legislative power
power to make law and frame public policies
public policy
deliberate plan of action designed to guide governmental decisions
a political unit or body of people living within a specific territory under one federal government
none of the 50 states in the U.S. represent examples of a “state” because they lack this basic characteristic:
a county or city is considered soverign because it is subordinate to a larger form of government
Which of the following statements about soverign states is NOT true?
NOT authors of declaration of Independence, NOT the people of a state
Which of the following would be most threatened by the social contract theory?
social contract
John Locke is associated with this major political theory of government
social contract
Of the four major theories of government, only this one focuses on protecting the rights of the governed
The goals of the Founding Fathers for the new government, under the U.S. constitution, are contained in the
Social Contract Theory
What is the theory used in the United States that involves people giving their freedom to the government in order to protect life, liberty, and person property?
totalitarian dictatorship
This is NOT one of Aristotle’s classifications of government
a democracy
Any system of government in which rule is by the people is called
Totalitarian dictatorship is a form of this type of government
majority rule
requirement of democracy
all of the above (defending nation against foreign enemies, insuring order and domestic tranquility, promoting general welfare of citizens)
Which of the following is among the purposes of government outlined in the Preamble of the Constitution?
Korematsu v. United States
A Supreme Court case in which minority rights were ignored was
electoral college
All of the following are characteristics of democracy EXCEPT
direct and representative
What are the two types of democracies?
active participation, favorable economy, widespread education, civil society, and social consensus
What are the “soils” of democracy?
public schools may not exclude students because of their sex or race
Which of the following illustrates the concept of equal opportunity?
those of royal birth had absolute authority to rule
The theory underlying modern democracies was developed to challenge the idea that
When supplies of goods and services become plentiful, prices tend to rise
ineffectiveness and gridlock
What would be the most likely result of a direct democracy at the national level
In order to get laws passed, this is an absolute necessity
This state had a successful experience with Internet voting in 2000
potential for voter fraud
One of the problems with Internet voting is
Citizens of the United States can vote when they turn this age
representative government
system in which elected officials act in the interest of the people
Petition of Right
Parliament first limited the power of the Crown under the
social contract theory
The concept of a limited government comes from this theory of government
6th and 7th
The right to trial by jury has its roots in the Magna Carta and is contained in these two amendments in the U.S. Constitution
it stated that the King was not above the law
The Magna Carta had this specific effect on the monarchy
The Petition of Right forbids the mandatory quartering of troops in private homes, this is part of the U.S. Bill of Rights in this amendment
All of the English colonies had a bi-cameral legislation except
Of the three types of English colonies, this one was the most independent
the king
Who gives the authority to colonize in a charter colony?
Magna Carta
The landmark English document that guarenteed due process is
popular sovereignty
The Constitution is based on the concept of
Constitutional amendment
The Founders created a Constitution that could be adapted for the future through
judicial review
If the Supreme Court rules a law unconstitutional, under which principle would the court be exercising its authority?
This section of the Constitution is responsive to the needs of a changing nation
The President can check Congress by this power
describes the legislative branch
Article I of the Constitution
describes the executive branch
Article II of the Constitution
describes the Supreme Court
Article III of the Constitution
article four
The full faith and credit clause, allowing states to recognize legal procedures such as marriage, is contained in this article
the Constitution would be a living, breathing document that would change with the times
The framers created Article 5 to ensure that
Florida v. California
The Supreme Court would have original jurisdiction over which of the following cases
elastic clause
The “necessary and proper” clause, which gives Congress broad power in lawkmaking, is also known as the
the Judiciary Act of 1789
The judicial branch of government received the majority of its structure and power from
The federal agency known as the CIA is most likely under the ____ branch of government
voted into office directly by the people
The legislative branch is the only branch that is
because it is the biggest branch and divided power amongst the most amount of people
Why would the framers want Congress to be more powerful than the executive branch?
federal bureaucracies
The executive branch has expanded its power through what
states revoked their ratification
The Equal Rights Amendment caused questions because
appeal to Congress
agreement between nations
amendment approval
he can declare war
All of the following are powers of the President except
All formal constitutional amendments must be proposed by Congress
The 25th amendment became a formal amendment that dealt with this informal amendment involving the presidency. Name the issue
NOT changes are made through practice
How are informal changes made to the constitution?
a power numbered in the Constitution
An example of congressional enumerated power is
national convention
There are two ways to propose an amendment, one is by receiving two-thirds votes from Congress, the second is by a
Civil War amendments
13th, 14th, and 15th amendments make up the
change of venue
This is asked for when a defendant cannot receive an impartial trial in the original location
eliminating poll taxes
The 24th amendment helped African Americans to vote by
protects free speech
First Amendment
Bill of Rights
protects individual liberties
It established separate ballots for the President and Vice President in the electoral college
How did the 12th amendment change the electoral process?
It abolished poll taxes so every citizen who registered could vote
Why was the 24th amendment important to voters?
inherent powers
The national government’s control of immigration is an example of
develop space program, conduct draft, regulate nuclear power plants
an enabling act
For a territory to be admitted to the Union, the first step was for Congress to pass
obligation of the states
contributing monies to help pay for national elections
expressed powers
power directly granted to the national government by the Constitution
National Governors Association
supports federalism by helping create state policy and enforcing national policy
the President
has the power to dispatch federal troops to restore order to or provide protection to the states
The President admits new states and Congress sets the conditions
The power of the national government to declare war is most likely this specific power
Enabling Act
As the US was growing at the end of the 19th century how were the states’ admissions controlled?
major parties
the dominant political parties in the United States
work to get candidates elected to political offices
In the United States, a political party is made up of a group of people who
to unite people and concentrate solely on one public policy matter
Which of the following is not a major function of either of the two major parties in the United States?
based on personal choice
Membership in either of the two major parties is
all of the above (nominating candidates for office, insuring good performance of their elected candidates, providing a mechanism for the conduct of government)
The functions of the major parties in the United States politics include
The United States has this number of major political parties
ensure that details of possible scandals do not reach the public
Which of the following is not an official function of political parties
support them
If you are partisan to the Democratic Party you
to reach a compromise on national issues
Which of the following is not a function of a political party?
the party who is in control of the executive branch
A political party also serves as a watchdog of government. Who are they watching?
Congress and the State legislatures are often organized on party lines and conduct much of their business based on
the people eligible to vote in any given election
one party controlled Congress while the other controlled the presidency
The era of one-party domination that began in 1968 was different from past eras of one-party domination because
The year ___ marked the beginning of the shortest period of time in which a major political party held the presidential office
a lack of bill of rights
This was a major complaint of the Anti-Federalists during the ratification (period) of the constitution
the Democratic-Republican party
By 1800, the Federalist party was one of the major political parties and this party was the other one
return of the Republicans
Which of the following is not one of the major eras of one party domination in American history?
the presidency will go back and forth between the two parties
What is the most probable trend in future party domination of the US presidency?
Who was the first incumbent to lose the presidency?
Both try to inform, inspire, and activate the people with regard to public affairs
Which of the following do political parties and the news media have in common?
minor party
Any party that has less support than one of the major political parties in the United sates is a(n)
NOT single-issue parties
If inflation is low, jobs are plentiful, and the Republican and Democrats each enjoy strong support, which type of minor party would be least likely to attract voters?
The era of the Republican party began in 1860 with this election
The lack of success of minor parties to be the “party in power” or to be a “major player” has actually allowed them to take a clearer cut stand on specific issues
Ideological parties are generally associated with this person
Prohibition party
All of the following are examples of ideological parties except
splinter party
Which of the political parties forms as a result of a split from the major party
a third party candidate who splits votes
Ross Perot was often called the spoiler. What is a spoiler in a presidential election?
the federal government taking less of a role in protecting suffrage rights
Which of the following is not a long-term trend marking the expansion of suffrage in the United States
States require that any person wishing to vote must meet specific qualifications for citizenship, age, and residence
Which of the following statments about suffrage is true?
The early history of franchise rights in the United States were very limited and included a relatively small number
By the 1970s voters still had to pay a poll tax
the elctorate
All of the following mean the same thing except
minimum age requirement
All of the following voting prerequisites were eliminated by the states in the early 1800s except
all female citizens who met age requirements
After 1920, with the passage of the 19th amendment, this group was given the franchise
the 1968 Open Housing Law
All of the following improved voting rights in the 1960s ecept
the eligible residents of Washington D.C.
In the 1960s these people gained the franchise
women wanted the same privileges as men
Why did the suffrage groups in the 1920s fight so hard for the right to vote?
The expansion of suffrage to African Americans took place in two stages, one that granted suffrage in ____ and one that accomplished suffrage in ____
a person’s ability to read or write that is no longer used to qualify someone to vote
valuable the settlers found the right to vote
The fact that the western States allowed aliens who had applied for naturalization to vote in order to attract settlers makes a clear statement about how
was higher immediately after passage of the 26th amendment, but then dropped significantly
Voter turnout among 18 year-olds
minority groups
Literacy requirements were usually aimed at
voter registration
Which of the following is not a voting requirement mandated by all 50 states
The passage of this constitutional amendment eliminated poll taxes as a prerequisite to vote in federal elections
prevent immoral people from voting
Which of the following is not a major reason for voter registration?
many minorities were unable to vote
How was the poll tax discriminatory?
African Americans were asked questions that were more difficult than those asked of prospective white voters
Literacy tests worked to deny the right to vote to African Americans primarily because
dividing electoral districts to limit the voting strength of a particular group is known as
The Voting Right Act of 1965 that no new election laws could be enacted in any state without ____ from the Department of Justice
federal court orders
All of the following have been used to keep African Americans from voting except
This group of people is least likely to be given voting rights
black males
The 15th amendment extended the right to vote to eligible
This is a method of limiting voting strength by the manner in which voting districts are drawn up
the 1957 Civil Rights Act
This act established the U.S. Civil Rights commission
political efficacy
people who do not believe their actions can affect politics have no sense of
feel that any choice they make will have no effect
people with no sense of political efficacy
process by which people formulate their political attitudes and opinions
The term political socialization can be defined as the
NOT in off-year elections
In general, more of the electorate votes
party identification
The single most significant predictor or a person’s partison voting behavior is his or her
the number of independents has grown
As party identification has weakened,
mostly Southern states failed to enforce it
The reason that the 15th amendment, passed in 1870, was partially unsuccessful was
issues that concern the voter
A non-voter may be motivated by
are generally required by State law for nominating minor party candidates
Petitions to nominate candidates
only declared party members can vote
in a closed primary
nonpartisan primary
a primary in which candidates are not labeled by party is known as
Which of the following processes is considered the least democratic when a candidate is being nominated
much greater
Compared with the caucus and convention methods, the number of people who can participate in choosing candidates through the direct primary is
The critical first step in running for public office is conducting a fact finding campaign.
The primary election process is really just a way of reducing the number of people who will run in the general election
In the election process, the critical first step is:
a Republican
Who can vote in a Republican closed primary election
minor party voters cannot vote in the major party direct primaries
Why is the closed primary harmful to minor parties?
runoff primary
In the ___, the two top vote getters in a direct primary face one another, with the winner receiving the nomination
polling place
A ___ is where voters who live in a particular precinct actually go to vote
raising hands at a public meeting
Voters are asked to complete election ballots in all of the following ways except
other Republican candidates
If a Republican candidate for governor is proving to be especially popular, which of the following is most likely to benefit
the voting booth
For providing optimum security, the best voting device is considered by many to be
Some states conduct elections by allowing vote-by-mail
frustration and loss of interest in voting
Ineffectiveness at the polling place on voting day leads to
early ballot voting
In order to increase voter turnout many states have implemented which of the following
NOT voters were not properly identified when casting a ballot
Which of the following is not a basis on which a candidate can mount a protest to an online election
open primary
The ____ is a party nominating election in which any qualified voter can participate.
unlimited contributions by PACs to any one ffederal candidate
All of the following are loopholes in the current federal election laws except
people who cannot raise the money are denied a chance to be elected
The biggest drawback of the need for large amounts of money to campaign is that
NOT congressional committees
Other than giving money directly to candidates, what other legal avenues do PACs have to influence elections
he did not accept FEC money during that period
In 2000, George W. Bush could legally spend more than the FEC limit of $40.5 million in the preconvention period because
unregulated soft money
A large percentage of the money spent on political campaigns during the 1980s and 1990s came from
This ballot has such an enormous amount of information on it that it might be difficult to understand
interest groups
Political Action Committees (PACs) donate money to campaigns and they are associated with
The ___ acts as the political arm of the special interest groups
opinion leader
An ____ is a person who has more than the average influence on public opinion
opinion leader
Because so many people were listening to the poet’s political verses, he had became an___
public opinion
Attitudes held by a significant number of people concerning governmental and political questions are known as
scientific polls
The most reliable measure of public opinion is
plan better campaigns if they know what is important to the people
Politicians want to have accurate informatino about public opinion because they can
Which of the following is the earliest and one of the most significant agents in the political socialization process
On the issue of federal tax cuts, which of the following factors would be most likely to influence a person’s opinion
Even though the President is a public figure his opinion affects very few peoples opinions
the children receive a basis from parents to create their own public opinion
How is family important in forming public opinion
mass media
The creation of MySpace pages by candidates in the 2008 Presidential Election is an example of the use of ____ to influence public opinion
public affairs
Public opinion includes only those views that relate to
quota sample
A sample constructed to represent the major characteristics of the universe
public opinion poll
The senator decided to check the result of a ____ to obtain a sound indicator of how her constituency felt about the issue
defining the universe
Which of the following steps in a scientific polling comes first
NOT a large quantity of voters
Newspaper mail-in ballots hope to predict election outcomes with some success by hearing from
The manner in which a question is asked can influence the outcome of a poll
trying to persuade voters to vote differently
Which of the following is not a step in the polling process
straw vote
Polls that seek to read the public’s mind simply by asking the same question of a large number of people is an example of a
who is conducting the poll
When evaluating a poll, what is the most important aspect to look at
mass media
This includes all the means for communicating information to the general public
NOT media events
This is a major focus of the mass media
What television network was created specifically to broadcast the floor proceedings of the House and Senate
press conference
A ___ involves the news media questioning high ranking officials
the president
often the focus of mass media
media event
visually interesting event
early leader in a presidential campaign
a news release
This is a ready made story that is supplied to the press
discuss eventa thar are occurring quickly
The generals use news briefings often as a way to
Television Presidency
The 2008 election of Barack Obama is said to have ushered in the era of the “Internet Presidency,” enduing the era of the
to express an opinion on an issue
Why would an interest group send a telegram to the speaker
dangerous and should not be part of the American political system
Federalists, such as James Madison, believed that interest groups were
that concern all or most people
Public affairs are those events and issues
all of the above (their members, government officials, the public at-large)
Interest groups perform positive functions for which of the following groups
NOT a law establishing a limit on the amount of money that groups can spend each year
Which of the following would address one of the criticisms of interest groups
If a person is a physician, he or she is probably going to support the interest group known as the American Medical Association
Interest groups in general are a positive aspect of American society because they stimulate interest in public affairs
very broad
The scope of political parties is
one criticism against interest groups is that it is hard to tell their specific demographics – the “who” and “how many” are not always clear
Which of the following statements is true of interest groups?
they can bring public affairs to light
How can a special interest group have a positive role in politics
favorable attention from lawmakers
Although interest groups do not try to attract large numbers of voters, they do try to attract
they seek to put pressure on the government to affect policies
Interest groups are also called pressure groups mainly because
do not nominate candidates for office
Unlike the major political parties, interest groups
professional groups
The American Medical Association and the American Bar Associaton are examples of
frequently conflict with one another
Interest groups
both a and b (some are based on economic interests, some are based on theh promotion of certain causes)
Which of the following is true of both interest groups and minor parties?
to get the least amount of legislation passed to gain the most from it
What is the purpose of a public interest group?
healthcare for public
Which of theh following is an example of a public interest group?
Because of ____ and separation of powers, there exist many different centers in which important decisions are made
do not nominate candidates for office
Unlike the major political parties, interest groups
work in the same job or industry
A labor union is an organization of workers who
supporting a government policy change
All of the following are propoganda techniques except
each candidate’s stand, in regard to the groups’ interests
Single-interest groups try to affect elections based on
work within the governmental process to affect policies
Lobbyists today are people who generally
average voters
The term grass roots refers to
those who make public policy
Political parties try not to alienate large numbers of voters. Interest groups try not to alienate
the goals and actions taken by the government
Public policy is
Pressure groups (interest groups) received the name lobbyist by trying to influence legislators in those legislation hotel lobbies
to control the pressure applied to politicians
Why would lobbyists need regulation
The presiding officer at the House of Representatives is the
majority party
The power to write the rules in Congress is controlled by the
Speaker of the House
Responsibilities: schedules bills for action, refers bills to proper house, appoints some committees members
Before both houses of Congress pass it and the president signs it, a proposed law is a
Rules Committee
House “traffic officer”
voters represented by an elected official
presiding officer of the House
majority leader
Speaker’s top assistant
assist the floor leader
How many members are included in the House of Representatives
a quorum
This is required for a legislative body to take official action
vice president
The president of the Senate is
Lake Senator Strom Thurmond of South Carolina once stood in front of Congress speaking for 24 hours and 18 minutes performing a
A filibuster can be stopped when three-fifths of the Senate votes for
pro tempore
In the absence of the Vice President, the president ___ presides over the Senate
have freedom to express their ideas
In the Senate the rules are designed to make sure that all senators
vice president
president of the Senate
unlimited speaking time
the belief that Senators need to be able to express themselves without constraints
Why is the atmosphere so informal in the Senate
have freedom to express their ideas
In the Senate the rules are designed to make sure that all senators
the majority party
The standing committees of each house are controlled by
This group specializes in a subcategory of its standing committee’s responsibility
seniority system
This has guided the selection of committee chairpersons
The House of Committee on Appropriations sets the expenditures of money for the US government. Energy and Water Development and Defense are just two examples of standing _____ within the Committee on Appropriations
The Senate ____ Committee on Ethics met between 2007 and 2008 and was responsible for developing new guidelines for ethics training of all Senate employees
A Republican Senator from Mississippi and a Democratic House Representative from California are both members of the ____ Committee on the Library
both a and b (House of Representatives, Senate)
Committees can be found in which of the following
strict constructionist
someone seeking to limit the powers of Cnogress to its expressed powers and only the most vital implied powers
NOT constitution is silent about
The powers of Congress are affected by all of the following except what the
strict construction of the Constitution
Since 1789, the expansion power of the National Government has been caused by all of the following except
This simply means a general agreement
implied powers
These are powers “necessary and proper” to carry out powers specifically stated within the Constitution
A nation is considered sovereign if it does not have to ask the authority of any other nation before making decisions
Thomas Jefferson
____ advocated strict constructionism in government
Which of the following is not a power of congress
Which of the following powers gives congress more creative avenues for expanding their powers
Thomas Jefferson was what type of constructionist
States’ constitutions say Congress may do
The powers of Congress are affected by all of the following except what the
strict construction of the Constitution
Since 1789, the expansion of power of the National Government has been caused by all of the following except
Witnesses who do not tell the truth can be prosecuted for
that Congress must respect the rights of the witness during investigations
In the landmark case, Wakins v. United States, the Supreme Court ruled
legislative veto
This action was found unconstitutional because it violated the separation of powers
legislative oversight
A good example of the constitutional principle of checks and balances is
a witness lying under oath
NOT speical prosecutor
When Congress passed the Ethics in Government Act in the 1970s they created this position
Congress must respect witness’ rights just as a court would
What was the outcome of Wakins v. United States
independent councils
These were created by Congress as part of the Ethics in Government Act and were put in place to ensure government officials receive a fair investigation
provision attached to an important bill
discharge petition
enables members to force a bill that has been in committee for 30 days onto the floor for consideration
private bills
Proposed measures that apply to specific individuals or places are
formulated by private citizens
Bills that originate in either house of Congress may be
being reported out of committee unfavorably
If the lawmaking process is compared to an obstacle course, which of the following would constitute an obstacle
so many signatures are needed on the discharge motion
One possible reason that a discharge petition is seldom successful is that
house calendar
In the House of Representatives all public bills use this calendar
rules committee
After a bill leaves a standing committee but before it goes to the floor it must visit this committee
Which committee could cause a bill to never be voted on
a debate about the bill with quorum
If a bill proceeds past the Rules Committee then the next step is what
chief administrator
The title of ____ describes the President’s role as head of the US Federal Government
must have extensive prior political experience
Which of the following is not a formal qualification for the presidency
According to the 22nd amendment, a President can serve no more than ___ 4-year terms in office
the banker
Which of the following is eligible to run for the presidency: a 45-year old banker who was born and raised in Wyoming or a 30 year-old State legislator who was born in Virginia, lived abroad for 10 years, then returned to Virginia?
4 years
If a successor to the presidency has served three years of the predecessor’s term, how many more years is he eligible to serve as President in his own right
two full terms
A President of the United States may serve a maximum of ___ in office
Chief Justice
Which of the following is not a role of the president
lived in the same state for 10 years
Which of the following is not a requirement needed in order to become president
chief legislator
Which Presidential role sets the overall congresional agenda
4 years
How long does the President have to pass his political agenda through congress
the mass of people who actually cast votes in an election
a strong minor party candidate
Typically, the wrench in the gears of the electoral college that causes the election to be thrown into the House is
also contain flaws
The majority of the proposed reforms to the current electoral college
the small States would gain an advantage in a direct election plan
Which of the following statements is not an argument for direct popular election of the President
January 6th
The Electoral College voting results for the Presidential election are considered to be official on which day
indirect democracy
The electoral college is an example of ___
Constitution, elector, popular
The ____ does not require an ____ to vote for the candidate favored by the _____ vote in his/her state
all of the above are true (its a known process created by American founding fathers, its problems are over-exaggerated, it identifies the winning candidates quickly and accurately)
Defenders of the electoral college argue that
Mandate of the People
Informal sources of presidential power: personal exercise of power, immediate needs of the nation, and ___
Limits on presidential power: federal courts, bureaucracy, public opinion
strong popular support
This item represents one of the greatest sources of power for a president
the Articles of Confederation
All of the following are examples of informal sources of power except
The Louisiana Purchase
All of the following are examples of the “checks and balance system” limiting Presidential Power except
Commander and Chief of the Armed Forces
Article II of the Constitution specifically lists the role of ___ as a Presidential Power
suspended habeas corpus
Sometimes Presidents use major events to enhance their power, for instance Lincoln did this during the Civl War
limitation by public opinion
When Nixon fired the Special Prosecutor investigating Watergate, four million telegrams were sent to Congress calling for his impeachment, this is an example of this type of informal check on presidential power
Article 2
Under which article can a President expand their powers in times of national crisis
War Powers Act
Which Nixon veto did congress override
Head of State
President of the United States: Commander in Chief, Chief Legislator, Party Leader, Chief Executive, Economic Planner, Chief Diplomat
a treaty
A formal agreement between the governments of two or more countries is called
NOT Office of Homeland Security
The president receives intelligence from four agencies to help him manage foreign-policy issues. Identify the agency missing (Central Intelligence Agency, Defense Department, National Security Council, ___)
The president’s refusal to allow a federal department to spend money Congress has appointed is called
line-item veto
The power to reject part of a bill is called
postponement of punishment
The President has the power of reprieve, this means
Chief Diplomat
What is the leadership role the president takes on while addressing foreign relations
Council of Economic Advisors
What group is responsible for studying the economy and preparing the economic report
The Supreme Court only reads briefs; it does not hear oral arguments
Which of the following statements about the Supreme Court is false
both a and b (their case load is so heavy that time cannot be wasted, they must give each side the same amount of time to present their case)
The Supreme Court adheres closely to the 30-minute oral arguments rule mostly because
providing a precedent to be followed by the lower courts
Dissenting opinions accomplish all of the following except
The U.S. Supreme Court will hear case arguments for two months and then recess to adjudicate (discuss and decide) those cases for two months in conference.
In the history of the Supreme Court, only two women have held the title of Chief Justice
The Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court assigns the writing of all court opinions
Currently about two-thirds of the cases decided by the U.S. Supreme Court are done by unanimous decision
Marbury v. Madison
What was the first court case that set the precedent of judicial review
a case between two states engaged in a border dispute
The Supreme Court would have original jurisdiction in ____
Justices who disagree with the Court’s decision write a ___ opinion
from lower courts as appeals
The majority of the cases the Supreme Court hears come
writ of certiorari
In order to make it to the Supreme Court, a case must meet certain requirements or adhere to a complex set of standards and procedures. Identify the three main routs by which a case makes it before the highest court in the land (original jurisdiction, appeal, ____)
an amicus curiae
A friend of the court is
per curiam opinion
A brief unsigned statement of the Court’s decision is a
lawyers present oral arguments
After the Supreme Court accepts a case, the case goes through a strict set of procedurs. (lawyers from each side submit briefs, ____, justices debate the cases in conference, Supreme Court issues an opinion)
concurring opinion
Four kinds of opinions issued by the Supreme Court (unanimous, majority, ____, dissenting)
This is a written statement setting forth the legal arguments
concurring opinion
One or more justices who agree with the majority’s conclusions about a case, but do so for different reasons, write a
NOT appeal
Some cases reach the Supreme Court through ____, meaning that it has been requested that the Supreme Court review the ruling of lower state and federal courts
NOT asking for an appeal
What is the first step in the higher court trying to decide if they should hear a lower case