Developmental Psych Final. Psychosocial development, adolescent egocentrism, late adulthood

theorist who coined the term adolescent egocentrism
Elkind
Ron thinks he is more unique and admired than other adolescents his age, and is certain that everyone is paying attention to his every action. It appears that he has started to experience adolescent
egocentrism
Many adolescents feel that their own thoughts and experiences are far more extraordinary than those of other people. This is part of their
personal fable
Piaget called the reasoning that characterizes adolescence
formal operational thought
One of the most prominent aspects of formal operational thought is the ability to
think in terms of possibilities
The mistaken belief that if money, time, or effort that cannot be recovered has already been invested in some endeavor, more should be invested in an effort to reach the goal is called
sunk cost fallacy
Richie just spent $1,000 fixing his car even though the mechanic told him the car will continue to need expensive repairs that may total more than the vehicle is worth. Richie is likely experiencing the
sunk cost fallacy
The notion that two networks exist within the human brain, one for emotional and one for analytical processing of stimuli, is called
dual-process model
Albert et al. (2013) ran a series of experiments in which adults and adolescents, alone or with peers, played a video game. In the game, taking risks could lead to crashes or gaining points. The experiments found that ____, unlike the ____, were much more likely to take risks and crash when they were____.
adolescents, adults, with peers
Many developmentalists find middle schools to be “developmentally regressive,” which means
leraning goes backwards
The common middle-school schedule that involves students changing rooms, teachers, and classmates every 40 minutes
creates a developmental mismatch between students’ needs and the school context.
During puberty, adolescents’ thoughts center on_____.
themselves
thinking intensely about themselves and about what others think about them is called
egocentrism
The belief that one cannot be harmed by things that would hurt someone else is referred to as
invincibility fable
The power of the invincibility fable may be observed in
young military recruits who hope to be sent into combat
Jeremy is 7 years old and has been asked to balance a scale with weights that can be hooked to the arms of the scale. Jeremy will probably
put weights on both sides without considering distance from the center of the scale
Reasoning that includes propositions and possibilities that may not reflect reality defines
hypothetical thought
Justine is 14 years old. Her parents are frequently annoyed because Justine tends to ask critical questions such as, “Why can’t I have wine with dinner? You do,” or “I don’t understand why I’ll be able to vote when I’m 18, but I have to wait until I’m 21 to buy alcohol!” This demonstrates Justine’s
inductive reasoning
All Christians believe in the Bible, and Josiah is a Christian; therefore Josiah believes in the Bible. This is an example of
deductive reasoning
_____ is a term that refers to the ability to begin with specifics, such as accumulated facts, and then make general conclusions?
inductive reasoning
Psychosocial development during adolescence involves the search for an
understanding of oneself
Psychosocial development during adolescence is often seen as a quest to answer the question
“Who am I?”
According to Erikson, adolescents are in the stage of
identity versus role confusion
Mary is an adolescent. According to Erikson, her new identity will be established by choosing
to embrace some parental and societal values while abandoning others
Identity diffusion is typically characterized by
no focus or concern about the future
Which adolescent appears to be experiencing identity diffusion?
Zachary, who spends most of his time watching TV and hanging out with friends.
When a person adopts parents’ or society’s roles and values without questioning and exploring a personal identity, it is referred to as identity
foreclosure
An example of a behavior that demonstrates identity foreclosure is
working in the family business because it is expected
The term for a pause in identity formation, when alternatives are explored before final choices are made, is known as
moratorium
During an identity moratorium, adolescents typically
take on a temporary role and postpone identity- achievement decisions.
According to Erikson, what is one of the four aspects of identity?
political
_____ adolescents totally reject the religion in which they’ve grown up
Few
In the United States, parent-child conflict is most common when children are in
early adolescence
Some parent-child bickering during the adolescent years may indicate
a healthy family
Which type of parenting is most effective during adolescence?
Authoritive
Isaac and Derek persuaded Robert to cut school and steal alcohol from a store. Isaac and Derek provided _______ to Robert.
Deviancy training
At age 17, Gage aspired to become a serious musician. His group of friends began to change as he grew closer to students with deep musical interests, and he drifted away from other friends who were more engaged in sports. This illustrates peer
selection
Abstinence-only sex-education programs that were federal policy in the United States until 2009 _________ the adolescents’ engagement in sexual activity.
had no impact on
In general, as children experience puberty, their self-esteem
declines
The cultural norm of familism often
requires family members to make sacrifices for the good of the whole.
When compared with earlier thinking, thinking in adulthood is all of the following EXCEPT
more concrete
A possible fifth stage of cognitive development that characterizes adult thinking is
postformal thinking
On his own time, Ron looked over his course syllabi for the term and realized that, in three weeks, he had three assignments due on one day. Ron decided he would do one assignment per week for the next three weeks so that he would have them all done by their due dates. Ron is demonstrating __________ thinking
postformal
As more is understood about brain development after adolescence, it seems that the characteristics of postformal thought are evident as the brain and, in particular, as the _______ matures.
prefrontal cortex
A common logical error of emerging adults is delay discounting, the tendency to
undervalue events in the future.
A research study of people aged 13 to 45 found that logical skills improved from _________ to _________ then stayed steady, but social understanding continued to advance.
adolescence; early adulthood
In one U.S. study, researchers asked adolescents and adults to describe themselves. Without knowing the participants’ ages, coders classified the descriptions as: protective (high in self-involvement, low in self-doubt), dysregulated (fragmented, overwhelmed by emotions or problems), complex (valuing openness and independence above all), and integrated (able to regulate emotions and logic). No one under age 20 was in the ______ stage
complex
Thought that arises from personal experiences and perceptions is
subjective
Traditional models of formal operational thinking value ______ thought and devalue _____ thought.
objective; subjective
All of the following beliefs reflect cognitive flexibility EXCEPT
life plans are static
Although Dr. Johnson believes that women and men can perform equally well on a math test, Dr. Johnson is exploring if women perform worse on a math test when they are asked to indicate their gender prior to taking the text. Dr. Johnson is exploring the concept of
stereotype threat
A proposition or statement of belief is a
thesis
Dr. Barnes tells his student Charlotte that she should pursue a career that will make her happy. She responds, “Not all careers that will make me happy will provide me with enough income to live.” Charlotte’s response was a
antithesis
Herman and Todd, two friends, are discussing logos on T-shirts. Herman says that everyone should be able to wear whatever logos they want on their T-shirts. Todd suggests that some logos may be offensive and thus shouldn’t be worn. If Herman is able to integrate those two ideas, he will have created a
synthesis
in dialectical thought, a ___ implies a ____ and the integration of these occurs within the _____.
thesis; antithesis; synthesis
Geraldine is a medical intern who believes that all people deserve access to medical care, but she also knows that throughout her career she will have to make decisions about which patients will receive a scarce, life-saving medication. Reconciling these two thoughts requires
dialectical thinking
Which college student is most likely to experience shifts in moral reasoning?
Jed, who s taking a philosophy course
During emerging adulthood, religious service attendance becomes _____ frequent and the development of religious convictions become ____ frequent
less; more
Which factor is likely to be most influential with respect to Greta’s views on divorce?
Her culture
Research indicates that the process of moral thinking
improves with age
Erikson’s fifth stage of development is
identity versus role confusion.
Personality traits present at age 18
never disappear at age 18
During emerging adulthood, self-esteem and happiness ______ for most people
increase
Which statement about personality in emerging adulthood is TRUE
Personality can change after adolescence
With respect to personality, emerging adults typically become _____ self-centered and _____ caring toward others.
less; more
According to Erikson, once an emerging adult has established a sense of identity, he or she needs to resolve which crisis?
intimacy versus isolation
According to Erikson, the stage of intimacy versus isolation
reflects the desire to share one’s life with someone else.
Intimacy is the desire for
social connection
Friends _____ mental health and _____ physical health.
strengthen; strengthen
Friendships reach their peak of functional significance during
emerging adulthood
Dr. Anderson is studying the frequency of cross-sex friendships. Dr. Anderson has found that cross-sex friendships are
common
When heterosexual couples are romantically committed to each other they tend to have ______ cross-sex friendships.
fewer
In a class analysis, Robert Sternberg (1988) described three distinct aspects of love that give rise to seven different forms of love. The aspects include all of the following EXCEPT
challange
An intense physical, cognitive, and emotional experience characterized by excitement, ecstasy, and euphoria is associated with
passion
Knowing someone well, and sharing secrets as well as physical attention in a reciprocal nature, is consistent with which aspect of love?
intimacy
Dixie just started dating BJ. Dixie feels happy and excited when she thinks about BJ, and knows BJ feels the same about her. That said, she is not sure where the relationship will lead, as they both continue to live independent lives. According to Sternberg, what form of love does Dixie appear to be experiencing?
infatuation
The Western ideal is ____ love.
consummate
An arrangement in which a couple lives together in a committed romantic relationship but are not formally married is referred to as
cohabituation
Research has found that cohabitation prior to marriage
increases the likelihood of divorce
Which age group is most likely to be victims and perpetrators of domestic abuse?
emerging adults
The term g refers to _____ intelligence
general
Dr. Fine was interested in assessing the “g,” or general intelligence, of college students so he assessed abilities in all of the following areas EXCEPT
agility
A problem with cross-sectional research is that
there could be cohort effects as each has unique life experiences
The Flynn effect refers to
rise in average IQ over generations
The Flynn effect is MOST likely due to changes in
electronic media
Dr. Green is studying intellectual development in adulthood. In order to generate the most accurate view of intellectual development, Dr. Green should use a ________ research design.
cross-sequential
The research design that involves testing groups of subjects of different ages multiple times and comparing their scores with their own scores in previous periods in addition to the scores of new groups of adults of the same ages is called
cross-sequential research
Schaie’s cross-sequential research on intellectual development demonstrated that
individuals improve in most mental abilities during adulthood
The basic intelligence that makes learning quick and thorough is referred to as _______ intelligence
fluid
Which is the best example of fluid intelligence?
The ability to quickly recognize relationships between words
Intelligence that reflects accumulated learning is referred to as
crystallized intellgence
Which example relies MOST heavily on crystallized intelligence?
knowing the chemical symbols for various elements
Paula is a middle-aged doctor who is an expert at laser eye surgery for the correction of myopia (nearsightedness). She graduated from medical school 35 years ago. Daryl is a young doctor who also does the surgery; he graduated from medical school 5 years ago. According to the textbook, who would likely be the better choice for operating on your eyes?
Paula; she has done the operation so often that she is more strategic and flexible
Which statement about age and expertise is TRUE?
Expertise can overcome some of the detrimental effects of age but not all.
The benefits of ______ intelligence in adult life are obvious, as adults need to solve real-world challenges.
analytic
Over the long run, ______ intelligence is prized whenever life circumstances change or new challenges arise.
crystallized
With which coping style do people try to attack a stressor in some way?
Problem-focused
In which coping style do people try to change their attitude about a stressor?
emotion-focused
Baltes and Baltes found that adults use their intellectual strengths to offset their age-related declining abilities through the process of
selective optimization with compensation
Which is the BEST example of an adult using selective optimization with compensation?
Giovanni, who always buys and drives a standard transmission vehicle so he wont forget how to do so
The theorist who proposed the idea that individuals continue to develop into adulthood
Erikson
Although Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development are sequential, the search for identity that begins in the stage of identity versus role confusion
ends with the stage of intimacy versus isolation
How many stages of development did Abraham Maslow describe?
5
Which is NOT one of the Big Five personality traits?
selflessness
Davetta is very organized and self-disciplined. She conforms easily to standards set for her performance at work. She is high on which of the Big Five traits?
conscientiousness
People choose a particular lifestyle and social context, or ________ , because it is compatible with their personality traits.
ecological niche
Which of the following has not been associated with adult personality?
Geography
An acquaintance who is not a friend but still has an impact on an adult’s life is called a(n)
consequential stranger
How has the Internet impacted friendships and relationships with consequential strangers?
It has strengthened friendships and increased the number of consequential strangers.
A study of 7,578 adults in seven nations found that physical separation between parents and adult children
strengthen the relationships between parents and adult children
After nearly 20 years with his company, Mike’s job was outscored. He wants his new job to offer not only a good wage but also job satisfaction and a sense of accomplishment. He is focused on the ______ of work.
intrinsic rewards
After a recent divorce, Cheryl is entering the workforce after many years off. As a single parent with three children, she needs a livable wage, good benefits, and a retirement plan. She is focused on the _______ of work
extrinsic rewards
Individuals who are accepted into a family that is not their legal or biological family are called
fictive kin
A long-term committed partnership correlates with health and happiness throughout adulthood and late adulthood. For most people, then, ________ is the crucial aspect of love in a partnership.
commitment
After children have grown, MOST couples find that
their relationships improve
One of the MOST influential factors in divorce is
whether it is a first or subsequent marriage.
According to Erikson, when individuals are productive in an unselfish and caring way, they are demonstrating
generativity
The primary form that generativity takes is _____
establishing and guiding the next generation
Emily is her family’s kinkeeper. This means that she assumes responsibility for
gathering the family for holidays and disseminating info
According to research, which statement about the “sandwich generation” is TRUE?
Many adults do not feel burdened by their responsibilities
As he ages, a professional musician begins to limit his repertoire, to practice more before concerts, and to change the way he sits when he plays. He is
using selective optimization with compensation
_______ theories claim that social forces limit individual choice and direct life, especially in late adulthood
Stratification
The theory that is contrary to disengagement theory is _____ theory
Activity
Which of the following is NOT characteristic of typical elder volunteers?
married to a volunteer
Marietta babysits two days a week for her school-age grandchildren, and regularly gives her neighbor, who can no longer drive, a ride to the grocery store and doctor appointments. She also frequently sends small amounts of money to her daughter, who has just returned to college. Which of the following statements about Marietta’s activities is NOT true?
Marietta would be better off volunteering with an organization, as to really help others, she needs more structure to her activities
Generally, where do the elderly prefer to live?
In their own homes
Claire and Dennis have lived in the same house for over 40 years. They reared their children there and were actively involved in the neighborhood. As they age, their children want them to move to a nearby small apartment. Like many other older adults, Claire and Dennis
prefer to age in place
When many adults who moved into a neighborhood decades earlier never leave the area, the result is
a naturally occurring retirement community (NORC)
Religious faith is associated with improved psychological health in old age because of
beliefs that give meaning for life and death
In what way are older Americans the LEAST politically active?
volunteering on political campaigns
Which of the following happens to the brain during senescence?
neurotransmitter production decreases
How does high-SES correlate with brain senescence? High-SES
have better medical care
Which of the following is most affected by brain shrinkage?
multitasking
The ability to hold info in memory for a moment before evaluating, calculating, and inferring its significance is known as
working memory
Edna, age 71, has excellent pronunciation but poor spelling. She frequently forgets the word or phrase she is trying to use, telling others that it is “on the tip of her tongue.” These characteristics may be the result of
inadequate control process
Nelma is a healthy 70-year-old who would like to learn to play video games with her grandson. According to research on learning late in life, which of the following is most likely TRUE?
Nelma could learn to play games if she starts at the easiest level and practices regulary
A study of extraordinary creative people found that in their 70s-90s, they
remained as focused, efficient, and committed as they had been earlier.
Dorothy started keeping a detailed journal that includes stories of her childhood and early adulthood. She plans to pass her journal down to her grandchildren as a family history and so that they can know her in a more intimate way. Her journal writing is a form of
life review
A challenge faced by researchers who want to see if wisdom increases with age is
the definition of wisdom varies by culture.
The ability to recall a string of digits backward tends to _____ with age, while memory for vocabulary tends to ____ with age.
`decrease; same
One function of working memory is
temporary storage of info for conscious use
The idea that cognition should be measured in terms of everyday tasks and circumstances is
ecological validity
Storage mechanisms, retrieval strategies, selective attention, and problem solving are all considered
control process
For the average individual in late adulthood, traditional tests of intelligence demonstrate that
cognitive abilities decline
Dementia is
the pathological loss of brain functioning
According to the most recent DSM (DSM-5), the appropriate term for the pathological loss of brain functioning is
dementia
Autopsies show that the brains of Alzheimer victims
have a proliferation of plaques and tangles.
Vascular dementia is caused by
insufficient supply of blood to the brain
One infectious disease that can produce dementia is
AIDS
______ is a common condition because many elderly people take many different prescription drugs.
Polypharmacy
Self theories emphasize
perceptions of self
Erikson called the final crisis of development
integrity versus despair
According to Erikson, each new experience throughout life requires
both assimilation and accommodation.
Which of the following responses to weakening leg muscles in an older person is the best response in terms of maintaining self-efficacy?
using a walker and minimizing movement decreases risks.
Which of the following is a sign of a humane setting for long-term care?
individual choice in activities
Assisted living can be thought of as a combo of
nursing home and independent living
Compared to single older adults, elderly spouses tend to be
happier and wealthier
Most studies of marriages of long duration find that compared to younger adults, the elderly are
happier in their marriages
The style of grandparenting that is the most common in the US is the ________ style
companionate
The difference between ADLs and IADLs is that
IADLs require some intellectual competnece