Chapter 5: Introducing the Internet and Email

In 1969 the roots of the internet began with an experimental project called ARPANET, the U.S Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency connected four supercomputer to form the first computer network and called it ARPANET.
In the early 1980s, the Computer Science Network (CSNET) was created so that computers at computer science departments at colleges and universities that were not allowed to connect to ARPANET could connect to each other.
Another network, called BITNET, was created to enable computers at colleges and universities to exchange email.
In 1986, the NSF created NSFNET, using the knowledge they gained from building CSNET. NSFNET become the foundation of the internet as it is today.
Internet Purposes
Such as researching topics of interest; exchanging email and other messages; participating in videoconferences and making telephone calls; downloading software, music, and movies; purchasing goods and services; watching TV and video online; accessing computers remotely; and sharing files with others.
The World Wide Web
Then, in 1989, a researcher named Tim Berners-Lee proposed the idea of the World Wide Web.
Mosaic Web Browser
In 1993, a group of professors and students at the University of Illinois National Center for Super Computer Applications (NCSA) released the mosaic web browser.
Mosaic’s graphical user interface
Its ability to display images on web pages made using the web both easier and more fun than in the past.

*Todays web pages can contain text, graphics, animation, sound, video, and three dimensional virtual reality objects.

Web 2.0
Web 2.0 generally refers to applications and services that use the web as a platform to deliver rich applications that enable people to collaborate, socialize, and share information online.

*Some web 2.0 applications include cloud computing, social networking sites, podcasts, blogs, and wikis.

Internet2 is a consortium of researchers, educators, and technology leaders from industry, government, and the international community who are dedicated to the development of revolutionary internet technologies.

*Internet2 uses high-performance networks linking over 200 member institutions to deploy and test new network applications and capabilities.

The Internet Is Not the Web
The internet is the physical network, and the web is the collection of web pages accessible over that network.

*For instance, files can be uploaded and downloaded using an FTP (file transfer protocol) program, and conventional email can be accessed using an email program

The Internet Community Today
The Internet is used by approximately 80% of the U.S. population.
People who use the internet to retrieve content or perform online activities, such as to look up a telephone number, read the days news headlines or top stories, browse through an online catalog, make an online purchase, download a music file, watch an online video, make a phone call, or send an email message.
Internet service provider (ISPS)
businesses or other organizations, including telephone, cable, and satellite companies, that provide internet access to others, typically for a free.

*at&t, verizon, comcast, hughes, earthlink, clearwire

Internet content providers
the suppliers of the information that is available through the internet. internet content providers can be commercial businesses, nonprofit organizations, educational institutions, individuals, and more.
Application service providers (ASPs)
the companies that manage and distribute web-based software services to customers over the internet.
Infrastructure companies
the enterprises that own or operate the paths or “roadways” along which internet data travels, such as the internet backbone and the communications networks connected to it.
Hardware and software companies
the organizations that make and distribute the products used with the internet and internet activities.

*internet, web browser, email programs, e-commerce, multimedia software, and web development tools, fall into this category.

the ruling bodies of countries that can pass laws limiting both the information made available via web servers located in a particular country and the access individuals residing in that country have to the internet.
Key Internet Organizations
other organizations that are responsible for many aspects of the internet.

* the internet society (ISOC), internet corporation for assigned names and numbers (ICANN), the world wide web consortium (W3C)

Who’s in charge of the internet and the web?
they are not owned by any person or business, and no single person, business, or organization is in charge. Each network connected to the internet is privately owned and managed individually by that network’s administrator; the primary infrastructure that makes up the internet backbone is typically owned by communications companies, such as telephone and cable companies.
Selecting the type of device
You can access the Internet using a variety of devices.

*personal computer, mobile phone, television

The internet Is not Free
Internet users pay ISPs for internet access.

ISPs also pay software and hardware companies for the resources they need to support their subscribers.

ISPs that offer free internet access typically obtain revenue by selling on-screen ads that are displayed on the screen when the service is being used.

Choosing a Connection Type
To access the internet, a device is connected to a computer or network, usually belonging to an ISP, a school, or an employer, that is continually connected to the internet.
Conventional dial-up
Anywhere there is telephone service 56 kbps free-$20
Virtually anywhere cable TV service is available 10-25 Mbps $30-55
within three miles of a switching station that supports DSL 1-15 Mbps $15-55
Anywhere there is a clear view of the southern sky and where a satellite dish can be mounted and receive a signal 1-2 Mbps $40-90
Fixed wireless
Selected areas where service is available 1-6 Mbps $35-55
Broadband over fiber (BoF)
Fiber-to-the-premises (FTTP)
Anywhere fiber has been installed to the building 5-50 mbps $55-145
Mobile wireless (3G/4G)
Virtually anywhere cellular phone service 600 kbps-12 Mbps *varies greatly; often bundled with mobile phone service
ISP Bandwidth limits
This has created the issue of ISPs potentially running out of bandwidth available for customers, resulting in outages or delays.

Comcast blocking the use of P2P sites like bitTorrent, which is often used to download movies, music, and other large files.