Free Sample: Genetic engineering paper example for writing essay

Genetic engineering - Essay Example

Tampering in this degree is used in the hopes of making plants and animals more useful. Were the genetic changes done to livestock right or wrong? No one knows what may trigger a gene depending on where it was inserted. I believe that humans have no right to test theories on plants or animals. They also have no right to try and change or disturb the natural ecosystem. Therefore, it overrides natural selection. Further understanding GE and ethics, risks and disadvantages, and the biblical point will help one choose which side of the issue to morally support.

Regardless of position, a closer look will allow for a meaningful judgment into true feelings one may have on this highly debated topic. Do you want to know what is really happening to “natural life” as we now know it? GE is a widespread term referring to the adjustment to an organisms genes in order to remove unwanted traits, or add desirable traits. We find it in our foods at the grocery store, in medicine, in tobacco, in many farm animals, and in crops growing in fields as you pass by. Our society had no warning.

GE makes it possible to break through the breed barrier and mix information between totally different breeds. To avoid testing and adjustment in plants, GE Is done with viruses. Viruses as most people know, are very active. Almost nothing can stop them when they have attacked a new victim. Often, for no reason at all when a new gene Is Inserted Into Its new host It will only work for a short amount of time then close up. Unfortunately there Is no way to know In advance If this will occur. There are many things wrong with GE. While the Issue of the morality of crossing species boundaries reflects differing world views and may be conceptually unclear, there are known risks associated with sensationalistic of transgenic cells or organs from animals to humans. (Concessionaire. Com) Studying genes in a test tube can only tell what the gene does and behaves in that test tube alone. It cannot tell us the reaction it will have when placed into a different breed. There are unpredictable side effects that will always come with GE. Ethics is following accepted rules of behavior: morally one believes are right or wrong, because everyone may have different views on ethics. “Are not five sparrows sold for two pennies? And not one of them is forgotten before God. ” (Luke 12:6) Many animals and even fish have already been genetically edified to try and increase their production of milk and meat further than their bodies can handle without damaging them. Some animals have died in experiments while others are born deformed. GE is animal abuse.

Sometimes the claim is made that GE experiments on animals and mice are needed to cure cancer and other disease. The experiment may work on animals and mice, but they may have a totally different reaction to human bodies. Mimi cannot mimic an entire human psyche in a mouse or a rat,” says Jacqueline Crawler” (Of Mice and Men) If scientist make one title mistake during GE of any animal it could possibly create pathogens, and could destroy the food chain. After GE experiments the animals are not completely organic anymore.

In GE foods dangerous virus genes can be inserted into your own genes. Originally Genetically modified (MM) corn was meant only for pig feed, not for human consumption. GE soy can possibly cause long term allergy problems. In Genetically modified organisms (GM) crop fields, pollen pollination and pollination by insects create problems for nearby non-GM or organic farmers crops. There is also a chance hat the insects could become resistance to the pesticides inserted into the crops.

DNA does not always completely break down during digestion, so this means the bacteria in the GE foods could get into our intestines. Very little testing has been done to GM foods, and long term effects are unsure. Scientist did all these experiments so animals could eat less, grow faster, leave behind less damaging waste, and to be engineered so their organs could be transported into humans. GE offers the possibility to cure diseases and countless theories to improve daily life. Organic farming could feed the world.

There is no need to waste millions of dollars on GE technology and industrial gag. Sooner or later GE is going to cause overpopulation, because people are getting new organs and new medicine to help them get better. Everything needs to die, but in a natural way. ” Consider what God has done: Who can straighten what he has made crooked? ” (Ecclesiastic 7:13) GE has advanced extremely in the past decade and soon scientist will be able to make a “designer baby. ” This gives the parents to chance to choose the gender of the baby, eye color, hair color, height, and make their bodies immune o diseases.

Christian views may differ from others views on GE. In Christians eyes modifying life can be seen as “playing God” , because God created life and people in his own image of how he thought they needed to be. To modify what God has created would be like saying God made a mistake. Some Christians believe that scientist that are trying to change and improve life are attempting to replace God. Only God has the full right to mess with our genes. Muff shall keep My statutes. You shall not crossbreed two sorts of animals.

You shall not sow your field with two sorts of seed. Nor shall a garment made of two sorts of mixed material come upon you. ” (Leviticus 19:19) Some things are so different genetically that it is unlikely for them to interbreed. For example fish and cats can not interbreed. Crossbreeding is forbidden in the bible, but if they are very close related like zebras and horses are able to yield of the seed which you have sown and the fruit of your vineyard will be unholy. ” (Deuteron 22:9) GE is not benefiting anyone, even the farmers rarely benefit. Most American farmers who have turned to genetically engineered crops me to be getting yields no better than farmers who grow traditional varieties. They also appear to be using similar quantities of pesticides. ” (Kurt Klein, Field of dreams, New Scientist) We all must wake up and understand what is really going on around us. Scientist are not Just GE animals and plants, but also humans: “designer baby. ” Doing further research on the highly debated subject “is genetic engineering ethical or not” is extremely important when making a claim.

What genetic engineering really is and ethics, the risks and disadvantages of GE, and the biblical dominant on GE all need to be taken into consideration. Understanding what GE really is and how it works, and “Ethics is following accepted rules of behavior : morally right and good. ” (Merriam Webster) There are always risks and disadvantages involved in everything you do, but does the risks and disadvantages outweigh the advantages involved in GE? Christians views are very different from non-Christians, because God created life and people in his own image of how he thought they needed to be.

Scientist starting using GE in the hopes of improving everyday life, making animals more useful, helping crops last longer, better nutrition for humans, and drug and organ production. Scientists do not know what might trigger a gene, how it will react, or the long term effects. More testing and further research needs to be done on GE, or soon no animals will be organic, could possibly change natural genetic traits for offspring, kill innocent animals, disturb natural ecosystem, and cause long term health problems for anything consuming GM foods.

Free Sample: Genetic Engineering paper example for writing essay

Genetic Engineering - Essay Example

Aim: to introduce new characteristics or attributes physiologically or physically Such as: making a crop resistant to herbicide, introducing a novel trait, enhancing existing ones, or producing a new protein or enzyme Recombinant DNA (radar) technique, or gene splicing:oldest of these methods wherein DNA of the desired gene is inserted onto the DNA of another organism to produce a desired gene. Paul Berg- a molecular biologist who created the first recombinant DNA in 1972 from the cancer-causing monkey virus SF 40 and virus lambda.

This marked the birth of the field of genetic engineering. INTERVENTIONS/ ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS WI ISSUES Extrinsic Concerns are based on the doubts about the technology, it’s potentiality, newness and applicability to all life forms. Advantages: It provides a great opportunity for solving hunger, food Insecurity, and malnutrition. It can be made for all environmental conditions It can help in increasing quantity and quality of food. Disadvantages: The safety of food In eating is uncertain. It Is risky to one’s health.

People fear that some genes will be transmitted to them. Summary: Many people think genetic engineering is unnatural and call it as Franken Foods. It Is difficult to say whether the food Is safe or unsafe. Americans have been eating GM food for a decade but in Europe, many people are not willing to accept GM foods because of the risks Nags around the world raised the concerned that growing genetically modified crops will be harmful for the environment and genetic modification will result In “supersedes. ” GM crops are unsafe for other organisms that feed on them.

However, extensive scientific studies found this was not true GM crops and foods will result in the loss of biodiversity. However, scientific studies have not been conclusive; there may be benefits in some environments and societies and not In others. There have been reports both In favor and against genetic modifications which are not confusing people. Intrinsic concerns are based on how people view personal emotions and values. There is a feeling that mixing up genes in the organisms for our use is”Playing God” and human beings should not intervene In God’s realm.

Crossing natural species boundaries is creation of new life forms and inventing a new world through technology. Genetic engineering disrupts the beauty, integrity, balance of medicines involve playing with God and agriculture was started by disrupting nature. Also hybrid plants and animals like mules are cross-species organisms and exits. In fact mules have been cloned and can reproduce in that way! It is also argued that people eating meat harm the life of sentient beings.

Supporters of GM food consider these concerns are not valid and do not provide any solution to pragmatic issues like avian the environment and improving environmental conditions, solving hunger and malnutrition, preventing loss of biodiversity etc. DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES Wide Variety of Techniques Loss of function -such as in a ‘knockout experiment’ in which an organism is engineered to lack the activity of one or more genes. -This allows the experimenter to analyze the defects caused by this mutation, and can be considerably useful in unearthing the function of a gene. Logical counterpart of ‘knockout experiment’ Gain of function experiments – these are sometimes performed in conjunction with knockout experiments to more inanely establish the function of the desired gene. -process is the same as that in knockout engineering, except that the construct is designed to increase the function of the gene, usually by providing extra copies of the gene ‘Tracking’ experiments – which seek to gain information about the localization and interaction of the desired protein. Expression studies -aim to discover where and when specific proteins are produced. Promoter bashing: by altering the promoter to find which species are social for the proper expression of the gene and are actually bound by transcription factor proteins Other Procedures Microeconomic A gene from another organism is injected into the recipient cell where it automatically enters into the nucleus and incorporates itself into the host cell’s genetic material and replicates Ballistics Insertion of small silver particles coated with genetic material into the recipient cell Electrification and chemical portion Pores are created using weak electric currents or chemicals, respectively, in cell surface to transfer genes.

CONCLUSION Successful endeavors include the following: Manufacture of human insulin through the use of modified bacteria – In 1982 the iris genetically engineered drug, human insulin was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration -programming: is the application of genetic engineering to produce pharmaceutical chemicals.

Manufacture of retrofitting in Chinese hamster ovary cells Production of new types of experimental mice such as the Uncommonness (cancer mouse) for research Other Applications In 1986 the FDA approved the first genetically engineered vaccine for humans, hepatitis B. Since then GE has expanded to supply many drugs and vaccines Creating Smog’s or Genetically Modified/Manipulated Organisms such as foods and Engineering and Research Although there has been a tremendous revolution of biological science since the past twenty years, there is still a great deal that still remains to be discovered.

The completion of the human genome, as well as the gnomes of other agriculturally and scientifically important plants and animals has increased the potential and the possibilities of genetic research immeasurably. Prenatal Diagnosis Prenatal diagnosis is the diagnosis of disease or condition of a fetus or embryo before it is born. It is also used to determine the sex of a baby. The test is done on in vitro-fertilized embryos to detect genetic disorders known as precipitation genetic diagnosis.

Can be by: Invasive method- when probes are inserted into the placenta Non-invasive method- called “screens” which can only evaluate the risk of a condition and cannot determine 100% if the fetus has a condition, If an abnormality is indicated by a non-invasive procedure, a more invasive technique may be employed to gather information. Main purpose: to detect birth defects such as Town’s syndrome, neural tube defects, chromosome abnormalities,etc. ISSUES Physical and socioeconomic factors can increase the risk of developing health problems and poor birth outcomes.

Are the risks of prenatal diagnosis, such as amniocentesis worth the potential benefit? Some fear that this may lead to being able to pick and choose what children parents would like to have. This could lead to choice in sex, physical characteristics, and personality in children. Some feel this type of eugenic abortion is already underway (sex-selective, etc. ) Knowing about certain birth defects such as spinal biffed and dermatome before birth may give the option of fetal surgery during pregnancy, or to assure that the appropriate treatment and/or surgery be provided immediately after birth.

Questions of the value of mentally/physically disabled non-directive and supportive way. That parents are well informed if they have to consider abortions vs.. Continuing a pregnancy. NON-INVASIVE METHODS examining the mother’s enters from outside the body ultrasound detection – commonly dating scans sometimes booking scans from 7 weeks to confirm pregnancy dates and to look for twins. Later morphology scans from 18 weeks to check for baby’s sex and abnormal development.

To identify higher risks of Down syndrome, specialized uncial scan at 11-13 weeks may be used using footloose or Doppler ultrasound fetal heart monitor to listen to fetal heartbeat external fetal monitoring – also known as non-stress test -means that the baby’s heartbeat is detected by placing a small round ultrasound (high-speed sound waves) disc with ultrasound gel on your abdomen and held in place by a lightweight stretchable band or belt..

LESS INVASIVE METHODS Second trimester maternal serum screening (APP Screening, triple screen or squad screen) -can check levels of alpha petitioner, B-HCI, inhibit-A and stories in the mother’s serum. First trimester maternal serum screening -can check levels of free B-HCI and PAP-A in the mother’s serum and combine these tit the measurement of uncial translucency (NT). Some institutions also look for the presence of fetal nasal bone on the ultrasound. Integrated, sequential and contingent screening tests -use serum samples from both first and second trimester, as well as the uncial translucency measurement to calculate risk.

With integrated screening. A report is produce after both samples have been analyzed. With sequential screening, a first report is only produce after the first trimester sample has been submitted and a final report after the second trimester sample, after which they high or low risk will get ports after the first trimester sample has been submitter, only patients with moderate risk will be asked to submit a second trimester sample, after which they will receive a report combining information from both serum samples and the NT measurement.

Detection of fetal blood cells in maternal blood using blood cells from the fetus, that have made their way to the mother’s bloodstream. Tests such as baby gender mentor allegedly use this method to determine the sex of a baby as early as six weeks into a pregnancy. MORE INVASIVE METHODS Chronic villous sampling – involves getting a sample of the chronic villous and testing it can be done earlier than amniocentesis, but is a more risky procedure – can be done earlier between 9. 5 weeks of gestation and 12. Weeks gestation Amniocentesis – can be done once enough amniotic fluid has developed to sample. – cells from the baby will be floating in this fluid, and can be separated and tested. – can be done from about 14 weeks gestation, and usually up to about 20 weeks Embryos and photocopy – involve putting a probe into a women’s uterus to observe (w/ a video camera), or to sample blood or tissue from the baby. TREATMENT Some genetic conditions like cystic fibrosis, abnormality can be detected if DNA is obtained from the baby. An invasive method is needed to do this.

Cystic fibrosis- an inherited genetic disease that affects the exocrine glands, resulting in the abnormal secretion of thick, sticky mucus If genetic disease is detected, often no treatment can help the fetus until it is born thus giving the parents the option to abort the baby. If abortion isn’t an option for the couple, invasive prenatal diagnosis is unhelpful for it puts the child at risk and result doesn’t help the child. Genetic counseling can help families make decisions regarding results of prenatal diagnosis CONCLUSION Other purposes:

To enable timely medical or surgical treatment of a condition before or after birth To give the parents the chance to abort a fetus with the diagnosed condition To give the parents the chance to “prepare” for a baby with a health problem or disability, or for stillbirth Having this information in advance of the birth means that healthcare staff can better prepare themselves( have suitable treatment) and parents( provide counseling) for the delivery of the child with a health problem. In vitro fertilization -abbreviated as IF is the process of fertilization by manually combining an egg and sperm in a laboratory dish.

When the IF procedure is successful, the process is combined with a procedure known as embryo transfer, which is used physically place the embryo in the uterus. ISSUES Risks: Psychological stress Depression Bloating Mood swings Headaches Ovarian hyperventilation syndrome Side effects of fertility drugs Higher probability of giving birth to premature babies Higher probability of multiple pregnancy Egg retrieval and the use of layperson carry the typical risks related to anesthesia Slight risk of bleeding, infection and damage to the bowel, bladder or a blood vessel Separation of intuitive-procreative dimension of the conjugal act

Creating embryos in the laboratory entails that fertilization occurs apart from sexual intercourse. Thus, the intuitive-procreative dimension of the conjugal act is lost. The child must be a gift not a product. The child has the right to be the fruit of the specified act of the conjugal love of his parents’ (ICC 2378). Massive destruction of human life Collecting eggs from the woman involves the usage of drugs causing side effects such as abdominal pain, nausea, etc. Destroying of defective embryos contradicts the statement of Pope John Paul II implying that human being is to be respected and treated as a person from the moment of conception.

Aborting “excess” embryos (pregnancy reduction) Obtaining sperm from masturbation may be morally objectionable DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES Stimulation – this is also known as superannuation because multiple eggs are injected to stimulate the female’s ovaries to release mature eggs. This drug contains considerations, which are naturally produced by the female’s body. The two considerations that stimulate the production of eggs are the follicle stimulating hormone and the Latinizing hormone. Follicular Aspiration – this is a procedure that involves the retrieval of eggs from the follicles inside the ovary.

Minor surgery is done to remove the eggs from the female’s body. Using ultrasound as a guide, a thin needle is inserted through the vagina. A suction tube that is connected to the needle collect the eggs Insemination and Fertilization – the insemination process involves the mixing of the male’s sperm with the female’s eggs (collected using follicular aspiration). Fertilization can be done in two ways: allowing the sperm to naturally enter the egg, or injecting the sperm into the egg in a process known as internationalism sperm injection. Embryo Culture – the fertilized egg divides and becomes an embryo.

Embryo culture is a process wherein the embryo is allowed to grow on an artificial medium. In this stage, precipitation genetic diagnosis may be conducted for high-risk couples. Embryo Transfer – the resultant embryo is transferred to the female’s uterus through a thin tube. TREATMENT/ PREVENTION Transferring no more than four embryos per IF cycle will yield optimal results -this reduces the possibility of having multiple pregnancies, which increases other complications What happens to the leftover embryos must be discussed thoroughly with the physician with regard to the course of action to be taken.

CONCLUSION Reasons for Performing IF: Infertility in Females a) Advanced maternal age b) Endometriosis c) Poorly functioning Fallopian tubes Impotency of Males Males suffering erectile dysfunction (DE) or premature ejaculation Infertility in Males a) Decreased sperm count b) Blockage of sperm transport The following are the rate of IF success: -30 to 35% of women under age 35 -25% for women ages 35 to 37 -15 to 20% for women ages 38 to 40 -6 to 10% for women ages over 40 IF has fully revolutionized the way of pregnancy but as it is fully operated with technology, the peril of danger is still high.

It is an alternative way for those who are impotent, infertile and couples who Just don’t want to do it their way. Still, it is not recommended and if possible should avoid it since the odds are high and sometimes may get awry which will lead to complexities of the well-being of the couple mainly bombarded with stress and of the child. Sperm and Zygote Banking sperm bank, semen bank or coronary -is a facility or enterprise that collects and stores human sperm from sperm donors for use by women who need donor-provided sperm to achieve pregnancy.

Sperm donated by the sperm donor is known as donor sperm, and the process for introducing the sperm into the woman is called artificial insemination, which is a form of third party reproduction. -The prefix “cry” comes from the Greek word “sorry,” meaning cold or frost. The science of cryogenics deals with the effects of extremely cold temperatures on matter. -The purpose of crossbreeding semen (sperm banking) is to help ensure the possibility of conception in the future.

When choosing a sperm bank, it is important to find a facility that will be in business for many years to come so that the sperm can be safely stored long-term Zygote Banking (Embryo Certification or Embryo Freezing) a method used to preserve embryos by cooling and storing them at low temperatures. They can then be thawed at a future date and transferred to the uterus, providing additional opportunity for achieving conception The rights of the sperm donor. -The identity of the donor shall remain anonymous. The clients have no right to learn the identity of the donor or solicit donor identifying information from any other source.

The donor shall also be free from any responsibility to the biological offspring produced by his sperm. The rights of the clients (who are purchasing the sperm). The clients have the right to be informed of the limitations and potential complications involved with sperm donation but the sperm bank cannot completely guarantee that the sperm they provide is disease free or free of genetic abnormalities. The client also must understand that she/he is fully responsible for the offspring conceived by use of the specimens. The criteria by which sperm are collected (I. E. Choosing a donor who has certain traits). Sperm banks differ in their selection of sperm donors. All are highly selective, but some are more selective than others. The amount of sperm that a single man can donate. A donor can produce a maximum of ten children with his sperm. Storage Sperm is frozen with the use of certification. Corporately is slowly added to the fresh ejaculate. Researchers learned that sperm could not survive freezing without adding agents that prevented cells from rupturing during freezing and thawing. These agents are called correctness’s composed of:Glycerol, proteins, minerals, salts and other buffering agents. 3.

The sperm is gradually cooled and then frozen in liquid nitrogen at a temperature of -195 degrees centigrade in order for sperm to remain vital for long-term storage. Selection -sperm banks allow people to choose the characteristics they want for their children Regulation -In the United States sperm banks are regulated by the FDA with new guidelines in effect May 25, 2005. -There are also regulation in different states including New York and California. Outside the US, the EX. is working on similar regulations as the FDA. Screening of donors -A sperm bank takes a number of steps to ensure the health and quality of the sperm which it supplies.

They will try to select men as donors who are particularly fertile and whose sperm will survive the freezing and thawing process. If a man is accepted onto the sperm bank’s program as a sperm donor, his sperm will be constantly monitored, the donor will be regularly checked for infectious diseases, and samples of his blood will be taken at regular intervals. -Donors are subject to tests for infectious diseases Embryo Freezing/ Zygote Banking Embryos can be frozen at different times after fertilization. Most typically, embryos are frozen 1, 3 or 5 days after the sperm and egg were put together.

Freezing is a stressful process for an embryo, and only embryos that are growing well in the laboratory will tolerate the freezing procedure. Step 1. Before an embryo can be frozen, all the water that it contains must be removed. Since water expands in size as it turns to ice, water inside the embryo would burst (kill) the embryo if we simply placed it in the freezer. To prevent the embryo from shrilling as the water is extracted, we replace the water with antifreeze. Antifreeze is a solution that does not expand in size when it freezes. The embryo is cooled to room temperature as the water is replaced with anti-freeze.

Step 2. When most of the water has been removed the embryo is inserted into a carefully labeled vial, or more typically a small straw, and placed in the cooling hammer of a controlled rate freezer. Step 3. The embryo is then cooled very slowly at -0. 3 degrees Celsius per minute. Slow cooling like this allows the embryologist to have precise control over the freezing process, to maximize water extraction from the embryo and to prevent formation of large ice shards that could pierce the embryo. Step 4. The cooled straw is placed into carefully labeled metal canes and lowered into the tank with other frozen embryos.

The entire process takes several hours and the embryo(s) are stored frozen at -196 degrees Celsius in liquid nitrogen. Liquid From a medical perspective, a pregnancy achieved using donor sperm is no different from a pregnancy achieved using partner sperm, and it is also no different from a pregnancy achieved by sexual intercourse. Embryo/ zygote preservation is a delicate and complex multiples process. Why do men freeze their sperm? Artificial of sperm into the female’s vagina or cervix) Men who face an injury to the reproductive system.

Men who face the prospect of sterilization such as vasectomy, certain chemotherapy’s that have a side effect of dramatically reducing the production of sperm in the testes. Radiation exposure, surgery, and high-risk environmental exposure. Insurance against a future in which there can be no guarantees that their reproductive health will not be Jeopardized unknowingly. Genetic Testing/Screening -allows genetic diagnosis of vulnerabilities to inherited disease and to determine person’s ancestry. -Every person carries 2 copies of every gene, one from their and father and one from their mother. 5000-35000 genes is the human genome contain. – Genetic testing includes biochemical tests for the possible presence of genetic disease or mutant forms of genes associated w/ increased risk of developing genetic crosiers. It identifies changes in chromosomes, genes, or proteins. -Testing is used to find changes associated w/ inherited disorders. Results can rule out a suspected genetic condition or help determine a person’s chance of developing or passing on a genetic disorder. Since Genetic testing open up ethical or psychological problems, it is accompanied by genetic counseling. 2 ways in which DNA can be analyzed: > Direct DNA testing: direct examination of the genes; it is fast and sensitive but can only be used if the gene is known. >lenience DNA testing: the use of markers or linkage analysis; it is used if the type f gene mutation that causes the disease is not yet identified Genetic Testing- is performed on individuals considered as “at risk” Genetic Screening- is done on a target population ISSUES The physical risks associated with most genetic tests are very small, particularly for those tests that require only a blood sample or abacas smear.

The procedures used for prenatal testing carry a small but real risk of losing the pregnancy because they require a sample of amniotic fluid or tissue from around the fetus Many of the risks associated with genetic testing involve the emotional, social, or financial

Free Sample: Genetic Engineering paper example for writing essay

Genetic Engineering - Essay Example

“Scientific alteration of the structure of genetic material in a living organism. It involves the production and use of recombinant DNA”. This type of science involves reproductive cells, changing genes not in Just on patient but for their entire ascendancy (human genetic alert. Org). Basically this type of science Human genetic engineering is such an ethical dilemma because many people believe that it Is overstepping human nature’s boundaries and falling into a world that Is not supposed to be up to human decision.

Many people’s religious values believe genetic engineering Is wrong. Even some people who are non religious also believe It Is too for science to be determining genetics. Others argue that Human Genetic Engineering will help reduce the world of Incurable diseases and other negative Inherited traits. Human Genetic Engineering could the future of and also be the next step In human evolution. By being able to change certain harmful genes In reproductive cells we have the power to be able to completely wipe out Incurable diseases like Autism, , and Cystic (Genome. Of). Using modern genetic technology we can screen expectant parents to see if their children are at risk for certain diseases, and then with Human Genetic Engineering we can alter that child’s genetic makeup in order for them to be born healthy and strong. Right now genetically engineered bacteria and microorganisms are being used to create human insulin and other pharmaceutical that are helping people every day. Another example of Genetic engineering is a case study involving a group of people suffering from kidney failure (Missouri Ethics. ). A group of people with a 10-20 percent chance of survival regained healthy kidney behavior due to a hybrid kidney created through tissue engineering. Since the beginning of time humans have improved qualities in themselves by natural selection. The human race has survived for this long because we slowly “weed out” weak links in our race naturally. Human Genetic engineering is a sped up version of natural selection. We work every day to become healthier, more beautiful, stronger, faster, smarter humans.

Parents do everything in their power to help their kids fulfill their potential In the listed areas and more. If people pursue education to get smarter, and go through with cosmetic surgery to become more beautiful why would It not be worth it to achieve these through genetics? (Missouri Ethics. Dude) Genetic Engineering By Alex Philips l is overstepping human nature’s boundaries and falling into a world that is not engineering is wrong.

Free Sample: Genetic Engineering paper example for writing essay

Genetic Engineering - Essay Example

The positive uses to this procedure is that it offers some good possibilities of cures for diseases and other material improvements to daily life. However, there are negativisms to genetic engineering. It is involved in food and it contributes to the contamination of genes in crops. Genetically engineered crops may replace and be harmful for natural plants. Having unwanted genetic mutations can lead to allergies in crops and can danger nutritional value while boosting foods taste and appearance. Genetic engineering can also be a pathogen for diseases and viruses.

While Increasing the Immunity to diseases in plants, the resistance genes may get transferred to the harmful pathogens. Along with having a chance of causing diseases and viruses, It also may cause genetic defects. Another term for genetic engineering In this effect Is called, gene therapy. In human beings this can have certain side effects, because while treating one defect it can lead to another. Genetic engineering may be a new innovative technology, but after doing all process of manipulating the natural order of life it is considered as altering something that is not originally created by man.

From a Christian perspective a biological topic that has many ethical issues is genetic engineering. This conflicts with the Christian beliefs for a few reasons. For starters there is a concern that genetic engineering will take on a role beyond what God has given his stewards of His creation. The Bible states that all things were created by God and for Him ( 1:16). God designed living things to reproduce for certain “kinds” (Genesis 1 :11-25). Contaminating the genetics could be tampering with God’s plan and creation.

It has been read and heard over and over from a general study and understanding of Scripture, that God has a plan for the process of life. Another conflict ion that Christians have with genetic engineering is that it comes across as defiance against God. Genesis 1 1:1-9 covers what happens when another creation out of Gods plan attempts to hold itself above the Creator. An example out of the Bible, is from Genesis 11. The people in the parable were unified, yet they were not obedient to God. As a result, God stopped their progress.

God certainly recognized that there were some dangers involved with the direction in which the people were headed. God gives a similar warning in Romans 1:18-32. There God describes individuals that start to Idealize the creation that they were brought to destruction. The fear In Christians may be that genetic engineering could cause similar Utilization, which then can cause similar results. After talking with two anonymous people, one person (A) agreed with the Christian beliefs about genetic engineering and the other person (B) saw it as a positive good at enhancing food.

Genetically engineering causes crops to have the capacity to grow on lands that are not suitable for cultivation. The manipulation of genes in crops is expected to improve their nutritional value as also their rate of growth. This technology can also better the taste of food. Since the population is growing this helps with growing and processing more to keep up with the growing population. Person B also that this can help create new foods. Genetic engineering in food can be used to produce totally new substances such as proteins and other food nutrients.

Free Sample: Genetic Engineering paper example for writing essay

Genetic Engineering - Essay Example

Some say that genetic engineering Is morally and ethically wrong and that they pose threat to human health, the environment, and the global economy. Genetic engineering has benefited the world for the better in more aspects of life than one such as food, animals, and plants, and will continue to as technology and knowledge increases. Since 1 953, when scientists discovered the workings of the genetic system, scientists have learned how to change the composition of genes and how to change the basic traits of an organism.

By snipping genes out of cells and adding them to other cells “molecular biologists have the ability to create new properties that have ever been seen before” (Jargon, 2002). This can be used to alter the properties of food. Scientists genetically alter food by using the genetic information from one organism, and than putting that specific trait into another organism that will take on that favored trait. Scientists can make food crops stay fresher, grow bigger, and have the crops create their own pesticides.

Although genetic engineering will revolutionize the way we grow food and care for our environment, people question genetic engineering. Genetic engineering Is a targeted and powerful method of Introducing desirable traits into animals. Scientists have used it to increase the production of milk in cows. Bovine GHZ can increase milk production in lactating cows. Using biotechnology, scientists bioengineering the gene that controls bovine GHZ production into E. Coli, grew the bacteria in fermentation chambers, and thus produced large quantities of bovine GHZ.

The bioengineering bovine GHZ, when Injected Into lactating cows, resulted In an Increase of up to 20 percent In national milk production. Using bovine GHZ “farmers are able to stabilize milk production In their herds, avoiding fluctuations in production levels” (Biology, 2012). A similar thing is done with pigs and salmon. Scientists inject pigs with a growth hormone called porcine GHZ, this reduces back fat and increases muscle gain so that there is more meat to eat and sell. Salmon have been a food source on a large scale In the U. S. Food markets since 2001. Salmon, being In high demand were genetically altered to FLT the demands.

These salmon have the ability of growing from egg to market size In eighteen months, as opposed to the conventional fish breeding. The conventional fish breeding takes up to thirty six months to bring a fish to market size. This is “beneficial” because it can alp reduce overfeeding of wild salmon. Plants and animals that have been genetically modified are low on the controversial scale. The big hitter is genetically engineering used on humans. This is a heavily debated topic of discussion and science. Human genetic engineering is the alteration of an Individual’s genotype with of a child or adult.

There are limitless possibilities for this field of science and human application. The enhancements for humans range anywhere from curing diseases and increasing immunity to viruses to human cloning. One thing that genetic engineering can help with is organ transplant. There’s no question that organ transplants can save lives. The problem has always been that there are not enough organs to save every patient who needs one. Once again, pigs hold a trait for matching well with humans, they have been genetically modified at birth so that their organs “will masquerade as human organs if transplanted” (Genetic engineering, 1997).

Another field of genetic engineering has the potential to cure some diseases or sports injuries. Scientists are injecting stem cells into muscle cells in hopes of helping children with muscular dystrophy. Scientists on the forefront of genetic manipulation predict that in as little as five to 15 years, athletes may be using genetic engineering to get the edge over their opponents; this could also potentially be used to heal sports injuries and enhance athletic performance.

Stem cells are a wondrous thing; they are undifferentiated cells that go on to develop into any of the more than two hundred types of cell the adult human body holds. Stem cells may be used to replace or repair damaged cells, and have the potential to drastically change the treatment of conditions like cancer, Alchemist’s and Parkinson disease and even railways. Science and technology have both advanced to the point to where people can “personalize” babies. This process is called representing.

Representing allows parents who can afford it to be able to pick out the genetic characteristics of their own children. This in tern may be able to eliminate diseased genes that are passed from parent to child, fix diseases before the child is born. By being able to solve birth defects before that child is born, it would decrease the number of abortions. Being blonde hair and blue eyed loses its racially elitist undertones because traits would be easily available on the genetic supermarket. It could make “hair color, skin color, and eye color become a subjective choice” (Seek, 2007).

Genetic engineering could ultimately encourage racial harmony and diversity. Genetics may limit children’s autonomy to shape their own destinies. People’s destinies are already limited by their natural genetic makeup, a makeup that they are born with and cannot change. A short person, for example, would be unlikely to Join the basketball team because of a height issue that makes it difficult to compete with other tall teammates. An ugly errors would be unable to achieve the dream of becoming a famous actress, due to the fact that the lead roles are given to the beautiful.

A student with an IQ of seventy five will be unlikely to get into Harvard no matter how hard that individual tries, “our destinies are limited by the genes we are born with” (Seek, 2007). Genetic engineering could help level the playing field. It would give people greater innate capacity to be able to fulfill their dreams and pursue their own happiness. It would give each person the capability of becoming whatever they want to, and let the eventual success be determined by effort, willpower, and perseverance.

One final plus side of genetic engineering is human cloning. Human cloning is a huge deal; it is a major break through in science. Some experts say that it might be possible to slow Human cloning technology could be used to reverse heart attacks. Scientists believe that they may be able to treat heart attack victims by cloning their healthy heart cells and injecting them into the areas of the heart that have been damaged. Human cloning also allows for more and better organ transplants along with other kinds of rangelands.

Genetic engineering, or genetic modification, is the ability to change or remove certain traits or genes from one thing to another giving it qualities and attributes that in nature it wouldn’t normally have. Genetic engineering can be used for very good reasons, or very bad reasons. Some say that it is ethically and morally wrong to change what nature and billions of years of evolution have made and that it poses a threat to human health, the environment, and the global economy. Others say that it will drastically change the fields of science and technology for the better.

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Genetic Engineering - Essay Example

Genetic Engineering After bringing myself up to date with some further research on genetic engineering or also referred to as genetic modification, here are some of my thoughts on the pros and cons. But before we jump right into it, I should tell you a little about what genetic engineering is. Genetic engineering refers to a set of technologies that are being used to change the genetic makeup of cells. You hear this and think of something like bio warfare or genetically altered animals.

But don’t be scared, genetic engineering can be good. It holds potential in the health and food Industry as well as the economy. The pros of genetic engineering are actually things that you would not think of. One of those things being insulin for diabetics, yes something so commonly used Is a genetic engineering marvel. Without It dozens of people would not be alive today. Other advances In the health side of genetic engineering are early detection In pregnancy. Imagine being able to detect at an early stage, embryo, that your child as for example muscular dystrophy and that it can be corrected.

That being called Embryo Screening, now this only works for in fertilization because they take a cell from an eight-celled embryo, that’s already been fertilized outside of the body, and examine that cell to be able to detect the presence of one or more disease- associated genetic alterations. Moving on to the food industry. You think of food and you already know plants are genetically altered and animals such as cows are genetically altered, but you ask the question, why? The reason is to meet demand.

They can genetically alter or tailor make an animal or plant so that their main characteristics are more desirable, for example a cow that weighs more than the next cow will most likely get picked for butchering because It will yield more meat. And a plant that yields more produce will make a farmer very happy. Now to end with the cons of course, there’s the irrefutable argument of does this go against natural selection and are we “cheating mother nature”. The answer isn’t a simple yes or no. We’ve come a very long way in the medical world and the agricultural world as well.

But I have to highlight the cons, with Embryo Screening comes ” designer babies”. Babies that’s are basically hand picked to be exactly what the biological parents want them to be. Imagine if your parents had the choice, what would you look like? Well with advances in genetics research, people may soon precisely their children’s physical and personality traits. With genetically engineered animals they create animals whose organs can then be interchangeable with a humans, you might see his as a medical marvel, but In all reality It could cause diseases that would never be able to find a cure for.

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Genetic Engineering - Essay Example

This may be used to spare the unborn from disease or, possibly, make them tall, intelligent and blessed with any desirable traits. Genetic engineering has given humans the power to alter the very basis of life on earth which will forever change life as we know it. This essay will explain the various views on genetic engineering but will primarily concentrate on “the ethics of genetically engineering the designer bar. Genetic engineering Is described as the use of various methods to Intentionally manipulate DNA, to produce biological products or to change hereditary traits.

It has many uses that include repairing a genetic defect, picking a select group of genes to achieve a specific outcome – in the case of designer babies, curing diseases by altering the gene, and testing for inherited diseases. Genetic engineering would allow humans to consciously choose a better life for our offspring and the widespread use could potentially create an Improved version of humanity. Just think; genetic engineering to reduce disease, increase intellect, reduce obesity, increase athleticism, reduce mental disorders and, increase life span.

Perhaps even one day genetic engineering in combination with bio-mechanical augmentation, may allow humans to adapt to harsher atmospheric conditions brought about by increased Industrialization. This might be the only way for unanimity to keep up to date with the staggering pace of technological advancement. The benefits of genetic engineering are boundless. This medical intervention would allow a family to virtually eradicate a genetic disease in only a few generations. Muscular Dystrophy (MD) is a great example.

MD is a group of genetic and muscle diseases that weaken the muscles of the body. With the new advances of technology, doctors can test each of the eggs for the gene for MD. If they find an egg that does not carry the gene, they can Implant It and reduce the chances for this disease. This also means less money will be spent in hospitals for medical treatments needed for a sick child in the future. The possibility of perfecting the human gene is very exciting; however it can also be very alarming. Are doctors and parents playing “God”? We were created a certain way to be.

Do they have the right to predetermine how their baby will look, what genes they will carry, and for what purpose? Who determines what traits are acceptable? To genetically modify a child will cost approximately IIS$18,OHO. This brings us to the question; why are only wealthy couples able to prevent their children from evolving genetically inherited diseases? This could cause inequalities between the rich and poor classes in society. If this practice is allowed and becomes socially acceptable, would governments have a role to play in making it available to its entire people for the benefit of society at large? 1 : Designer Babies, The Future, 2009, http:// futurism. Bloodspot. Com. AU/2009/03/new-la-clinic-lets-parents- genetically. Domesticated: 3rd Novembers] However, by venturing down a path of creating perfectly healthy babies that are disease and disability free, as a society we would be removing the naturalism that already exists within the world. This may result in a new wave of negative perceptions of ordinary people without these genetic enhancements. Will this super class of humans widen the gap of discrimination between people with enhancements and those without?

Using genetic modification to cure diseases and disorders is beneficial to parents, children, and society. However, using genetic engineering to create super-children with superior intellects and perfect features is wrong. Science and technology has its place in helping the human race. It should be used to save lives and improve the quality of lives. Using scientific research to appease parent’s vanity hurts us as a race. It will create divisions between the “master-race” and normal people.

It says to the children of these parents that they couldn’t have been good enough on their If designer babies were to become commonplace, individuality as we know it would most likely cease to exist. Not everyone would look exactly the same; some parents may want their baby to have brown eyes, as opposed to green. Other parents may want their child to be more tan skinned rather than fair skinned. But as a whole, many people would be pretty, healthy, and intelligent. What parent wouldn’t want these basic traits in their child?

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Genetic Engineering - Essay Example

Genetic Engineering is the changing of an organism’s genetic, or hereditary, makeup to get rid of unwanted characteristics or to make wanted new ones. Genetic engineering is used to increase plant and animal food production. It is also used to help dispose of industrial wastes, to diagnose disease, improve medical treatment, and produce vaccines and other useful drugs. Genetic engineering techniques include the selective breeding of plants and animals, and habitation, which is the reproduction between different strains or species.

The first known genetic engineering technique, that is still used today, was the elective breeding of plants and animals. This was usually used to increase food production. In selective breeding, only the plants or animals with desirable characteristics are chosen for further breeding. Corn has been selectively bred for increased kernel size and number and for nutritional content for about 7,000 years. More recently, selective breeding of wheat and rice has been promoted to produce higher yields has helped supply the world’s ever-increasing need for food.

Cattle and pigs were first domesticated about 8,500 to 9,000 years ago. Through selective breeding, they have become main sources of animal food for humans. Dogs ND horses have also been selectively bred for thousands of years. They have been bred for work and recreational purposes. This resulted In more than 150 dog breeds and 100 horse breeds. Habitation or crossbreeding may Involve combining different strains of a species or members of different species In an effort to combine the most attractive characteristics of both.

For at least 3,000 years, female horses have been bred with male donkeys to produce mules, and male horses have been bred with female donkeys to produce whinnies, for use as work animals. Genetic engineering should definitely be used to alter the genetic makeup of future generations of humans. For example, If someone couldn’t produce certain hormones or proteins, they could get gene therapy. First cells are removed from the person. Then In a laboratory, a virus Is altered so that It cannot reproduce.

Next, a gene Is Inserted Into the virus. After that, the altered virus Is mixed with cells from the person (the cells from the person become genetically altered). Afterward, the altered cells are Injected Into the person. Finally the genetically altered cells produce the desired protein or hormone. This process helps make the human body function properly when It cannot by Itself. Genetic Engineering By bred for work and recreational purposes.

This resulted in more than 150 dog breeds Habitation or crossbreeding may involve combining different strains of a species or members of different species in an effort to combine the most attractive generations of humans. For example, if someone couldn’t produce certain hormones Then in a laboratory, a virus is altered so that it cannot reproduce. Next, a gene is inserted into the virus. After that, the altered virus is mixed with cells from the cells are injected into the person. Finally the genetically altered cells produce the properly when it cannot by itself.