an interconnected network of thousands of networks and millions of computers linking businesses, educational institutions, governmental agencies and individuals.
one of the Internet’s most popular services, providing access to more than 100 billion pages.
Packet switching, TCP/IP, and Client/Server
Three basic building blocks of the Internet
a method of slicing digital messages into packets, sending the packets along different communication paths as they become available, and then reassembling the packets once they arrive at their destination
the discrete units into which digital messages are sliced for transmission over the Internet
special-purpose computer that interconnects the computer networks that make up the Internet and routes packets to their ultimate destination as they travel the Internet
computer program that ensures that packets take the best available path toward their destination
a set of rules and standards for data transfer
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
the core communications protocol for the Internet
protocol that establishes the connections among sending and receiving Web computers and handles the assembly of packets at the point of transmission, and their reassembly at the receiving end
protocol that provides the Internet’s addressing scheme and is responsible for the actual delivery of the packets
Network Interface, Internet, Transport, Application
TCP communication layers
Network Interface Layer
responsible for placing packets on and receiving them from the network medium
responsible for addressing packaging and routing messages on the Internet
responsible for providing communication with the application by acknowledging and sequencing the packets to and from the application.
provides a wide variety of applications with the ability to access to services of the lower layers
IPv4 Internet address
Internet address expressed as a 32-bit number that appears as a series of four separate numbers market off by periods
IPv6 Internet address
Internet address expressed as a 128 bit number
IP address expressed in natural language
Domain Name System (DNS)
system for expressing numeric IP addresses in natural language.
Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
the address used by a web browser to identify the location of content on the web
a model of computing in which powerful personal computers are connected in a network together with one or more servers
a powerful personal computer that is part of a network
networked computer dedicated to common functions on the network need
model of computing in which firms and individuals obtain computing power and software over the Internet.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
the Internet protocol used for transferring Web pages
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
the Internet protocol used by the client to retrieve mail form an Internet server
Post Office Protocol 3 (POP3)
a protocol used by the client to retrieve mail from an Internet server
Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP)
a more current e-mail protocol that allows users to search, organize, and filter their mail prior to downloading it from the server.
File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
one of the original Internet service. Part of the TCP/IP protocol that permits users to transfer files from the server to their client computer, and vice versa.
a terminal emulation program that runs in TCP/IP
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)/Transport Layer Security (TLS)
protocols that secure communications between the client and the server
a program that allows you to check the connection between your client and the server
one of several route-tracing utilities that allow you to follow the path of a message you send from your client to a remote computer on the Internet.
Network technology substrate, transport services and representation standard, middleware services, applications
Hourglass model of the Internet
Network Technology Substrate layer
the layer of Internet technology that is composed of telecommunications networks and protocols.
Transport Services and Representation Standards layer
layer of Internet architecture that houses the TCP/IP protocol
layer of Internet architecture that contains client applications
Middleware Services layer
the glue that ties the applications to the communications networks and includes such services as security, authentication, addresses, and storage repositories
Network Service Provider (NSP)
owns and controls one of the major networks comprising the Internet’s backbone
high-bandwidth fiber-optic cable that transports data across the Internet
measures how much data can be transferred over a communications medium within a fixed period of time; is usually expressed in (giga/mega/kilo)bits per second
refers to multiple duplicate devices and paths in a network
Internet Exchange Point (IXP)
hub where the backbone intersects with local and regional networks and where backbone owners connect with one another
campus area networks (CAN)
generally, a local area network operating within a single organization that leases access to the Web directly from regional and national carriers
Internet Service Provider (ISP)
firm that provides the lowest level of service in the multi-tiered Internet architecture by leasing Internet access to homeowners, small businesses, and some large institutions.
the traditional telephone modem connection, now operating at 56.6 Kbps
refers to any communication technology that permits clients to play streaming audio and video files at acceptable speeds—generally anything above 100 Kbps
Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)
delivers high-speed access through ordinary telephone lines found in homes or businesses
piggybacks digital access to the Internet on top of the analog video cable providing television signals to a home.
an international telephone standard for digital communications that offers guarantied delivery at 1.54 Mbps
an international telephone standard for digital communications that offers guarantied delivery at 45 Mbps
a TCP/IP network located within a single organization for purposes of communications and information processing
advanced networking consortium of more than 350 member institutions working in partnership to facilitate the development, deployment, and use of revolutionary Internet technologies.
consists of up to hundreds of strands of glass or plastic that use light to transmit data
wireless standard for Ethernet networks with greater speed and range than Bluetooth
technology standard for short-range wireless communication under 30 feet
Internet of Things (IoT)
use of the Internet to connect a wide variety of devices, machines, and sensors
the sharing of files, information, graphics, sound, video, and other objects across all computer platforms in the world, regardless of operating system
the first commercial Web browser
a way of formatting pages with embedded links that connect documents to one another, and that also link pages to other objects such as sound, video, or animation files
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)
generalized markup language that is relatively easy to use in Web page design, provides Web page designers with a fixed set of markup “tags” that are used to format a Web page
eXtensible Markup Language (XML)
a markup language specification developed by the World Wide Web Consortium that is designed to describe data and information
Web server software
software that enables a computer to deliver Web pages written in HTML to client computers on a network that request this service by sending an HTTP request
serve designed to access specific information within a database
server designed to deliver targeted banner ads
server that provides e-mail messages
server that serves video clips
any computing device attached to the internet that is capable of making HTTP requests and displaying HTML pages, most commonly a Windows PC or Macintosh
electronic mail (e-mail)
the most-used application of the Internet. Uses a series of protocols to enable messages containing text, images, sound, and video clips to be transferred from one Internet user to another
instant messaging (IM)
displays words typed on a computer almost instantaneously. Recipients can then respond immediately to the sender the same way, making the communication more like a live conversation than is possible through e-mail.
identifies Web pages that appear to match keywords, also called queries, typed by the user and then provides a list of the best matches.
a Web application that allows Internet users to communicate with each other, although not in real time
enables users to communicate via computer in real time, that is, simultaneously. Unlike IM, chat can occur among several users.
Enables music, video, and other large files to be sent to users in chunks so that when received and played, the file comes through uninterrupted.
a tool used by Web sites to store information about a user. When a visitor enters a Web site, the site send a small text file to the user’s computer so that information form the site can be loaded more quickly on future visits. The cookie can contain any information desired by the site designers.
personal Web page that is created by an individual or corporation to communicate with readers
Really Simple Syndication (RSS)
program that allows users to have digital contend, including text, articles, blogs, and podcast audio files, automatically sent to their computers over the Internet
an audio presentation—such as a radio show, audio from a movie, or simply a personal audio presentation—stored as an audio file and posted to the Web
Web application that allows a user to easily add and edit content on a Web page
a general term for the technologies that use VoIP and the Internet’s packet switched network to transmit voice and other forms of audio communication over the Internet.
Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)
protocol that allows for transmission of voice and other forms of audio communication over the Internet