Psychology Test Two

Alcoholism has been linked to
osteoporosis
How many drinks would the average person have to consume to reach a blood alcohol level of apporox .15%?
6-7
Alcohol stimulates the release of___, the brains major depressant.
GABA
Physical sensations, such as nausea or extreme pain, that occur when the body is trying to adjust to the absence of a drug are called
Withdrawal
Freud used dreams as a way to get at patients’:
unconscious conflicts stemming from childhood
Men tend to have more aggression in their dreams than women. True or false
true
the real inquiry into the process of dreaming was begun by:
Freud
The “hidden observer”
remains aware of what is going on during hypnosis
percent of people who are good hypnotic subjects
40
Driving and talking on a cell phone at the same time is an example of a state of:
divided consciousness
When under the influence of a stimulant, you are likely to be in a state of:
increased alertness
In a(n) __________ view, consciousness is generated by a set of action potentials in the communication among neurons just sufficient to produce awareness.
cognitive neuroscience
Last night, Kayla thought she was awakened by a noise she heard outside of her bedroom door. As she tried to get up to see what was going on, she couldn’t move. She tried to scream out and couldn’t make a sound. After several minutes, she was finally able to sit up and wondered what had just happened. The best explanation for Kayla’s experience, according to sleep researchers, is that she experienced
sleep paralysis during REM sleep
Jaleel was driving home at 7 o’clock in the morning after working a hard eight-hour shift. Along the drive, he would occasionally find himself drifting off into the oncoming lane, becoming alert just in time to avoid a head-on collision. It appears that Jaleel may have been experiencing
microsleeps
Melatonin supplements are often used to treat:
jet lag
Night terrors are experienced:
during deep non-REM sleep
Paul is a snorer who sometimes gasps for air while sleeping. Paul mostly likely suffers from
sleep apnea
The body is at its lowest level of functioning during
non REM stages 3 and 4
In studies in which volunteers spend several days without access to information about day or night, their sleep-wake cycles:
lengthened
A hypnic jerk is likely to occur during
non-REM stage 2 sleep
Where was the first IQ test developed?
France
When a person is slightly sleep deprived, ________ tasks will suffer less than _______ tasks.
more complex and simple
The _________ theory of sleep says that sleep is a product of evolution.
adaptive
When do 90 percent of dreams occur?
during REM sleep
Sleep apnea has been shown to cause:
heart problems
So-called supernatural visitations can be explained by hypnogogic hallucinations common during
NREM stage 1 sleep
________ syndrome refers to the creation of inaccurate memories through the suggestion of others, often while the person is under hypnosis.
False Memory
Kevin was in a study room during which he was shown a photo of a man with straight hair. Later, he was asked if he noticed the man’s curly hair. Kevin was then convinced that the man in the photo had curly hair. This is an example of
the misinformation effect
Ebbinghaus found that forgetting
is greatest just after learning
Manny was talking to his friend as he was walking out the door. A few minutes later, Manny asked his friend about the conversation they had few minutes earlier, while walking out the door. Since his friend was not paying attention to him, he could not recall what Manny had said. Manny’s friend experienced:
encoding failure
To answer the questions in this test, which type of memory recall will you most frequently use?
recognition
Chris learns her vocabulary words while listening to upbeat, happy music, and is then better able to remember them later if she is happy. This is called
state-dependent learning
nformation that enters long-term memory by automatic encoding
requires little or no effort to retrieve
Carl is able to remember the names of the first three presidents before he begins to have difficulty. This is
the primacy effect
Eve is able to remember her Social Security number by breaking it into three parts: three numbers/two numbers/four numbers. Eve is using the process of:
chunking
You know the name of the first president of the United States without giving it a moment’s thought. This is:
semantic memory
In a room filled with people, where several conversations are going on, you are able to hear your name being spoken. This is:
the cocktail party effect
In the ________ model of memory, concepts that are related in meaning are thought to be stored physically near each other in the brain.
semantic network
________ memory refers to the awareness of the meanings of words, concepts, and terms as well as names of objects, math skills, and so on.
semantic
________ memory is like a giant filing system in which the “files” are individual bits and pieces of memories stored in a highly organized and interconnected fashion
Long Term
Echoic memory lasts ______ iconic memory.
about two to four seconds longer than
Eduardo is watching people walk down the street, and all of a sudden, he thinks, “Was that man wearing a bright purple suit?” As a result of this thought, he looks back at the man to see if it is true. Which type of memory is responsible for Eduardo’s behavior?
iconic sensory
Quincy had a terrifying experience in which he was attacked by a dog. This memory is likely stored in the:
amygdala
Ruth was in a car accident that resulted in a head injury. She cannot remember the events that occurred several hours prior to the accident. Ruth is experiencing:
retrograde amnesia
Dr. McCrae encourages her students to go beyond just memorizing definitions. She teaches them that if they fully understand the meanings of the concepts covered in class, they will be able to remember them much longer. Dr. McCrae’s lesson to her students appears to be based on which model of memory?
levels of processing
As Nevide was listening to the radio, an old song that he hadn’t heard in a very long time began to play. To his amazement, not only was he able to sing along, but he remembered every word. It appears that the song that Nevide heard on the radio was stored in his ______ memory.
long term
The _________ assumes that how long a memory will be remembered depends on the stage of memory in which it is stored.
information processing model
The idea that memory formation is a simultaneous process is reflected in the:
parallel distributed processing model
The ________ is derived from work in the development of artificial intelligence.
parallel distributed processing model
Jeremy was diagnosed with lead poisoning at about 4 years old. As a result of his condition, he has an IQ score of 55, he has trouble doing most things for himself, and he shows a number of deficits in his mental abilities. Jeremy most likely has
intellectual disability
Samantha does really well with managing her own emotions, as well as recognizing and understanding the emotions of others around her. It could be said that Samantha has a high level of _______.
emotional intelligence
_______ believed that concepts become the “pegs” from which words are “hung.”
Piaget
According to Noam Chomsky, humans have an innate ability to understand and produce language through:
their language acquisition device
Researchers have found that animals ________ with one another
communicate
Even after her girlfriends reported seeing her boyfriend Jeff out at clubs with other women, Jackie continues to believe her boyfriend and her friends who say the women are just old neighborhood friends. This is an example of:
confirmation bias
When people think, they often have _______ in their minds.
images and words
Examples of algorithms are:
mathematical formulas
Which of the following is the best example of a prototype of a car?
a sedan
In order for people to be able to tell you how many televisions they have in their house, they would probably use:
a mental image
When solving a problem, if a person is hesitant or unable to think beyond solutions that have worked in the past, he or she is stuck in:
a mental set
People who believe that aliens have come to earth may disregard evidence that crop circles are human-made. This is an example of:
confirmation bias
Through the use of fMRI, researchers have found an overlap between brain areas activated during visual mental imagery tasks as compared to:
actual tasks involving visual perception
A(n) ________ refers to a type of schema that involves a familiar sequence of activities.
script
Trial and error is another term for:
mechanical solution
A recent study has shown that for a group of individuals with ______, computerized cognitive exercises that placed increasing demands on auditory perception were beneficial
schizophrenia
One thing IQ tests do well is
predict academic success
_________ includes the ability to be self-motivated, to feel what others feel, and to be socially skilled.
emotional intelligence
Terry exhibits extraordinary musical ability. According to Spearman, this is an example of ____________ intelligence.
s factor
Sternberg’s three types of intelligence
analytical, creative and practical
A test can fail in validity and still:
be reliable
Gardner would say that an astronaut is high in
visual and spatial intelligence
You are taking the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and come to a question that requires you to recall a mixed list of numbers in correct ascending order. You are being tested for:
working memory
the extent to which a test score accurately reflects the intended skill or outcome in real-life situations.
Ecological validity
Shortly after eating a piece of his great aunt’s famous coconut cake, which he’s had many times, Amad became very nauseous. Now, whenever his great aunt offers him a piece of cake, Amad quickly declines. Which of the following concepts best explains Amad’s change in behavior
conditioned taste aversion
Theo gets excited whenever he finds a quarter lying on the ground outside. While walking home from school one day, Theo noticed a shiny round object lying on the sidewalk and became very excited. He soon realized that the object was a bottle cap and his excitement quickly dissipated. Which of the following concepts is demonstrated in this example?
stimulus generalization
Every time Paul’s neighbor upstairs plays loud music, Paul bangs on his ceiling with a broom and the music stops. Paul’s behavior of banging on the ceiling to get the music to stop is an example of _______
negative reinforcement
At the end of his first day of kindergarten and the entire week thereafter, Jeremiah’s teacher exclaimed, “You may all leave” just after the sounding of a loud bell. On the first day of the second week of school, Jeremiah immediately left the room just as the school bell rang, without any notice from his teacher. In this example, what is the conditioned response?
leaving the room after the bell rang
The central idea of toilet training a cat is breaking down the process into a series of small stages. This is an example of:
shaping
In defining learning, “_____” refers to the fact that when people learn anything, a part of their brain is physically changed to record what they have learned, and that change remains even if the behavior does not.
relatively permanent
The learning/performance distinction is a kind of
latent learning
Bandura concluded that there were _____ elements of observational learning.
four
Voluntary behavior, to Skinner, was ______ behavior.
operant
The behavior of infants and animals can be easily reinforced using:
primary reinforcers
Marco’s mom gives him a treat every night after dinner when he picks up his plate and places it in the dishwasher. Marco’s mom uses:
continuous reinforcement
___ is more resistant to extinction than ____
partial reinforcement and continuous reinforcement
In Tolman’s study of latent learning, one group of rats was rewarded for getting out of the maze, a second was not rewarded during training trials but was rewarded eventually, and a third group of rats was:
not rewarded
The second group of rats in Tolman’s maze experiment was not reinforced for finding the exit until the tenth day. Once they started getting reinforcement, the rats:
learned to find the exit almost immediately
The mental events that take place inside a person’s mind while behaving are known as
cognition
An unlearned, involuntary response, such as salivating when presented with food, is:
a reflex
For classical conditioning to be effective, the conditioned stimulus must be:
distinctive
The response that is given to the conditioned stimulus is not usually quite as strong as the original unconditioned response, ______________.
but it is essentially the same response
can hypnosis enhance recall of forgotten events?
no
can hypnosis force people to act against their will?
no
can hypnosis be therapeutic
yes.
can hypnosis alleviate pain
yes
three groups of drugs
Depressants, stimulants and hallucinogens
drugs that excite neural activity and speed up body functions
stimulants
who conducted the dog salivation experiment?
Pavlov
What was Pavlov’s career?
Physiologist
Occurs when a neutral stimulus is associated with a stimulus that produces a reflexive behavior
Classical Conditioning
Behavior is followed by reinforcement and increases chances of the behavior
Operant Conditioning
positive reinforcement
Adding a desirable stimulus
negative reinforcement
removing an aversive stimulus
putting something in memory
encoding
holding information in memory
storage
recovering information from memory
retrieval
assumes information is stored in a connected fashion, with concepts that are related store physically closer to each other
Semantic network model
measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information previously learned
Recall
A measure of memory in which the person need only to identify items previously learned
recognition
Unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space and time, well learned information such as word meanings
Automatic processing
encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
Effortful processing
holds information from the senses for a very brief duration
Sensory memory
how long does visual memory last?
about 1 second
how long does auditory memory last?
about 4 seconds
Retention without conscious recollection- skills and dipositions
implicit memory
memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare
Explicit or declarative memory
An educated guess based on prior experiences that helps narrow down the possible solutions for a problem; also known as a “rule of thumb”
Heuristic
Tendency to judge the frequency or likelihood of an event by the extent to which it resembles the typical case
Representativeness
Estimating the frequency or likelihood of an event based on how east it is to recall relevant information from memory or how easy it is to think of related examples
Availability
A block to problem solving that comes from thinking about objects in terms of only their typical functions
Functional Fixedness
the natural ability to solve problems; relatively uninfluenced by experience
Fluid intelligence
knowledge and abilities acquired through experience (vocabulary)
Crystallized intelligence
Who came up with the triarchic theory?
Sterner
Sterner’s three intelligences
analytical, creative and practical
tend to perform well on standardized tests- high g
Analytical intelligence
how well can you cope with a new task? “quick learner”
Creative Intelligence
“street smarts,” size up situation and act accordingly
Practical intelligence
produce similar scores from one test time to the next
Reliability
how well a test measures what it is suppose to measure
Validity
our ability to spear or otherwise use language to send information
language production
the ability to understand language
Language comprehension
The structure of sounds that can be used to produce words in a language
Phonology
the meaning of words and sentences
Semantics
the smallest units of meaning in language
Semantics
The structure of language
Syntax
The practical aspects of language, by implied meaning rather than literal meaning
pragmatics
the basic building blocks of speech sounds
phonemes
the smallest units of meaning in a language
morphemes
recalling the definition of long term memory is an example of
Semantic memory
what does IQ stand for
intelligence quotient
delta waves are predominant in which stage of sleep
Non rem stages 3 and 4
which of the following parts of the body controls the sleep-wake cycle?
hypothalamus
natural cycles of activity that bodies must go though are called:
biological rhythms
In the ____________, dreams are less realistic because they come not from the outside world of reality but from within people’s memories and experiences.
activation synthesis hypothesis
the ___ of a dream is the actual dream itself
manifest content
Baribiturates are known as
the major tranquilizers
Opium and its derivatives, morphine and heroin, duplicate the action of which of the following?
endorphins
Nightmares are more common in children than in adults because _____.
children spend more time in REM sleep
On Sara’s walk to campus one morning, she was thinking about what a nice day it was, how many people were already on campus, and how she had to stop by the bookstore on her way to class. Sara was experiencing:
waking consciousness
Debbie’s psychoanalyst tells her that the monster in her dream symbolizes her abusive father. He is discussing the dream’s:
latent content
Theodora suffers from an inability to get to sleep and to stay asleep. Which of the following would help Theodora with her insomnia?
going to bed and getting up on a regular schedule
Niles has begun to fall asleep suddenly during the day, sometimes in inappropriate places. Niles is most likely suffering from:
narcolepsy
Derek was lying on the couch and had fallen asleep when all of a sudden his body jerked, and he woke up because he felt like he was falling. Derek was most likely in which stage of sleep?
Non REM stage 1
Mariam takes 20 minutes daily to sit by herself and meditate. A fully meditative state is a form of:
altered consciousness
Which of the following kills the most people in the United States every year?
illnesses related to smoking
methamphetamine is an example of a
stimulant
The heart rate slows, breathing becomes more shallow and irregular, and an EEG would show the first signs of sleep spindles in:
Non rem stage 2
_________ has been used as a successful defense in some murder trials.
REM behavior disorder
The ________ is the internal clock that tells people when to wake up and when to fall asleep.
suprachiasmatic nucleus
If your psychoanalyst tells you that your emergence from a bathtub in your dream is symbolic of being born, she is talking about your dream’s:
latent content
The social-cognitive theory of hypnosis assumes that people who are hypnotized are:
only playing a role
While many people take LSD in order to experience its hallucinogenic qualities, why can this become a dangerous activity?
In a(n) ________, the occurrence of reinforcement is more predictable and therefore the individual being reinforced is more likely to adjust his response to the timing of the reinforcement.
fixed interval schedule of reinforcement
What are the two kinds of behavior that all organisms are capable of?
voluntary and involuntary
The law of effect states if an action is followed by a pleasurable consequence, the action is likely to:
be repeated
It is believed that animals revert eventually to instinctual behaviors when the new tasks they are learning have a strong association with:
obtaining food
Small steps in behavior that are reinforced, one after the other, to create a particular goal behavior are known as:
successive reinforcers
Changes such as an increase in height or the size of the brain are called:
maturation
After having many cavities fixed as a child, Kyle now has an active dislike of the dentist’s drill. His tendency to become anxious when hearing a similar-sounding noise is termed
stimulus generalization
Carla was bitten by a dog when she was a toddler. She’s older now, but still backs up in fear whenever a dog approaches her. This is an example of:
conditioned emotional response
Whenever Vernon comes home too late on a Saturday night, his parents refuse to give him his weekly allowance. Vernon’s parents are using what technique to modify his behavior?
punishment by removal
A teacher has decided to give “caught being good” tickets to her students when they behave according to class rules. This teacher also rewards students with gold stars each time they improve their math speed. This teacher is using:
operant conditioning
In a later modification of the classic Bobo doll experiment, the children who had seena model beat up the doll and then get rewarded showed aggression toward the doll. Another group had seen the model get punished rather than rewarded. Which of the following statements is true about these other children?
they did not beat up the doll until offered a reward to demonstrate what the model had done
Birds, who find their food by sight, will avoid any object or insect that simply looks like the one that made them sick. This is a result of:
biological preparedness
A naturally occurring stimulus that leads to an involuntary (reflex) response is a/an:
unconditioned stimulus
The cognitive perspective of classical conditioning involves
the mental activity of consciously expecting something else to occur
_________ is the disappearance or weakening of a learned response following the removal or absence of the unconditioned stimulus (in classical conditioning) or the removal of a reinforcer (in operant conditioning).
extinction
In Seligman’s study on dogs, the dogs that were not conditioned to fear the tone:
jumped over the fence when the shock started
Learning that remains hidden until its application becomes useful is called:
latent learning
In K√∂hler’s experiment, Sultan the chimp first used just one stick that was lying in his cage to rake the banana into the cage, and then he learned to fit two sticks together to reach a banana placed farther away. This was an example of:
insight
_____ is learning new behavior by watching a model perform that behavior.
observational learning
Banduras elements of observational learning
________ pioneered the empirical study of the basic principles of classical conditioning.
Ivan Pavlov
______ is the classical conditioning of a reflex response or emotion by watching the reaction of another person.
vicarious conditioing
_____ believed that classical conditioning occurred because the CS became a substitute for the UCS when paired closely together in time.
Pavlov
A typical use of applied behavior analysis is:
treating children with disorders such as autism
After having many cavities fixed as a child, Kyle now has an active dislike of the dentist’s drill. His tendency to become anxious when hearing a similar-sounding noise is termed:
stimulus generalization
Which of the following individuals believed that cognition was an important part of behavior?
Martin Seligman
Operant conditioning relies on:
voluntary behavior
The Brelands determined that most Skinnerian behaviorists made the false assumption that:
all response are equally able to be conditioned any stimulus
_____ is learning new behavior by watching a model perform that behavior
Observational learning
The learning/performance distinction is a kind of:
latent learning
Psychologist consider memory to be
an active system
What is the best way for a person to overcome the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon?
Stop trying to remember the information you are trying to retrieve.
Elizabeth Loftus’ research determined that:
what people see and hear about an event after the fact can easily affect the accuracy of their memories of that event.
Why do flashbulb memories seem so vivid and exact?
Emotional reactions seem to stimulate the release of hormones that have been shown to enhance the formation of long-term memories.
The fact that everyone remembers that George Washington was the first president points to the primacy effect as a result of:
long-term memory storage.
In one study with depressed patients who were being treated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), patients were tested for their memory of certain television programs both before and after the treatment. What was the result?
Patients forgot more recent programs but remembered older ones.
The _______ is the part of the brain that is responsible for the formation of new long-term declarative memories.
hippocampus
Ebbinghaus’s ________ shows that forgetting happens quickly, within the first hour, and then tapers off gradually
curve of forgetting
A(n) ________ is a memory expert or someone with exceptional memory ability.
mnemonist
The ________ effect suggests that the first and last person interviewed for a job will be better remembered by the interviewer than all the people in the middle.
serial position
The phrase “use it or lose it” refers to which theory of forgetting?
decay
Mrs. Tuttle was 97 years old and suffered from forgetfulness and mental confusion. She was probably experiencing:
senile dementia
Donyelle finds that she performs better on the exams that are given in her regular psychology classroom than in the large lecture room that is used to give midterms and finals to several sections at once. Donyelle’s experience illustrates:
the importance of retrieval cues in memory.
If you move from the United States to England and have trouble adjusting to driving on the left side of the road, you are experiencing:
proactive interference.
Which of the following best describes psychologist John Kihlstrom’s comments when talking about Bartlett’s book on memory?
Memory is more like making up a story than it is like reading a book.
The most efficient way of transferring short-term memory into long-term memory is by using:
elaborative rehearsal
According to Craik and Lockhart, information that is _______ will be remembered more effectively and for a longer period of time.
deeply processed
_________ is the ability to focus on only one stimulus from among all sensory input.
selective attention
In the information-processing model, the first stage of memory is ______ memory.
sensory
Marcos and his friends enjoy watching football together on Sundays. After some of the games are over, Marcos tells his friends that he knew all along who would win the game. Marcos’ belief that he could predict the outcome of some of the games without having been told the winners in advance is an example of:
hindsight bias
After his accident, Bryan had trouble remembering facts and events that were related to his personal history. He was suffering from a loss of ________ memory
episodic
In real life, information that has just entered iconic memory will be pushed out very quickly by new information. Research suggests that after ________, old information is replaced by new information.
a quarter of a second
The information-processing model of memory suggests that:
the process of memory storage is similar to the way a computer processes memory in a series of three stages.
In their original study, which explored how information is stored in long-term memory, Collins and Quillian (1969) asked participants to respond “true” or “false” as quickly as possible to sentences such as “a canary is a bird” and “a canary is an animal.” The results of this study suggest that:
information exists in a kind of network, with nodes of related information linked to each other in a kind of hierarchy
The Tower of Hanoi study found that people with anterograde amnesia:
still formed new procedural memories
One may transfer information from short-term memory (STM) into long-term memory (LTM) by:
elaborative rehearsal
The system of working memory processes the information in:
short term memory
Psychologists consider memory to be:
an active system
When a memory is being formed, several changes take place in the brain in a process called:
consolidation
Explicit memory begins to form after about age two________________________.
when the hippocampus is more fully developed
he ability to adapt and deal with new problems or challenges the first time you encounter them.
fluid intelligence
Five-year old Jordan is seeing a speech therapist in his preschool once a week because he has difficulty saying the “r” sound in his own name. When he says his name, people think it sounds like “jaw-dun.” From a language perspective, Jordan is having difficulty with a specific _______.
phoneme
Shelly took the Stanford-Binet test at age 10 and scored a mental age of 13. Using Stern’s formula, her IQ is:
130
In the brain, creating a mental image is _______ seeing an actual image.
almost the opposite of
who believed that language could help a child learn to control social behavior?
Vygotsky
Piaget theorized that _____ preceded and aided the development of ______.
concepts and language
The rhythm and emphasis of communicating is part of which language structure?
pragmatics
Concepts are universal and influence the development of language
The cognitive universalism theory
One barrier to innovative problem solving is persisting in using techniques that have been successful in the past, also known as:
mental set
A mechanical problem-solving technique is also referred to as:
trial and error
A more creative method of problem-solving is the use of:
divergent thinking
Creative intelligence is related to
divergent thinking
When the solution to a problem suddenly comes to mind, it is called:
insight
Wechsler’s four index scales are verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, working memory, and:
processing speed
Gardner believes that reason, logic, and knowledge are:
different aspects of intelligence
the ability to learn from one’s experiences, acquire knowledge, and use resources effectively for solving problems.
intelligence
A person with an IQ over 145 may be best categorized as:
a genius
_________ often work with individuals who have traumatic brain injury.
clinical neuropsychologists
IQ is assumed to be normally distributed with a mean IQ of 100 and a typical standard deviation of about:
15
Language allows people to ______ and _______.
communicate with one another and represent their own mental activity
Only differences among people in general can be investigated for the influence of genes because genes always interact with:
environmental factors
The higher one’s degree of practical intelligence:
the less likely that person will succeed in an academic setting