Public Speaking Chapters 1-10, 13. Textbook explains, speech, preparation discuss, speaker

When your textbook describes public speaking as a form of empowerment, it means that public speaking is
a way to make a difference in something we care about.
How much time does the average adult spend in conversation?
about 30 percent of waking hours
The skills used in public speaking which are the same used in everyday conversation are: (3)
organizing your thoughts logically
tailoring your message to your audience.
adapting to listener feedback.
When you experience stage fright, your body is producing extra , a hormone that is released into the bloodstream in response to physical or mental stress.
adrenaline
Rather than trying to eliminate every trace of stage fright, you should aim at transforming it into
positive nervousness.
You definitely shouldn’t do this to deal with nervousness in your speeches
focus on your stage fright
Is there a such thing as a perfect speech?
no
When should you think of your speech as an act of communication
to help deal with your nervousness
Research has shown that the anxiety level of most speakers drops off significantly when
they are 30 to 60 seconds into the speech.
visualization is the process of
a speaker is to create a vivid mental blueprint in which you see yourself succeeding in your speech; build confidence
Turn negative thoughts into positive thoughts is a way
to help deal with your nervousness
Remember that your nervousness is not usually visible to your audience.
Concentrate on communicating with the audience rather than on your nerves.
As you rehearse, visualize yourself giving a successful speech.
These are ways
to help deal with your nervousness
Visualize yourself giving a successful speech is a way
to help deal with your nervousness
when you employ the power of visualization as a method of controlling stage fright you should
focus on the positive aspects of your speech
Critical Thinking
Dealing with such matters as the logical relationships among ideas, the soundness of evidence, and the differences between fact and opinion
frame of reference
you relate the speaker’s ideas to your own knowledge, goals, and experience
practicing the delivery of your speech
does not help strengthen your skills of a critical thinker
Everything a speaker says is filtered through a listener’s
frame of reference
feedback
audiences verbal and nonverbal responses
A listener anxious about an upcoming exam, worried about a recent argument with a friend, or distracted by cold air in the classroom would be experiencing
interference
Whatever a speaker communicates to someone else is termed the
message
The means by which a message is communicated is termed the
channel
The tendency to see the beliefs, values, and customs of one’s own culture or group as “right” or “natural” is called
ethnocentrism
the belief that one’s own group or culture is superior to all other groups or cultures is termed
ethnocentrism
Speechmaking is a form of power and therefore carries with it heavy responsibilities
ethical
the branch of philosophy that deals with human issues of right and wrong is termed
ethics
Be honest in what you say, be fully prepared for each speech, and make sure your goals are ethically sound.
guidelines for ethical speechmaking
public speakers have an ethical obligation to avoid name-calling and other forms of abusive language because such language
demeans the dignity of the groups or individuals being attacked and undermines the right of all groups in the U.S. to express their ideas are
global plagiarism
takes a speech entirely from one source and passes it off as her or his own
incremental plagiarism
forgetting to cite any of your sources
patchwork plagiarism
occurs when a speaker copies word for word from two or three sources.
incremental plagiarism
occurs when the speech as a whole is ethical but the speaker fails to give credit for particular quotations and
listen attentively, avoid prejudging the speaker, and support free speech is guidelines for
ethical listening
ethical obligations of listeners
maintaining the free and open expression of ideas & being courteous and attentive during the speech
People spend more time than in any other communication activity
listening
Even when we are listening carefully, we usually grasp only about percent of what we hear
50%
When business managers are asked to list the communication skills most crucial to their job, they usually rank number one
listening
empathic listening
listening to provide emotional support
appreciative listening
listening for pleasure as a friend
critical listening
when you listen to evaluate a speaker’s message for purposes of accepting it or rejecting it
comprehensive listening
listening to understand the message
taking written notes while the speech is in progress is an example of
poor listening
jumping to conclusions is an example of
poor listening
first step to improving your listening skills
take listening seriously
Although most people speak at a rate of 125 to 150 words a minute, the brain can process words at a rate of
400-800 words/ min
skilled listening focus on three major aspects of a speech which are
main points.
evidence.
technique
Your textbook recommends as the most effective method of note taking for listening to a speech
making a key-word outline
brainstorming is good for
choosing a speech topic
After choosing a topic, what is the next step of speech preparation
determining the general purpose
using a subject-based search engines on the Internet is recommended in your textbook as one method of for a speech topic.
brainstorming
advocating
Is out of place in a speech to inform
When the general purpose of your speech is to , you act primarily as a teacher or lecturer
inform
When the general purpose of your speech is to , you act primarily as an advocate.
persuade
A specific purpose for a speech should be a
a full infinitive phrase
What is the most important early step in the process of developing a successful speech?
formulating the specific purpose
A specific purpose should not be
broad/ general, use figurative language, an uncompleted sentence
central idea
central/unifying element in story
The primary purpose of speechmaking is to
gain a desired response from listeners
Seeking to create a bond with her audience through emphasizing their common experiences and fears
identification
egocentric
To say that people usually want to hear about things that are meaningful to them is to say that people are
What are the two types of audience analysis discussed in your textbook?
demographic and situational
What kind of audience analysis is by looking at traits such as age, gender, sexual orientation, religion, group membership, and racial, ethnic and cultural background?
demographic
What kind of audience analysis is size, and the audience attitude toward the topic?
situational
audience analysis usually builds on the demographic analysis
situational
As the size of your audience increases, your presentation should usually become more
formal
The will usually dictate how long a speech should be.
occasion
What element usually has the greatest impact on the length a speech should be?
the occasion for the speech
What are the three primary factors to consider when assessing an audience’s disposition toward a speech topic?
knowledge, interest, and attitude
The major advantage of using fixed-alternative questions in an audience analysis questionnaire is that they
produce clear, unambiguous answers.
When making up an audience analysis questionnaire, you should use questions to get at the strength of a respondent’s attitudes or feelings.
scale
A questionnaire item that gives the respondent the widest freedom in answering is called a(n)
open-ended question
fixed-alternative question
If you were constructing an audience-analysis questionnaire and wanted to learn how many of your listeners had ever heard of something
fixed-alternative question
A type of question (or interrogative) that offers the listener a closed choice between two or more answers
The is the key to finding information in the library
catalog
The library’s catalogue allows you to search for books by
author, title, keyword
Periodical databases
catalog articles from a large number of journals and magazines & often provide abstracts of journal and magazine articles
reference works
Encyclopedias, dictionaries, yearbooks, atlases, gazetteers, and quotation books
A _______________ is a research aid that catalogues articles from a large number of journals or magazines.
periodical database
The two kinds of Internet search aids
search engines and virtual libraries
A is a search aid that combines Internet technology with traditional library methods of cataloguing and assessing data
virtual libraries
As your textbook explains, the best kind of search aid for locating reliable, high quality information on the Internet is a
virtual libraries
According to your textbook, the three criteria for judging the reliability of research documents located on the Internet are authorship, sponsorship, and
recency.
What are the three criteria discussed in your textbook for assessing the soundness of documents found on the Internet?
authorship, sponsorship, and recency
If you can’t identify the author of a document on the Internet
try to determine the sponsoring organization for the document
When quoting an Internet document during a speech, a speaker should identify the
author or sponsoring organization responsible for the document.
The most important task when preparing to conduct a research interview is
devising questions to ask during the interview.
Preliminary bibliography
lists each source that looks as if it might be helpful in speech
Two major formats mentioned in your textbook for citing works
Modern Language Association (MLA) and American Psychological Association (APA)
What is the guideline for preparing a preliminary bibliography?
Write a brief note on why the source may be valuable for your speech
Using is the best way to pull listeners into your speeches
extended examples
The more your examples, the greater impact they are likely to have
vivid
Examples are especially helpful as supporting materials because they
personalize your ideas
combine examples with causal reasoning
is not good when providing examples
hypothetical example
an imaginary story that makes a general point
Accomplished speakers consider “the very life of the speech.”
examples
Research indicates that the impact of examples is greatly enhanced when they are combined with that show(s) the examples to be typical.
statistics
The main value of using statistics in a speech is to
quantify the speaker’s ideas
Avoiding using too many statistics
helps the impact of using statistics
representative statistic
the sample group surveyed accurately represents the group about whom a claim is being made
When you have complicated statistics you should
round them off
Using visual aids in a speech is a good way to
clarify statistical trends
The main value of using expert testimony in a speech is to
build the credibility of speakers who are not experts on their topics
To paraphrase is to
give the gist of someone’s statement in your own words
verbatim
word for word
Using expert testimony is an excellent way to lend to your speeches.
credibility
Don’t use statistics without
explaining them
Peer testimony
ordinary people with firsthand experience or insight on a topic.
The is the longest and most important part of the speech.
body
what is the most important reason for limiting the number of main points in a speech?
It is hard for the audience to keep track of too many main points.
most effective order of main points in a speech depends above all on your topic, purpose, and
audience
Chronological Organization
main points of a speech follow a time pattern
Spatial Organization
main ideas follow a directional pattern, they are organized in
Which of the following organizational patterns is used more than any other method of speech organization because of its applicability to almost any subject?
topical
Problem-solution order is most appropriate for organizing speeches.
persuasive
Transition
Words or phrases that indicate when a speaker has completed one thought and is moving on to another are called
While working on the body of your speech, you see the need to let the audience know what the upcoming subpoints will be
internal summary
signposts
brief statements that help listeners follow your ideas
Internal Preview
outlines the critical points to be made within the body of the speech
According to your textbook, when you are in a formal speaking situation the most effective way of gaining the initial attention of your audience after you walk to the lectern is
looking directly at the audience without saying a word.
What are the four basic objectives of a speech introduction?
reinforce the central idea & gain attention of the audience & reveal the topic & establish credibility and goodwill
A preview, credible, startling statement appears
in the speech introduction
When you advocate a highly unpopular position, it is particularly important to
in the introduction of your speech.
establish goodwill toward the audience
Creating goodwill is especially important in the introduction of a speech.
persuasive
When preparing a speech introduction, you should complete it
after the body of the speech
What percent should your conclusion be of your entire speech?
5% to 10%
All four methods of reinforcing the central idea can be combined in a single
conclusion
Which of the following does your textbook mention as a means of reinforcing the central idea in the conclusion of a speech?
end with a quotation, reinforce main idea, repeat intro
A statement to arouse curiosity should not be where in a speech?
conclusion
According to your textbook, when a speaker concludes a speech by fading out on an emotional note she or he is using a ending.
dissolve
According to your textbook, a ending is a conclusion that builds force until reaching a peak of power and intensity. (Martin Luther King Speech)
crescendo
To give the speech psychological unity
Refer back to your introduction in the conclusion
An appeal to action is most appropriate in the conclusion of a speech.
persuasive
An outline helps ensure that
ideas flow clearly from one to another
A bibliography should be included in an
preparation outline
Two types of speech outlines discussed in your textbook are the
preparation outline and the speaking outline
According to your textbook, which of the following should be included in a preparation outline?
bibliography & a specific purpose statement & central idea & transitions
Directions for delivering the speech are not necessary in a outline.
preparation
According to your textbook, the specific purpose statement in a preparation outline should be written
before the text of the outline itself
In a preparation outline, main points should be positioned farthest to the
left
states main points and subpoints in full sentences
preparation outline
The main points in a preparation outline are
identified by
Roman numerals
Subpoints in a preparation outline are indicated by
capital letters
Subpoints in a preparation outline are written
in full sentences
A speech title should
attract the attention of the audience & be brief & suggest the main thrust of the speech
Both a preparation outline and a speaking outline should use a consistent pattern of
symbolization and indentation
According to your textbook, the main reason to keep a speaking outline brief is to
help the speaker maintain eye contact with the audience
A outline includes the quotations a speaker plans to use
speaking
In a speaking outline, subpoints are identified by
capital letters
What outline contains delivery cues?
speaking
In a speaking outline, the conclusion should be labeled as a
separate part of the speech
The use of a visual aid can (2)
enhances the clarity of the speaker’s message &can help combat the speaker’s stage fright
One should keep visual aids .
simple
If the object you want to use as a visual aid is not available, the next best option ideally is a
model
When using color in a visual aid, you should utilize color to highlight
key points
When making a multimedia presentation, you should
be prepared to give your speech even if the equipment malfunctions.
To be used effectively as visual aids, photographs should be
bigger than ordinary enlargements
are especially valuable for showing an audience statistical trends and patterns
graphs
A graph is best suited for illustrating simple distribution patterns.
pie
A graph is best suited for showing comparisons between two or more items.
bar
If you wanted to summarize the steps of a process in a speech, the best kind of visual aid to use would probably be a
chart
A graph is best suited for showing changes in statistics over time or space.
line
According to your textbook, when selecting fonts for a visual aid you should usually use no more than
two fonts
Avoid using the to present visual aids
chalkboard
Visual aids are most effective when they are part of a speaker’s
rehearsal process.