CIS- Internet

What is the internet ?
The physical infrastructure that allows us to connect & store content
History of the Internet
Developed for secure military communications • Evolved from Advanced Research Projects
Agency Network (ARPANET)
• Funded by the U.S. government in the 1960s • Enabled computers at leading universities &
research organizations to communicate with each other
Who manages the Internet ?
Non profit organizations, user groups
The Web vs. the Internet
The Web is part of the Internet, distinguished by • Common communication protocols
• Hyperlinks
What is the web ?
A system of content that resides on Internet servers
• Web 2.0 involves interaction of users with content
• Web 3.0 (Semantic Web) involves integrating data from various sources in a meaningful way
Email
• Electronic mail
• Asynchronous communication • Types of e-mail accounts
• Client-based
• Web-based • Not private
• Can be printed or forwarded • Employer can monitor
IM
Client/server program for real-time, text-based conversations
• Personal & business uses
• List of contacts: buddy list
• IM software detects members’ presence • Popular IM programs
• AOL Instant Messenger
• ICQ
• Yahoo! Messenger
• Windows Live Messenger
Voice Over Internet Protocol (VoIP)
Allows inexpensive or free long-distance phone calls over the Internet
• Some cell phones are VoIP enabled
• Customers must be able to connect to a Wi-Fi signal
• Uses packet switching
• VoIP: Using the Internet to place phone calls
• Uses technology similar to e-mail to send voice data digitally
• Requires speakers, a microphone, an Internet connection, & a
VoIP provider
• VoIP services differ:
• Free services require an account on both ends
• Paid services connect phone to computer
• Cable/DSL providers offer phone through broadband
• Wi-Fi IP phones call through Internet hotspots & wireless networks
Voice Over Internet Protocol (VoIP)
Advantages
• Free or low cost • Portability
• ConvenienceDisadvantages
• Lower sound quality • Less reliability
• Loss of service when
power is interrupted • Security issues

Group Communication
Chat rooms
• Newsgroups
• Listservs
• Blogs & vlogs
• Wikis
• Podcasts & webcasts • Social networks
Connecting to the Internet
Dial up connection and broad band connection
Dial-Up Connections
• Use standard telephone line • Tie up phone line
• Require a modem to convert analog & digital signals
• Slowest connection speed (56 Kbps) • Lowest cost
Getting Online
Types of Internet broadband connections include:
• DSL
• Cable
• FiOS
• Satellite
• Hardware to connect
• Wired or wireless connections
Digital subscriber line (DSL)
Uses telephone lines
• Faster than dial-up
• Doesn’t tie up phone line
• Requires special DSL modem • Not available in all areas
Cable
Uses coaxial cable & a cable modem
• Fast connection speed
• Speed depends on number of users • Not available in all areas
Fiber-optic service (FiOS)
Sends light through fiber optic lines
Faster than cable or DSL
Expensive
Available only in certain areas
Satellite
Uses satellite dish & coaxial cable
• Slower than cable or DSL
• Expensive
Wireless Access
• Increases mobility & productivity
• Requires a Wi-Fi hotspot
• Requires either internal or external wireless access card for device
• Aircards provide wireless access through mobile devices when a Wi-Fi hotspot is not available
Browsers
Used to navigate online content
• Translate content
• Display text, graphics, & multimedia content
• Examples include Mozilla Firefox, Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, & Safari
Browser Features
Quick tabs: Show thumbnail images of all open Web pages in open tabs
• Tabbed browsing: Multiple pages available in the same browser window
• Built-in search engine(s)
ex. mozilla firefox ..
Web Browsers
• Computer software
• Graphical
• Enables Web navigation
IP: Internet protocol
series of numbers that uniquely identifies an Internet location
Having Enough IP addresses
IPv4 addressing scheme didn’t foresee explosive growth
• Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6)
• Longer IP addresses
• Many companies & government agencies are starting to
switch to IPv6
URL: Uniform Resource Locator
text address entered in a browser to go to a website
and unique website address
URL is crossed reference to an IP address
Top level domains
.biz, .com, .edu, .gov, .info, .mil, .int, .name, .net, .org
Navigation among webpages
Hyperlinks identify a Web destination
• Hyperlinks can be embedded in any graphical
object or text
Search Engines
Search engines are websites in which you enter search terms (keywords) to find Web content
• Examples: Google, Yahoo!, Ask, or Bing
• Search directories catalog results
• Metasearch engines search across various sites
at the same time
Search Engines 2
User keys word or phrase into search box
• Spider or Web crawler program scans Web
pages
• Results are indexed & sent to the client
• Different engines produce different hit lists
• Multimedia search functionality is also available
The invisible web (Deep Web)
includes hidden or uncataloged databases
• Most search engines can’t find this content
Copy Right & Intellectual Property
It’s illegal to copy intellectual or copyrighted property
• Ease of copying & pasting content online leads to violations
• Peer-to-peer file sharing issues • Digital Millennium Copyright Act
What can you borrow from the web ?
Avoid:
• Plagiarism: Representing someone else’s ideas or
words as your own.
• Copyright violation: Using another person’s material for
your own economic gain
• Properly credit information you quote or
paraphrase
• Obtain written permission from copyright holder
Future of the Internet
• Internet entrenched in daily life
• Web-based services for personal & professional
interactions
• Internet-enabled appliances & systems
Future of the Internet 2
Large scale networking (LSN)
• Research & development of cutting-edge networking &
wireless technologies • Internet2
• Project sponsored by universities, government, & industry to develop new Internet technologies
• Internet2 backbone supports transmission speeds of 9.6 Gbps
What Does the Future Hold?
• The Internet in space as astronauts begin to Tweet
• Collaborative emails with rich multimedia content
• Nanorobots transmitting data from within your
body