection point
One of Obama’s aides called the 2010 congressional election this, suggesting that the rest of the president’s term would be contentious; a stalemate would trump change as the new Tea Party Republicans strove to rebuke Obama at every turn
Occupy Wall Street (OWS)
A grassroots movement protesting a capitalist system that fostered social and economic inequality. Begun in Zuccotti Park, New York City, during 2011, the movement spread rapidly across the nation, triggering a national conversation about income inequality and protests of the government’s “bailouts” of the banks and corporations allegedly responsible for the Great Recession.
Kalle Lasn
the founding editor of adbusters who decided to promote a Grassroots Uprising against a capitalist system that was promoting mindless materialism and growing economic and social inequality
an anti-consumerism magazine published in Vancouver who’s the founding editor Lasn founded the Occupy Wall Street movement; used a poster containing the famous Charging Bull sculpture on Wall Street to advertise the movement
Zuccotti Park
thousands of people, mostly young adults and many of them unemployed, converged here in Southern Manhattan in a kind of spontaneous democracy as part of the Occupy Wall Street movement
Horizontal movement
term for the OWS movement, as it was a movement with organisers and facilitators but no leaders at times that morphed into a chaotic mob punctuated by antic good cheer and zany antics
Ron Paul
Texas congressman and part of the libertarian wing of the conservative revolt; not only disapproved of runaway federal spending on social programs but also on military defense
The Tea Party factions in Congress began to practice a form of this as they were willing to let the nation go bankrupt rather than raise the debt ceiling limit
a string of these across-the-board federal budget cuts would also automatically occur unless Congress acted in fixing the fiscal cliff
Fiscal cliff
the two warring parties proved incapable of reaching a compromise and instead opted for the easy way out by applying temporary patches that expire after the November 2012 elections creating this at the end of 2012, whereby tax cuts created by George W bush would expire as would a cut and payroll taxes
Obama’s shocking executive order allowing undocumented immigrants who were brought into the United States as children to remain in the country as Citizens
National Federation of Independent Business v Sebelius
2012 supreme court case that declared most of Obamacare constitutional
John G Roberts
Supreme Court chief justice who cast the deciding vote in National Federation of Independent Business V Sebelius; was a conservative who upheld the individual mandate saying that it was not their role to forbid it
Individual mandate
required virtually every adult to buy Private health insurance or else pay a tax; upheld by the supreme court
Take a moment to process the fact that this is the last time you will have to do this.