E-Commerce Chapter 2

Networks of computer and the Internet that connects them to each other form the basic technological structure that underlies virtually all electronic commerce.
The USENET was the earliest of the networks that eventually combines to become what we now call the Internet.
E-mail was born in 1972 when a researcher wrote a program that could send a receive messages over the Defense Department network.
The first e-mail mailing lists appeared on military and education research networks.
A network of computers that are located in the same building is called a wide area network.
The Internet provides a high degree of security in its basic structure.
Extranets were used to save money and increase efficiency by replacing traditional communication tools such as fax, telephone, and overnight express document carriers.
The word “virtual,” used as a part of virtual private networks means that the network connection is permanent.
An intranet extends beyond the organization that created it.
Virtual private network software must be installed on the computers at both ends of a transmission.
Public networks, private networks, and VPNs are independent of organizational boundaries.
IP addresses appear as five decimal numbers separated by periods.
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is a common protocol used for sending and retrieving e-mail.
Post Office Protocol (POP) allows the user to view only the header and the e-mail sender’s name before deciding to download the entire message.
The Post Office Protocol (POP) provides support for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions.
At a technological level, the Web is nothing more than software that runs on computers that are connected to the Internet.
The Semantic Web project envisions words on Web pages being tagged with their meanings.
An HTML document is similar to a word-processing document in that it specifies how a particular text element will appear.
The leftmost part of a domain is called a top-level domain (TLD).
The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) has the responsibility of managing domain names and coordinating them with the IP address registrars.
The most important parts of a Web page are the graphics, photographs, and small programs that run in the Web browser.
SGML offers a system of marking up documents that is independent of any software application.
The term “cascading” is used in cascading style sheets because designers can apply many style sheets to the same Web page, one on top of the other.
The higher the bandwidth, the faster the transmission of data through a communication medium.
A hierarchical hyperlink structure resembles conventional paper documents in that the reader begins on the first page and clicks the Next button to move to the next page in a serial fashion.
The combination of telephone lines and the closed switches that connect them to each other is called a ____.
Files and e-mail message sent over the Internet are broken down into small pieces called ______
The computer that decides how to best forward each packet from on network to another are called ______.
The programs on gateway computers that determine the best path on which to send each packet contain rules called _____.
Routing Algorithms
A _____ is a permanent telephone connection between two points.
Leased Line
_____ creates a private passageway through the public Internet that provides secure transmission from one computer to another.
IP tunneling
_____ is a connection that uses public networks and their protocols to send data using a technology called IP tunneling
Virtual Private Network
A _____ is a collection of rules for formatting, ordering, and error checking data sent across a network.
_____ determine how a sending device indicates that it has finished sending a message and how the receiving device indicates that it has received the message.
The 32-bit number used to identify computers connected to the Internet is known as the _____.
IP Address
_____ specifies the format of a mail message and describes how mail is to be administered on the e-mail server and transmitted on the Internet.
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
In subnetting, a computer called a _____ device converts private IP addresses into normal IP addresses when it forwards packaets from those computers on the Internet.
Network Address Translation (NAT)
The combination of a protocol name and a domain name is called a(n) _____.
Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
IPv6 uses a _____ number for addresses.
128 bit
The purpose of a(n) _____ is to respond to requests for Web pages from Web clients.
Web server
_____ is a set of rules for handling binary files, such as word-processing documents, spreadsheets, photos, or sound clips that are attached to e-mail messages.
A newer e-mail protocol that performs the same basic functions as POP, but includes additional features, is known as _____.
_____ lets users create and manipulate e-mail folders and individual e-mail messages while the message are still on the e-mail server.
A(n) _____ has a hypertext reference (HREF) property, which specifies the remote or local document’s address.
Opening Tag
A _____ structure resembles an inverted tree in which the root is at the top and the branches are below it.
Linear Hyperlink
HTML was developed by _____.
Tim Berners-Lee
_____ was the first Web browser that became widely available for personal computers.
The early versions of ____ let Web page designers create text-based electronic documents with headings, title bar titles, bullets, lines, and ordered lists.
In HTML, hyperlinks are created using the HTML _____ tag.
A(n) ______ is any technology that allows people to connect to computers to each other.
Computer Network
A computer which uses a specific set of rules and connects networks all over the world to each other is called the _____.
The _____ is a subnet of the computers on the Internet that are connected to one another in a specific way that makes them and their contents easily accessible to each other.
A(n) _____ is an e-mail address that forwards any message it receives to any user who has subscribed to the list.
Mailing List
In 1979, a group of students and programmers at Duke University and the University of North Carolina started _____, which allows anyone who connects to the network to read and post articles on a variety of subjects.
Usenet survives on the Internet today, with more than 1000 different topic areas that are called _____.
Internet _____ are computers that are directly connected to the Internet.
Companies known as _____ sell Internet access rights directly to larger customers and indirectly to smaller firms and individuals through other companies, called ISPs.
Network Access Providers
The subnet of the Internet includes computers and sensors connected to each other for communication and automatic transaction processing is called the _____.
Internet of Things
A(n) _____ is a set of standards that defines, in detail, the relationships among resource description framework (RDF) standards and specific extensible markup language (XML) tags within a particular knowledge domain.
A group of network research scientists from nearly 200 universities and a number of major corporations joined together in 1996 to recapture the original enthusiasm of the ARPANET and created an advanced research network called ______.
A(n) ______ is used when the Internet extends beyond the boundaries of an organization and includes networks of other organizations.
The _____ controls the disassembly of a message or a file into packets before it is transmitted over the Internet, and it controls the reassembly of those packets into their original formats when they reach their destinations.
The _____ in TCP/IP specifies the addressing details for each packet, labeling each with the packet’s origination and destination addresses.
The set of rules for delivering Web page files other the Internet is in a protocol called the ______.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
A(n) ______ is a computer that stores files written in HTML.
Hypertext Server
A(n) _____ is a language that can be used to define other languages.
HTML, XML, and XHTML have descended from the original _____ specification.
In HTML, the text elements that are related to each another are called ______ elements.
A(n) ______ hyperlink structure resembles conventional paper documents in that the reader begins on the first page and clicks a Next button to move to the next page in a serial fashion.
_____ uses paired start and stop tags in much the same way as a database software defines a record structure.
A(n) _____ is a set of instructions that gives Web developers more control over the format of displayed pages.
_____ tags convey the meaning (the semantics) of the information included within them.
_____ is the amount of data that can travel through a communication medium per unit of time.
_____ is a measure of the amount of information that can travel from a user to the Internet in a given amount of time.
Upload Bandwidth