Classless inter-domain routing (CIDR)
CIDR differs from traditional address (now called classful addressing) by allowing the division between the network identifier and the host identifier to fall anywhere in an IPv4 address, it does not have to fall on one of the eight-bit boundaries. Helps conserves the IP address space
One in which two communicating system eatables a connection before they transmit data. Once the connection is established the computers exchange packets with complex headers designed to provide error detection and correction. A connection-oriented protocol ensures bit-perfect data transmissions, but at the price of greatly increased overhead
Does not require the establishment of a connection, nor does it perform error detection or correction. Systems simply transmit their packets to the destination without know if the destination system is ready to accept data, or if it even exists. Connectionless protocols do not guarantee delivery of their data, but they operate with a very low overhead that conserves network bandwidth.
The process of applying the header and the footer is called data encapsulation.
Data-link layer packet that gets transmitted over the network consists of transport layer data, encapsulated within an IP packet, which called datagram, which in turn encapsulated within an Ethernet frame
At either end of each cable run are modular 8P8C connectors. It is often incorrectly referred to as RJ45 connectors, which is similar to the RJ11 connectors used for telephones. . A network interface adapter is the component that provides the connection to the network.
Firewall is a software routine that acts as a virtual barrier between a computer and the network to which it is attached. Essentially, a filter that enables certain types of incoming and outgoing traffic to pass through the barrier, while blocking other types
Header and footer and the data they contain are collectively called a frame.
Internet Protocol (IP)
The protocols that Windows uses by default at the network and transport layers are collectively called TCP/IP. IP is the network layer protocol that performs many important networking functions.
Every device that is directly connected to a TCP/IP network must have an IP address. IP addresses are independent of the hardware address assigned to network interface adapters.
Link Local Multicast Name Resolution (LLMNR)
System transmits name query request messages as multicasts to the local network. The request contains the name the computer is trying to resolve. The other computers on the local network, on receiving he messages, compare the requested name with their own names. The computer with the requested name than replies with a message containing IP address, which it transmits as unicast to the original requestor.
Media access control (MAC) addresses
The addresses computers use at the data-link layer are six-byte hexadecimal sequences, hardcoded into each network interface adapter by the manufacturer. These sequences are called hardware addresses or media access control (MAC) address). The first three bytes of a hardware address identify the manufacturer of the network interface adapter and the last three bytes identify the adapter itself.
Network address translation (NAT)
NAT is a feature built into many routers that takes the packets destined for the Internet that are generated by computers on a private network, substitutes a registered address for the computer’s private address and then forwards the packet to the Internet destination. When it gets a reply, it reverses the process.
Open system Interconnection (OSI) reference model
Most common method for illustrating the operations of the networking stack which consists of seven layers. Application, Presentation, Session, Transport, Network, data-link, Physical
Local area networks are sometimes described as packet-switching networks because the messages generated by each computer are divided up into small pieces called packets, which he computer transmits individually over the network.
Headers both contain codes that identify specific applications running on the systems. Codes are called ports.
Computer networking is a highly complex process, but most of the technology operates invisibly, both to the user and the administrator. Computers on a network communicate using protocols, which are nothing more than the languages that all computers understand. These protocols operative on different levels, coming what is commonly known s a networking stack.
A device that connects one network to another.
The combination of an IP address and a prot number is called a socket
Stateless address autoconfiguration
IPv6 address assignment is much more of an automatic process than in IPv4. A technique called stateless address autoconfiguration enables computers to configure their own addresses after transmitting routers solicitation multicasts to the router on the network and receiving router advertisement message in return.
A 32-bit number, expressed in dotted decimal notation, such as 255.255.255.0 Difference between a subnet mask and an IPv4 address is that a subnet mask, consists, in binary form, of a series of consecutive 1s followed by a series of consecutive O’sPro
Transmission Control Protocol
One of two protocols that Windows uses by default at the nework and transprt layers that is collectively called TCP/IP
Unshielded twisted pair (UTP)
Most cabled networks use a type of cable called unshielded twisted pair (UTP), which is similar to cable used for telephone wiring. UTP cable consists of four pairs of wires, with each pair twisted individually. At either end of each cable run are modular 8P8C connectors
A software routine, which also acts as a filter that blocks certain type of incoming and outgoing traffic, while enabling other types is called a ________ .
The ________ tool provides a central access point for all of the network controls and connections on a computer running Windows 7.
Network and Sharing Center
A device that connects one network to another is called a ________ .
The most common method for illustrating the operations of a network stack is the ________ , which consists of ________ layers.
Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference model and 7 layers
Protocols that do not guarantee deliver of their data, but do operate with a very low overhead that conserve network bandwidth are called ________ .
“The Windows 7 command line utility that can tell if the TCP/IP stack of another system on the network is functioning normally is called ________ _.
The Windows 7 command line utility that enables you to generate DNS request messages and then transmit them to specific DNS servers on the network is called ________ .
Most networks use ________ to dynamically assign addresses and configure computers to use them.
The Windows 7 command line utility that displays a list of the routers currently forwarding packets to a particular destination is called ________ .
The top and bottom layers of the OSI model are called the ________ .
Application and Physical Layer
The purpose of Network Diagnostics is to display error messages only.
Transport layer protocols are not concerned with addressing packets to the correct system.
The National Map utility uses a new protocol called Link Layer Topology Discover (LLTD) to discover information about the network and the devices attached to it.
The protocols that Windows uses by default at the network and transport layers are collectively called TCP/IP
Home and work computers have Network Discovery turned on, and public computers have it turned off
There are two basic types of port numbers ephemeral port numbers and well known port numbers.
A Windows 7 computer that is connected to a LAN has hardware address and a computer that is connected to the Internet has an IP address
The only two layers of the OSI reference model that do not have individual protocols associated with them are the transport layer and the session layer.
Because the configuration of the Internet is constantly changing, the only way can know for certain what route packets are taking to a specific destination is to use Tracert.exe
The IPv6 addresses Windows 7 computers use at the network layer are six byte hexadecimal sequences, hard coded into each network interface adapter by the manufacturer.