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Gender Intelligence - Essay Example

This study Is undertaken to understand the effectiveness level of managers and employees In universities of Iran, the study focused on understanding the emotional Intelligence of the managers and employees and Its link to their effectiveness level on the Job. Little research to date has examined how emotional intelligence influence managers-employees effectiveness in organizations settings. Data (N=120) for this study were collected through questionnaires that participants were managers and employees in universities of Iran.

Building on top of emotional intelligence theory, this paper explores how emotional intelligence managers and employees are influenced by effectiveness. The validity of the questionnaire was evaluated by Cockroach’ alpha is formula for measuring the amount of which was 80% which is acceptable. The consistency of the questionnaire was announced by seven authorities at the average at 89%. The mall results of this paper and evaluation was using SPAS. The results Indicated that the female part of the unleashes managers and employees are more emotionally Intelligent than their male counterpoints.

Further, the researchers concluded that communication effectiveness has positive relationship with job satisfaction. Introduction The discussion related to Emotional Intelligence (Ell communication effectiveness, and Job satisfaction remains a key topic of concern among managers and employees worldwide. Researchers of human resource have tried a lot on this topic all over the world especially in the western countries but the developing country like Iran there was a require to survey this part. Therefore this paper Is conducted to recognize the gender differences with related to the emotional Intelligence In the unleashes sectors of Iran.

There are lots of factors which have direct and positive Impact on the motional intelligence of the employees working in various sectors of the and Feldman (1996) were proposed that there is a relationship between emotions and intelligence, which do contribute in the overall communication and performance of the employees working in every organization, because the Job is affected by personal nature. All of the organizations 591 in the competitive world effort toward attain the goals for its essence.

The most important objective in this regard is to develop the employee’s communication because it finally contributes to the organizational communication. Male and female are different from one another thus they have the differences relating to manage emotions. These differences lead us to the difference between employees’ awareness, conflict and willingness to make and innovate, powerful linkage have been found between the emotional intelligence and the communication of an employee (Highs, 2004). Safeties (2004) found significant differences in emotional intelligence and gender groups.

Female participants scored higher than males in regard to perceiving emotions and in the experiential dimension of emotional intelligence. Another study expressed that there was no significant difference between male and female leaders in the social and emotional intelligence (Hopkins & Biltmore, 2007). Good communication is one factor that has been found to affect Job satisfaction (Scott, 2005), due to this; the researcher proposed the definition of good communication in the current study as communication effectiveness, which has a relationship with Job satisfaction.

Emotional Intelligence transformed progressively from a mere notion into a dominant theory in many research areas within which its effects on human behavior were analyzed. Recently, El received much interest in effective communication. Results of these studies indicated that emotional intelligence played a pivotal role in human communication. The need to establish the relationship between El and effective communication was recognized.

This relationship was further emphasized by many El theorists who asserted that managers who are emotionally intelligent communicate well with people (Coleman, 1995; Mayer, Salvoes, & Caruso, 2004; Wiggeries, 1998). This manuscript describes emotional intelligence of managers and employees of universities have a direct role to improve communication effectiveness. However, the empirical evidence is scant (Day, & Carroll, 2004; Giddier, Matthews & Roberts, 2004) and no study has examined the interaction effect of managers’ El and employees’ El on communication effectiveness.

As such, the goals of this study are to examine the impact of manager and employees’ El and communication effectiveness on Job satisfaction. Like most of the concepts of the social sciences emotional intelligence has also been defined by many researchers in different words. Emotional Intelligence can be considered as conceptualized by Salvoes & Mayer (1990) “the ability to monitor one’s win and others feelings and emotions to discriminate among them and to use information to guide one’s thinking and action” (p. 189).

To clarify this construct further, Mayer and Salvoes (1997) postulated that emotional intelligence involves the ability to perceive accurately, appraise and express emotion, the ability to access and lord generate emotional knowledge, and the ability to regulate emotion to promote emotional and intellectual growth. Among other claims, Coleman (1995) theorized that emotional intelligence is equal to, if not more important than Intelligence Quotient (Q) as an important indicator of success in one’s professional ND personal life.

Elaborating further on this construct, Coleman (1998) explained that an individual’s emotional intelligence can affect one’s 592 work situation. He also applied his conceptual understanding to organization as a whole. Coleman (1998) says that the richer the organization in terms of emotions, the higher the emotional intelligence is likely to be. In order to enrich emotional intelligence there are certain requirements that are the desire to change, self reflection, the desire to know the feelings of others, develop emotional control, desire to learn more listening skills etc.

The purpose of this study is to know that are there really some differences among the male and female employees in terms of emotional intelligence and doing the work assigned to the employees. That ultimately leads to the success of an organization. As women are Joining the workforce more day by day and are contributing to the economy of the country, the considerable attention has been given to the differentiating aspects of the male and female workers. There are many points of views given by the researchers on this issue of gender having different positions in an organization “… He search for sex differences in the behavior of leaders have produced results that is highly equivocal” (Voice, 2002, p. 651). One body of research holds that there are no significant differences in the behavior of the male and female Leaders (Day & Stodgily, 1972; Dobbins & Plate, 1986; Maier, 1997), and as a whole in the overall scenario emotional intelligence of men and women (Bar-on, Brown, Kirkland & Theme, 2000; Peptides & Burnham, 2000; 2006). Job satisfaction is vital in the day to day life, which is far past the studies and literature related to research.

Job satisfaction can be defined as an encouraging motional condition as a result from the features and characteristics of a work environment (Arches, 1991; Dressed, 1982). The model for this paper is composed of four key constructs (see Figurer) including emotional intelligence, communications effectiveness, Job satisfaction and gender. Based on the existing literature-as stated earlier- there is a positive relationship between gender, emotional intelligence, communication effectiveness, and Job satisfaction.

Also, reviewing the literature showed that gender serving as independent variable can help emotional intelligence. Therefore, we can propose hat communication effectiveness plays an important role in concern with emotional intelligence and also with Job satisfaction. In the light of above literature we can try to find out the effects of independent variables on the dependent variable and following hypothesizes will help us to do so: HI: Gender will impact level of emotional intelligence that leads to better communication effectiveness of the employees.

H2O: Emotional intelligence will have significant relationship with communication effectiveness of the employees. Figure 1: Conceptual Framework Gender Communication Effectiveness Job Satisfaction 93 HE: Communication effectiveness will have significant relationship with Job satisfaction of the employees. Sample Sample consists of 260 managers and employees working in different universities in Iran. Adopted questionnaire is employed to gather data from the managers and employees.

Out of 260 managers and employees (35 managers and 85 employees) 120 responded to the questionnaire, among which 90 were male respondents and 30 were female respondents, which comprises 76. 4% and 23. 6% respectively of the total responses achieved and Simple random sampling method was used to collect the responses. Data collection The data collected for the current study was by means of the well defined adopted questionnaire of emotional intelligence developed by Bar-on CEQ-I (1997).

The score of Cockroach’s Alpha (0. 816) confirmed the reliability of the instrument. The questionnaire was having 133 items related to emotional intelligence, rated at five point Liker type scale, having 1 = strongly disagree up to 5 = strongly agree and 3= neither agree nor disagree, and the gender, age, education level, Job position, and work experience of managers and employees were added as an independent variables to carry out study.

The higher score represented higher emotional questionnaire as mentioned earlier and few interviews were conducted to complete the incomplete and non serious responses, few of the universities employees and managers (research moderators) were requested to gather data from the different universities of Iran. Moreover many questionnaires were distributed personally and collected the responses over a two months period of time.

All the data was put into and processed through SPAS. Different types of tests were used to analyze the data. Regression analysis was used to check the relationship of the dependent and independent. Emotional Intelligence (E’) played the role of dependent variable whereas gender played the role of independent variables. Methodology Results and Discussion The results of the study show different patterns of effect of different independent variables on the dependent variable.

According to hypothesis one that states that gender has an effect on the level of emotional intelligence that leads to communication effectiveness of the employees and managers working in the universities of Iran, after analyzing the data in SPAS our results show that gender has got positive relationship with the level of emotional intelligence that leads to immunization effectiveness. Mean scores of gender of managers and employees are 3. 77 according to Table 2. In hypothesis two also there are differences among emotional intelligence and communication effectiveness of employees and managers.

Mean scores of effective listening, giving feedback, and understanding others of managers and employees are 3. 94 according to Table 3. The results of the 594 independent sample t – test show that there are significant differences with respect to the gender in the emotional intelligence of the employees working in the universities of Iran. Moreover women have more El level as compared to their male colleagues. The results also show that there are no significant differences in El with respect to the Job position of the employees according to Table 4.

The value of R square shows that there is 14. 5% variation in emotional intelligence due to the independent variables. The value of F statistic shows the fitness of the overall model according to Table 5. Conclusions As a whole after going through all this process of analyzing the data of the study found that there is differences between the male and female segment of the society and with respect to the gender of the employees of the universities employees pirating in Iran as mostly the women are more responsible by nature and generally more concerned about the people as compared to men.

Emotional intelligence by market share as the corporations are too complex and no single intervention will cure every ill. But the way people work together, coupled with technical expertise and the ability to form a strong network can be improved to help teams navigate past the inevitable bottlenecks and thus speed up the time it takes to achieve the organizational better performance and goals. In this way, enhanced emotional intelligence may be thought of as having a cataloging effect, it helps to leverage intellectual capital, and that is a crucial ingredient to achieving competitive advantage as well.

There is need for high management in universities sectors to design and include Emotional Intelligence into communicates effectively and Job satisfaction that has helped employees and managers to co-operate better and be more motivated, thereby increasing their innovative abilities etc. Such program should also take into account the gender of the employees and managers. Future Research Emotional intelligence, as an important area of Social sciences needs a lot of research in the developing countries like Iran.

As it directly influence the employees behavior working in any organization, the decision making power and the abilities related to handle the contingency situations, which may arise out of blues. There is also need to carry out research regarding intrinsic and extrinsic factors which have impact on the employee behavior and emotional intelligence of the employees. Sector wise research may also be carried out to see the emotional intelligence level of employees in different sectors of the country, to make country prosper by having intellect human capital with in the country.