CIS 120 Ch. 11

______ systems are computer-based information systems that provide organizations with valuable information in a timely and effective manner to allow the functional areas of the enterprise to work together to achieve goals.
A _____ processing system, or TPS, is a business information system used to support the process of making a purchase.
T/F Business systems are designed to collect, store, and disseminate information needed to make good business decisions in all types of jobs and all types of professions.
_____ refers to the art and science of creating computer systems that simulate human thought and behavior.
Artificial intelligence (AI)
T/F AI systems typically include the ability to learn from experience, referred to as “machine learning.”
____ AI methodologies, such as expert systems, case-based reasoning, Bayesian networks, and behavior-based AI, rely on the programmer to instill the software with logical functionality to solve problems.
T/F It is often the case that AI developers combine methods from different methodologies to achieve their goals.
Artificial intelligence methodologies consist of the various approaches to AI research. One of the categories is ____ intelligence.
T/F Computational intelligence methodologies set up a system whereby the software can develop intelligence through a iterative process.
Case-based reasoning relies on what four Rs for solving new problems?
Retrieve, Reuse, Revise, and Retain.
T/F Case-based reasoning is an area of conventional AI in which the AI software maintains a library of problem cases and solutions.
T/F Behavior-based AI is a form of conventional AI that is popular in programming robots.
T/F A Bayesian network, sometimes called an interdependency network, is a form of conventional AI that uses a graphical model to represent a set of variables and their relationships and dependencies.
Conventional AI is also called all of the following except ____. (symbolic AI, logical AI, rational AI, or neat AI)
rational AI
Conventional AI uses programming that emphasizes ____ analysis to calculate the probability of various outcomes in order to find the best solution.
T/F A Bayesian network, sometimes called an interdependency network, is a form of conventional AI that uses a graphical model to represent a set of variables and their relationships and dependencies.
False; belief network.
Like human experts, computerized expert systems use heuristics, or ____, to arrive at conclusions or make suggestions.
rules of thumb
An expert system is a form of ____ AI that is programmed to function like a human expert in a particular field or area.
T/F Medical expert systems assist physicians in diagnosing patients and deciding on treatments.
T/F Computerized expert systems have been developed to detect possible terrorist threats.
T/F Expert systems are created without the assistance of a human expert.
____ intelligence is an offshoot of AI that employs methodologies such as neural networks, fuzzy systems, and evolutionary computation to set up a system whereby the software can develop intelligence through an iterative learning process.
T/F Computers typically work with numerical certainty; certain input values always result in different output.
T/F Logical computation includes areas of AI that derive intelligence by attempting many solutions and throwing away the ones that don’t work.
A genetic algorithm is a form of ____ computation that is used to solve large, complex problems where a number of algorithms or models change and evolve until the best one emerges.
T/F A simple example of fuzzy logic might be one in which cumulative probabilities do not add up to 100%, a state that occurs frequently in medical diagnosis.
Similar to a child’s learning, a neural net discovers its own rules.
Ultimately, the study of neural networks may reveal the essence of the human soul.
A specific feature of neural networks does not include the following:
the ability to solve simple problems for which all of the information is not present.
A neural network, or neural net, uses ____ to simulate the functioning of the neurons in a human brain.
Neuroscientists study and tinker with neural nets to better understand emergent behavior in the heart.
The ____ was devised by Alan Turing as a method of determining if a machine exhibits human intelligence.
Turing Test
The rationale behind the theory of the Singularity is tied to Newton’s Law and other technological trends.
False; Moore’s Law
The Blue Brain project is a bold attempt to simulate a human brain at a molecular level in software running on one of the world’s fastest supercomputers, IBM’s Blue Gene.
Those who subscribe to Ray Kurzweil’s philosophy believe that the Singularity will usher in an era of deeper understanding and rapid advancement.
The Singularity, or more specifically, the ____ Singularity, is the point in time at which computers exceed humans in intelligence, launching a new era of innovation.
In his book “The Singularity Is ____,” Ray Kurzweil takes an optimistic view of the near future and the impending Singularity.
Research and innovation in artificial intelligence includes software that anticipates the user’s needs and robots that create and perform music.
AI applications are ways in which AI ____ are applied to solve problems and provide services.
AI techniques can be integrated into systems and applications to make them more intuitive.
AI software can be connected to sensors and mechanical apparatus to create a variety of _____.
The DARPA Grand Challenge is the ultimate robotic test.
Contemporary robotics combines both high-precision machine capabilities and sophisticated AI controlling software.
For many businesses, robots are used to do the three Ds: dull, dirty, and ____ jobs.
Robotics involves developing mechanical or computer devices to perform tasks that ____.
require a high degree of precision, are tedious for humans, and are hazardous for humans
To analyze a photograph requires very simple AI techniques.
____ vision combines hardware and AI software that permit computers to capture, store, and interpret visual images and pictures.
Computers are used in pattern recognition such as face recognition in security systems.
Computer vision enables software to react to visual input.
Dr. William Dobelle designed a system that combines a small video camera mounted in ____, a powerful but small computer worn in a belt, and a brain implant that stimulates the visual cortex.
Dragon NaturallySpeaking is popular software that allows users to dictate text as they would naturally speak.
Natural language processing has become popular in collecting user input over phone systems; however its use has not become popular with cell phones.
Natural language processing uses ____ techniques to enable computers to generate and understand natural human languages, such as English.
____ recognition enables a computer to understand and react to spoken statements and commands.
Speech recognition is the same as voice recognition.
Pattern recognition is an area of AI that develops systems that are trained to recognize patterns in _____.
Facial recognition uses cameras and AI software to identify individuals by unique facial characteristics.
_______ recognition uses AI techniques in software that can translate handwritten characters or words into computer-readable data.
Pattern recognition is used to find exceptions to trends in data for businesses in a process called data finding.
While other companies continue to pursue stylus input and handwriting recognition for tablet PCs, Microsoft is opting for a soft keyboard for text entry.