Chapter 9 – The Internet

Abilene Network
Commonly called the “Internet2”

Developed by UCAID. Working on the next generation of the Internet.

Advanced Research and Development Network Operations Center (ARDNOC)
Established by the Canadian government and developed CA*net.
Advanced Research and Development Network Operations Center
Asymmetric DSL (ADSL)
Most common type of DSL. Uses frequency division multiplexing to create three separate channels (1. traditional voice telephone circuit 2. a relatively high-speed simplex data channel downstream from the carrier’s end office to the customer 3. slightly slower duplex data channel primarily used for upstream from the customer to the carrier’s end office) over the one local loop circuit.

Called asymmetric because its two data channels have different speeds

Asymmetric DSL
Autonomous Systems
A network operated by one organization such as IBM or Indiana University, or an organization that runs one part of the Internet such as AT&T.

Each part of the Internet or each large organizational network connected to the Internet can be a separate ________.

Broadband Technologies
Also called “DSL” or “cable” technologies

Provide higher-speed communications than traditional modems. Connect from one location to an ISP.

Cable Modem
A digital service offered by cable television companies.

Very similar to DSL except that it uses shared multipoint circuits so each user must compete with other users for the available capacity. Also, all messages on the circuit go to all computers on the circuit.

Cable Modem Termination System (CMTS)
Contains a series of cable modems/multiplexers and converts the data from cable modem protocols into protocols needed for Internet traffic before passing them to a router connected to an ISP POP.

The upstream circuit containing data traffic from the customer that is coming from a fiber node is connected to this.

Cable Modem Termination System
Developed by ARDNOC to be the Canadian project on the future Internet.
Customer Premises Equipment (CPE)
The equipment that is installed at the customer location
Customer Premises Equipment
Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification (DOCSIS)
Dominant standard for cable modems. Not a formal standard but it is the one used by the most venders
Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification
Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)
A family of point-to-point technologies designed to provide high-speed data transmission over traditional telephone lines.
Digital Subscriber Line
Distribution Hub
Sometimes called a “headend”

The fiber nodes are connected here through two separate circuits: an upstream circuit (contains data traffic from the customer and is connected to a CMTS) and a downstream circuit (contains both ordinary video transmissions from the cable TV video network and data transmissions from the Internet).

DSL Access Multiplexer (DSLAM)
Data traffic from the main distribution facility is demultiplexed and converted into ATM data which is then distributed to the ISPs
DSL Access Multiplexer
DSL Modem
Sometimes called “DSL router”

Produces Ethernet 100Base-T packets so it can be connected directly into a computer and can serve the needs of a small network. Most companies package this, the router and the switch into one device so customers only have to instill one box.

Fiber-To-The-Home (FTTH)
Running fiber-optic cable into the home. One fiber-optic cable that runs past each house or office in a neighborhood can replace a traditional set of hundreds of copper telephone lines.

Data are transmitted down the signal fiber cable using wavelength division multiplexing (WDM)

Architecture is still similar to DSL and cable modems. It is a dedicated point-to-point service like DSL.

The set of access points for both CA*net and Internet2. They provide a point of presence at gigabit speeds. Usually provide a wider range of services than traditional NAPs that are primarily just data exchange points
Internet Architecture Board (IAB)
Provides strategic architectural oversight. Attempts to develop conclusions on strategic issues.

Does not produce polished technical proposals but rather tries to stimulate action by the IESG or the IETF that will lead to proposals that meet general consensus

Internet Architecture Board
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)
Was formed to assume responsibility for the IP address space and domain name system management.

Established the Shared Registration System (SRS) that enabled many organizations to perform domain name registration and address assignment using a shared database.

Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers
Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG)
Closely related to the IETF

Provides the operational leadership for the IETF working groups

Responsible for technical management of IETF activities and the Internet standards process. Administers the process according to the rules and procedures that have been ratified by the ISOC trustees. Directly responsible for the actions associated with entry into and movement along the Internet “standards track,” including final approval of specifications as Internet standards.

Internet Engineering Steering Group
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
A large, open international community of network designers, operators, venders, and researchers concerned with the evolution of the Internet architecture and the smooth operation of the Internet. Develop the RFCs (standards).
Internet Engineering Task Force
Internet Research Task Force (IRTF)
Operates much like the IETF through small research groups focused on specific issues.

Work on long-term issues related to Internet protocols, applications, architecture, and technology.

Internet Research Task Force
Internet Service Provider (ISP)
Offer connections to the Internet. Some access providers charge a flat monthly fee for unlimited access (much like the telephone company), whereas others charge per hour of use (much like a long-distance telephone call).
Internet Service Provider
Internet Society (ISOC)
The closest thing the Internet has to an owner

An open-membership professional society. Membership is open so anyone can join and vote on key Internet issues. Works in three general areas:
1. Public policy
2. Education

Internet Society
Commonly called the “Abilene Network”

Developed by UCAID. Working on the next generation of the Internet.

Line Splitter
Used to separate the traditional voice telephone transmission from the data transmissions. Directs the telephone signals into the normal telephone system so that if the DSL equipment fails, voice communications are unaffected.
Local ISP
Also called “Tier 3 ISP”

Lowest tier in the Internet hierarchy. Sells Internet access to individuals.

Local Loop
The part of a communication circuit between the subscriber’s equipment and the equipment in the local central office.

What makes DSL so attractive is that is usually just requires changing the telephone equipment, not rewiring the actual loop because the loop from a home or office to the telephone company end office is capable of providing much higher data transmission rates.

Main Distribution Facility (MDF)
Where the local loops from many different customers enter and are connected.

Works like the CPE line splitter but for the ISP end office. Splits the voice traffic from the data traffic and directs the voice traffic to the voice telephone network and the data traffic to the DSLAM.

Main Distribution Facility
Metropolitan Area Exchange (MAE)
A new, smaller form of NAP that emerged as the number of ISPs grew.

Usually link a set of regional ISPs whose networks come together in major cities.

Metropolitan Area Exchange
National ISP
Also called “Tier 1 ISP”

The top of the Internet hierarchy. Responsible for large Internet networks. Connect together and exchange data at NAPs. Also provide services to Tier 2 (Regional) ISPs.

Ex: AT&T and Sprint

Network Access Point (NAP)
The points that connect the major Tier 1 ISPs.

There are only about a dozen of these in the United States.

Network Access Point
Next Generation Internet (NGI)
Funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation to begin to look at what the future of the Internet would look like. Wound up with UCAID which developed the Abilene Network or Internet2.
Next Generation Internet
Optical-Electrical (OE) Converter
Converts between the coaxial cable on the customer side and the fiber-optic cable on the cable TV company side. Held within the cable company’s fiber node and is the middle man between the customer and the cable company.
Optical Network Unit (ONU)
Also called “optical network terminal (ONT)”

Located at each subscriber location and acts like a DSL modem or cable modem and converts the signals in the optical network into an Ethernet format.

Optical Network Unit
ISPs at the same level (ie. National, Regional, or Local) do not charge one another for transferring messages they exchange. This is what makes the Internet work and has led to the idea that the Internet is free.

Has also risen to a new level in recent years with the arrival of IXPs.

Point of Presence (POP)
The place which the ISP provides services to its customers. To connect to the Internet, a customer must establish a circuit from his or her location into this. Often done using a DSL or cable modem.

Each ISP has one or more.

Points of Presence
Regional ISP
Also called “Tier 2 ISP”

Rely on Tier 1 ISPs to transmit their messages to ISPs in other countries. Provide services to their customers and to local ISPs.

Ex: Comcast

Remote-Access Server (RAS)
Checks to make sure the user is a valid customer
Remote-Access Server
Request for Comment (RFC)
Form the basis for Internet standards and are developed by the IETF and its working groups.
Request for Comment
Tier 1 ISP
Also called “National ISP”

The top of the Internet hierarchy. Responsible for large Internet networks. Connect together and exchange data at NAPs. Also provide services to Tier 2 (Regional) ISPs.

Ex: AT&T and Sprint

Tier 2 ISP
Also called “Regional ISP”

Rely on Tier 1 ISPs to transmit their messages to ISPs in other countries. Provide services to their customers and to local ISPs.

Ex: Comcast

Tier 3 ISP
Also called “Local ISP”

Lowest tier in the Internet hierarchy. Sells Internet access to individuals.

University Corporation for Advanced Internet Development (UCAID)
Started with 34 universities from the NGI program and developed the Abilene Network (or Internet2)
University Corporation for Advanced Internet Development
Now best known as “4G”

The commercial name for a set of standards developed by the IEEE 802.16

Can be used as a fixed wireless technology to connect a house or an office to the Internet, but its future lies in its ability to connect mobile laptops and smart phones into the Internet. Shared multipoint service in which all computers must take turns transmitting

Internet Exchange Points (IXP)
Permits any ISP (or large organization) to connect to its network. Some charge connection fees, others charge membership fees, and others don’t charge at all. Once connected to it, the ISP negotiates peering agreements with other ISPs who are members, and begins exchanging Internet traffic.
Internet Exchange Point