Free Sample: Foundations Practice Exam paper example for writing essay

Foundations Practice Exam - Essay Example

A switch can give each sender/ giver pair the line’s entire bandwidth, Instead of sharing the bandwidth with all other network nodes. Network Technology Associate iv. O, Lesson 2: Networking Components and Standards, section “Common Network Components. ” 2. Virtual Network Computing (VAN) is a program that allows you to control a computer at a remote location. VAN consists of which two components? The client and the server VAN consists of two components: the server and the viewer. The server listens on a specific port (for example, TCP 5800 on Windows systems) and allows clients to connect.

The server also allows authenticated users to log on and see the same splay they would see If they were sitting In front of the (server) computer. The viewer allows users to see the remote system’s logon environment. Internet Business Associate iv. O, Lesson 9: Internet Services and Tools for Business, section “Virtual Network Computing (VAN). ” 3. Suppose you are looking at a command prompt window that displays network configurations. In the section labeled Ethernet Adapter Local Area Connection, you see IP addresses listed for the following categories: Link-Local 1*. 6 Address PIP address Subnet Mask Default Gateway The local host on the network Most IP-enabled systems are also configured with a default gateway, which is an IP address that specifies a routing device (for example, a router or firewall). After a network host is configured with a default gateway, the host will be able to communicate with a remote network, if permitted by the routing device. A default gateway is often referred to simply as a gateway. The command to generate this information is upcoming. Network Technology Associate iv.

O, Lesson 1 : Introduction to Networking, section “configuring TCP/IP. ” 4. Patrick wants to search for Fender guitars other than Scoutmasters. He plans to use a keyword search engine. He does not want to see any results for Cotoneaster guitars, only other Fender models. Which of the following search strings should he use? Guitar Fender The correct search string for this search would be Fender guitar ! Cotoneaster. Boolean operators allow you to filter your keyword search results by excluding or requiring certain words from your keyword search. The operator ! Also – and NOT) cause the search engine to return only results that exclude (I. E. , do not include) the word immediately following the operator (no spaces). The operator * is the wildcat hearted and means that the root word can include variations in spelling. The I operator (also OR) means that results must include at least one of the words. The operator 0 or means that the words of the enclosed phrase must appear in the order specified. Internet Business Associate iv. O, Lesson 6: Databases and Web Search Engines, section “Boolean Operators. ” 5.

Which of the following was issued by the U. S. Government to ensure accessibility to various resources, including Web pages? Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WAG) The Americans with Disabilities Act (DAD) was enacted by the U. S. Government in 1990 to protect the civil rights of disabled people. This law has many sections, and includes mandates for equal employment opportunities and public accommodations for disabled people. It also includes mandates that electronic information be accessible to disabled people. Significant compliance failures are subject to financial penalties.

Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act requires that all electronic and information technology developed, procured, maintained or used by federal agencies be comparably accessible to users with disabilities. The Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WAG) were created under the Web Accessibility Initiative (WA’), which was formed by the World Wide Web Consortium (WAC), an international technology Site Development Associate iv. O, Lesson 1: Markup Language and Site Development Essentials, section “Web Site Development Principles. ” 9. In the HTML standard, what is the recommended way to center a paragraph of text?

Use the tag. In HTML, you must use an inline CSS style attribute in the paragraph tag when you want to center a paragraph of text. The syntax is as follows: This text is centered. In this example, the tag encompasses the text you want to format. The style attribute tells the browser that the paragraph text should be aligned to the specified value, “center. ” The tag is deprecated and should not be used. The tag centers and indents a block of text; however, do not use tags within tags. Site Development Associate iv. O, Lesson 2: HTML Coding, section “Paragraph Formatting and Block-Level Elements. 10. To which of the following does peer development and collaboration lend itself? Proprietary software development Open source is a development methodology that makes an application’s source code available to anyone. In software development, open source lends itself to peer placement and collaboration because software source code is developed concurrently by many people. This approach is the direct opposite of the structured, controlled models of development commonly employed in proprietary software development. Section “Open-Source Development. ” 13.

Which statement about open-source GUI HTML editors is true? Currently, HTML is supported by most open-source GUI and WYSIWYG HTML editors. One of the drawbacks of using GUI HTML editors to create Web pages is that many GUI editors have not kept pace with the evolution of HTML, and thus do not provide options for using some of the recently developed tags. Currently, HTML is not supported by any open-source GUI or WYSIWYG HTML editors. Open-source GUI HTML editors do not provide scripting language tutorials, and most of them allow you to modify your code manually.

Site Development Associate iv. O, Lesson 9: GUI HTML Editors and Mobile Web Sites, section “HTML Text Editors vs.. GUI Editors. ” 16. What is the main difference between a PostScript (AS) file and an Encapsulated PostScript (PEPS) file? A AS file is used to transport text files between operating systems and applications, whereas an PEPS file is used to transport audio or video PostScript (AS) files are written in a page description language so they are unreadable, and are designed for printing on PostScript printers.

Encapsulated PostScript (PEPS) is a file format that you can use to import and export graphics files between operating systems and applications. Whereas a PostScript file only has the instructions that determine the display of the graphic, an PEPS file actually contains the bitmap information for the graphics file. This additional data allows PEPS files to display an alternative bitmap graphic for previewing. Internet Business Associate iv. O, Lesson 5: Multimedia on the Web, section “Miscellaneous File Formats. ” 19. Why is it important to have an adequate amount of disk cache space when downloading multimedia objects?

Because all multimedia objects must be completely downloaded to your hard drive before you can view them It is important to have an adequate amount of disk cache space when downloading multimedia objects because plug-ins can store a portion of the multimedia object data in the cache and begin streaming delivery as the file downloads. When a browser encounters a file type that is not directly supported, it launches a plug-in application that retrieves the multimedia files from a server, similar to the way a browser retrieves standard Web pages. The files are then delivered to the client system for playback.

Instead of loading the entire file at once, many plug-ins retrieve a small portion at a time and store the data in the local disk cache. Using a cache, the plug-in delivers Just enough information to build a continuous stream of data, called streaming media, which eliminates transfer delays. For instance, when you listen to a Web audio file, you may be hearing one part of the file while the next part downloads in the background. Introduction to Plug-in Technology. ” 21 . When a PC computer device wants to communicate with the processor, the system resource that it uses is: 1/0.

In a personal computer, communication is controlled through interrupts. Interrupt requests (Iris) are hardware lines that are used to identify when a device wants to communicate with the processor and to notify a device that the processor wants the device’s attention. Network Technology Associate iv. O, Lesson 5: Hardware and Device Connectivity, section “Motherboard. ” 22. Consider the following HTML tag: In this tag, what is specified by the value of the here attribute? A link to alternative text for this image, which may not display in some browsers image map. Site Development Associate iv.

O, Lesson 7: Video, Audio and Image Techniques, section “Image Maps. ” 23. Ellen is creating a style sheet to format her Web pages. For the page background color, she enters the hexadecimal code OFF. What color will the page background be when she applies this style? Blue The page background will be green. The RUG value for green is 0,255,0 and the hexadecimal value for green is OFF. The hex value for black is 000000; hex value for blue is OFF, and hex value for red is FOE. You can specify colors for the page background in HTML and CSS documents using words for values, such as “teal” and “tan”.

Alternatively, you can also use a hexadecimal code to specify color values. Colors are often specified in terms of their RUG values. RUG stands for Red Green Blue. You may know that if you were mixing paint, the mixture of red, green and blue together creates a rather muddy color. But on a monitor screen, you are mixing light, and the mixture of red, green and blue light produces white, which is the presence of all colors. Black is the absence of all colors. In RUG code, the higher the numeric value representing a color, the lighter that color will be. The lower the value, the darker the color.

Colors are specified in RUG values ranging from O to 255. The hexadecimal value IF represents 255. Therefore, the hexadecimal value #PAYOFF represents the highest possible value for all three RUG colors, producing white. The hexadecimal value #000000 represents the absence of all colors, or black. The number symbol ( # ) is not required by current generation browsers, but you should include this symbol for full backward-compatibility. Site Development Associate iv. O, Lesson 3: Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) and Graphical Elements, Section “Specifying Colors. ” 25. You work at an IT help desk.

You are discussing a system issue with a co-worker, who asks you to explain the difference between Direct Memory Access (DAM) and programmed input/output (POI). How do they differ? POI can bypass the processor to directly access memory, whereas DAM cannot. Direct Memory Access (DAM) is the process by which a device can directly address system memory, bypassing the processor. DAM is most often used by hard disk controllers, but can also be used by other peripherals. DAM is different from aerogramme input/output (POI), which requires that all data first pass through the processor.

POI is now considered obsolete. 27. Which TCP/IP diagnostic tool can determine the path between source and destination systems? The tracer command The tracer (trace route) utility can determine the path between the source and propagation time between each router and the source system. Windows Pop uses the tracer command and Windows IPPP uses the tracer -6 command. Sometimes problems located far from your local network can compromise your network’s performance. For example, if a company router or gateway fails, your Internet access ay be interrupted.

This disruption may cause name service failure, loss of e-mail service or complaints from users who cannot access the Web. The traceries program can help locate such failures. Network Technology Associate iv. O, Lesson 3: Connecting to the Internet, section “Diagnostic Tools for Internet Troubleshooting. ” 33. Marcel is inserting images into an HTML page. When he previews the page, the images render well. But when he tries to validate his page, the code will not validate. Which image-insertion tag and attribute are required in order for Marcella HTML page to validate without error? G, ISRC attribute The tag is used to insert images into an HTML document, and to validate as HTML, it must include the alt attribute. The tag also requires the ISRC attribute, both to render and to validate. The ISRC attribute specifies the image file to display, and the alt attribute specifies alternative text to display with the image or in place of the image if it does not render in the browser. Graphical Elements, section “Images in Web Pages. ” 37. Mary is developing a Web site and keeps running into issues with her Web browser. The page she is developing does not reflect the changes she has Just made.

Even though she has refreshed her browser and even restarted the browser several times, the old content still appears. What can she do to resolve this problem? Manually delete temporary files in the C: emp directory. Sometimes, a Web browser Just will not work right unless you delete the cached files. Sometimes clearing the cache manually is the only way, but a browser never stores cached files in the C: emp directory. Section “Preventive Maintenance. ” 39. A system on your company’s network is malfunctioning. As a result, company workstations are performing very slowly.

You go to a Windows workstation that is reforming slowly to try to troubleshoot the problem. Which command can help you determine the number of ports open on this system? Ping The neatest command displays the contents of various network-related data structures, such as the state of sockets. More specifically, this command displays information about packets processed by your system on the network. The ping command tests connectivity between source and destination systems. The upcoming command is used to determine the path between the source and destination systems. 41 .

What is the term for a database that contains multiple tables related through common fields? Joined database A relational database contains multiple tables of information that are related through common fields. By contrast, a non-relational database consists of multiple tables of information that are not related through common fields. When multiple tables have a field in common, they can be Joined to form a relationship to access the table data as needed. Section “Overview of Databases. ” 42. Nancy is formatting a simple Web page. Her supervisor has directed her to create headings before the second and fourth paragraphs.

Which type of HTML elements should Marion use to accomplish this most efficiently? Blockbuster elements Paragraph-level elements such as HI, H2O, HE, etc. , have pre-established styles for font size and spacing associated with them that will result in uniform formatting for headings/titles. Additionally, the text encompassed within one of these headings will be preceded and followed by paragraph breaks. A text-level element would allow for formatting but these elements are not tied to styles, thus requiring that each heading be modified individually if formatting changes are requested by stakeholders.

Additionally, paragraph elements would still need to be added to obtain proper pacing, making the code unnecessarily cluttered. 45. Alliterated Company is considering using a cloud service from Cloudscape Inc. To support Ultraist’s expanding needs. However, Ultraist’s managers are concerned about security. Which of the following should Alliterated request in order to protect its data from security threats? For Cloudscape Inc. To run multiple hypocrisies The five main security threats to cloud services are multi-tenancy risks, distributed denial-of-service (DOS) attacks, insider threats, and ignorance.

Of the choices given here, performing background checks on the Local Data Center staff is the only one hat will help resolve one of these threats: Insider threats. Cloud service providers hire IT professionals to manage and maintain the systems. An unknown IT administrator may have full access to all of your company data hosted in the cloud. Ensure the cloud service provider conducts background checks on all employees who Network Technology Associate iv. O, Lesson 6: Network and Cloud Security Risks, section “Cloud Security Threats. ” 46. You are updating company guidelines regarding professional communication via e-mail.

To dispel the impression of shouting or anger, users should: avoid typing messages in all lowercase letters. To control the tone of e-mail messages, users should avoid typing messages in all capital letters; this practice connotes shouting or anger. All lowercase letters can convey inattention or haste, and may make your message more difficult to read. Typos, non-standard (or incorrect) spelling and abbreviations look unprofessional, and may even make recipients question your competence. The use of emoticons is not professional and is best reserved for personal communication. Internet Business Associate iv.

O, Lesson 7: Business E-Mail and Personal Information Management, section “E-Mail in the Workplace. ” 8. HTML comes in several versions. Which HTML version includes the Transitional, Strict and Frameset “flavors? ” HTML HTML 4. 01 has three distinct variants, or “flavors. ” The HTML 4. 01 flavors ensure that you could use the specification and still remain backward-compatible with older Web browsers. The three HTML 4. 01 flavors are Transitional, Strict and Frameset. HTML is the latest version of HTML and does not have variants. HTML 2. 0 was the first definitive version of HTML.

HTML 3. 2 is an older but functional HTML standard that is the predecessor to HTML 4. 01 . Site Development Associate iv. O, Lesson 1 : Markup Language and Site Development Essentials, section “History of Markup Languages. ” 50. When Web users enter the URL www. Clarified. Com in their browser address bar, they can access the official CIW Web site at the IP address 72. 44. 192. 233. Which technology enables users to do this, instead of having to remember and enter the IP address? HTTP The Domain Name Systems (DNS) resolves IP addresses into easily recognizable text- based names.

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is the protocol used to transfer Web pages from a Web server to a Web client, usually a Web browser. Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is a language that can be used to create Web pages. Transmission Control Protocol/lenient Protocol (TCP/IP) enables computer systems to communicate and share information. Internet Business Associate iv. O, Lesson 3: Introduction to Internet Technology, section “Domain Name System (DNS). ” 55. You want to find information about Great Danes. You visit a popular search directory titled “Dogs” and a subdirectory titled “Breeds. You select the topic “Great Dane” and look through a list of indexed pages on that topic, then choose one page with which to begin your research. Which type of search index did you use? Keyword index A static index/site map enables users to manually search information portals to locate indexed information. Some portals are presented as directory trees of all indexed pages. Many Web sites present site maps, which allow users to view the site contents without visiting each page. Section “Types of Web Searches. ” 57. You used JavaScript to write to a document’s window.

Which technology described the browser elements? Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) The Document Object Model (DOOM) describes the elements, or objects, within a document rendered by a Web browser. The DOOM is a vendor-neutral, cross-platform application programming interface (API) that specifies how objects in a document can be referred to and manipulated through scripting languages. Dynamic HTML (HTML) is a technology that provides Web page interactivity. A server-side include (AS’) is an instruction within an HTML page that directs the Web server to perform an action.

Site Development Associate iv. O, Lesson 8: Extending HTML, section “Document Object Model (DOOM). ” 60. You want to verify that the Web pages you create are compliant with an accessibility standard supported by a particular government. Which approach will verify your compliance most quickly? Validating pages using the WAC Validated You will need to use a tool provided by (or endorsed by) the particular government. Manual submission of pages takes more time and is not likely to be a service provided by the government. The validation tool provided by the WAC (http:// validation. 3. Org) will help you ensure that your Web pages are compliant with an HTML standard, but will not help you determine your compliance with a government- sponsored act such as DAD. 61 . Which attribute can you include in your HTML code to enable sight-impaired seers and users with text-only browsers to understand the graphical image content in your Web page? The ISRC attribute The alt attribute of the element specifies alternative text to appear while the image is loading, or in place of the image in non-graphical browsers such as Lynx.

The alt attribute is also used by browsers for sight-impaired users; the browser will repeat image fails to load or if the user has configured his or her browser not to display images. The ISRC attribute of the element is used to specify the name and location of an image file. 62. What is a local area network (LANA)? A network that uses TCP/IP to connect workstations to each other A local area network (LANA) is a network that uses a switch to connect workstations to each other. It can also use a hub.

Switches are more efficient than routers because they can be programmed to create a virtual LANA (PLAN) to further isolate traffic, and they are somewhat more secure because packet sniffing is more difficult on them. Lana allow users to share files and services, and are commonly used for intra-office communication. Lana can extend over several hundred feet and generally represent one locale, such as a corporate office in Phoenix, Arizona, U. S. A. For example. Network Technology Associate iv. O, Lesson 1: Introduction to Networking, section “Local Area Network (LANA). ” 69.

Mobile devices allow individuals to run and access software that is hosted on remote systems, and thus these devices have been referred to as the “green alternatives” to PC’s. One reason for this is because mobile devices: often use processors specifically designed for mobile devices in an effort to reduce power consumption and computing speeds. As a result of having fewer hardware components, mobile devices are often easier to use and maintain. Mobile devices usually have longer battery life because the charity of the content and applications can be provided from cloud services.

In fact, many users regard mobile devices as “green” alternatives to PC’s, because fewer resources are required to create and maintain them. Mobile devices cannot accommodate large database installations or applications such as Autocrat. Many mobile devices do not use a traditional hard disk. Instead they use a solid-state drive or even a Secure Digital (SD) card. They may have smaller storage capacity, but the use of alternative drive types and the elimination of peripherals creates a much smaller computer that has very low power consumption and heat output.