All of the following were weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation EXCEPT
the national government had too much power
What was the result of the Great Compromise?
states were represented in the upper house, and individuals were represented in the lower house
Under the original Constitution, which branch or branches of government were selected directly by the citizens?
the house of representatives
What is the main result of judicial review?
the constitution is safeguarded from popular passions
All of the following are part of the amendment process EXCEPT
a national referendum (by popular vote) with two-thirds voter approval
How does the Constitution provide an executive check on the judicial branch?
by nominating federal judges, subject to Senate confirmation
How did the Antifederalists differ from the Federalists?
The Antifederalists believed that a strong central government would be too distant from the people
Which of the following guarantees of individual liberties is found in the original Constitution?
no religious tests to hold office
Which of the following is NOT a criticism of separation of powers?
it results in prompt, but hasty, decision- making
What would be the impact of the line- item veto on the separation of powers?
it would strengthen the presidency in relation to Congress
All of the following were arguments by the Federalists in support of the Constitution EXCEPT
the new Constitution would eliminate factions
Which states received the most benefit from the Great Compromise?
northern states, small states
How did the Antifederalists differ from the Federalists?
The Antifederalists believed that a strong central government would destroy liberty
Which of the following best describes judicial review?
the Supreme Court may nullify government acts that conflict with the Constitution
What was the impact of the three- fifths compromise?
it gave southern states more representation in the House of Representatives
Which of the following is the best example of devolution?
block grants, by which money from the national government is given to the states for discretionary use with broad guidelines
The Founding Fathers devised a federal system for all the following reasons EXCEPT
federal systems were common throughout the world and were proven to be effective
Which of the following statements best describes the impact of the Tenth Amendment?
it has rarely had much practical significance
Which of the following Constitutional provisions has been interpreted as weakening the Tenth Amendment?
the necessary and proper clause
What did the Supreme Court determine in McCulloch v. Maryland?
to carry out its economics powers, the necessary and proper clause, states may not tax
The concept that the national government is supreme in its own sphere while the states are equally supreme in theirs is known as
The pie chart to the right supports which of the following conclusion?
the category in which federal grant money increased the most from 1960 until 2009 is health
States have found federal funding attractive for all of the following reasons EXCEPT
federal grants rarely come with strings attached
Why do states prefer block grants to categorical grants?
block grants allow states to spend funds on any governmental purpose
The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) requires stats and local governments to provide equal access for the disabled. This is an example of a(n)
Presidents have less power to block spending than most state governments. What best explains this difference in executive power?
the president must sign all of a bill into law, while most governors have the power of a line- item veto
Suppose the state of Nevada receives federal money to renovate McCarran International Airport. What term best describes this?
a categorical grant
The states play a key role in all of the following EXCEPT
managing the economy
The table above supports which of the following conclusions?
Federal grants for Medicaid are more than double the spending on any other program
A couple who got married in Virginia moves to Florida. Must Florida accept the couple’s marriage as valid?
yes, because of the full faith and credit clause
For representative democracy to work, all of the following must be present EXCEPT
voter turnout above 60 percent
All of the following statements about the beliefs of the framers of the Constitution are true EXCEPT
they believed that government decisions should mirror popular viewpoints
Which of the following statements best represents pluralist theory?
there are so many groups that none of them can dominate the political process
In the past couple of decades, several events have challenged traditional theories of policy-making. Which of the following examples demonstrate that Americans do not always act in their own self- interest?
the response of police and firefighters, some wealthy Americans, CAB
Which of the following is an example of political beliefs changing over time?
Americans wanted the federal government to play a bigger role in our lives until the 1980s, when this trend was reversed
What is one of the best barometers for measuring changes in who governs?
an analysis of the policy process and changes in the laws
Which of the following is the best evidence that direct democracy is expanding in America today?
more frequent use of ballot initiatives
What is the most basic definition of democracy?
rule by the many
In the United States, government agencies make a variety of regulations that impact the day-to-day life of Americans. According to the bureaucratic view of government, who holds most of the power in the American government?
appointed officials and career government workers who translate public laws into administrative actions
How are power and authority related?
a government can have power without having authority
What best explains the legitimacy of the United States Government?
the constitution is widely accepted as the source of authority
According to John Locke, all of the following are necessary for proper government EXCEPT
a strong executive
Some argue that the government is dominated by business owners. Which of the following terms does this best describe?
All of the following are arguments against direct democracy EXCEPT
most people are not interested in government or politics
Some argue that appointed officials actually run the government, despite the efforts of elected officials to control them. This belief is consistent with which theory of government?
All of the following are important elements in the American view of the political system EXCEPT
Americans believed that government should try to equalize the property and living conditions of citizens
Which of the following best defines “civil society”?
a collection of private,voluntary groups that make cooperation easier and hold the government accountable
One core American attitude about the economic system is
a widely held commitment to individualism and personal responsibility
In comparison with most other nations,
Americans have more confidence in both public and private institutions
All of the following are true about religion in America EXCEPT
religious people are less likely than secular people to donate to nonreligious charities
Which of the following statements about civic duty is most accurate?
most Americans do not believe that their actions can have an impact on government policies
According to Wilson and DiIulio, the “culture war” in America “is about what kind of country we ought to live in, not just about what kinds of policies our government ought to adopt.” Which of the following is NOT a major source of cultural disagreement in America?
socialism and communism
Which of the following statements best describes the trend in Americans’ trust in government?
Americans’ trust in government officials has declined at a fairly steady rate since the 1950s
Citizens who believe they can influence political events have a high sense of civic
All of the following are true about political tolerance in America EXCEPT
Americans will support liberties for all groups both in theory and in practice
The table above best supports which of the following statements? (confidence)
confidence in congress fell more than for any other group
Which of the following is the best example or description of civil society?
voluntary associations outside of government control
Author Robert Putnam argues that American social capital is decreasing. How might this trend impact the United States?
Fewer citizens will join groups, and people will be less inclined to volunteer in their communities
The table above best supports which of the following statements?(attitudes)
Most Americans believe their success is determined by factors within their control
All of the following are part of American political culture EXCEPT
Americans do not support programs to help those truly in need
Presidential and congressional races differ in all of the following ways EXCEPT
congressional elections receive more national funding than presidential elections
How does the federal law restrict fund- raising for presidential campaigns?
limited to $2000, PAC contributions, federal matching funds
Which of the following is the best example of gerrymandering?
drawing a congressional district boundary down a narrow strip of highway no wider than six blocks
Which of the following is the most accurate statement about the impact of party identification on voting behavior?
party identification plays a key role in voting choices
Which of the following is a valid criticism of the caucus system?
The first caucus is in Iowa, which is not representative of the population as a whole
Which of the following groups would be most likely to receive direct mail from a conservative candidate?
fundamentalist Christians and business owners
All of the following are part of the Bipartison Campaign Finance Reform Act of 2002 EXCEPT
individuals can no longer spend unlimited amounts of their own money on their campaigns
Which of the following is most likely to help an incumbent president get reelected?
good economic times
The table above supports which of the following conclusions? (presidential fundraising)
presidential campaign fundraising and expenditures more than doubled between 2004 and 2008
Which type of voters has the most impact on an election?
retrospective voters, who look at how things have gone in the recent past
Which of the following best describes those who vote in primary elections?
voters in both parties who tend to be more active in party politics
The figure above best supports which of the following statements? (spending on media)
most of the spending in presidential campaigns goes toward television and radio ads
The figure above best supports which of the following statements? (growth of PACs)
since 2007, there are more than five times as many corporate PACs as labor PACs
All of the following statements are supported by the table above EXCEPT (who likes the democrats?)
Jewish voters were less likely to support Obama than Catholic voters
Which of the voters would most likely support McCain?
an Hispanic female who has some college and lives in a big city
How do American political parties compare with political parties in Europe?
Because of federalism, American political parties are decentralized, with significant power at the state and local levels
All of the following characterize a period of critical realignment EXCEPT
when voters become apathetic and turnout fails below 50 percent
The proportion of people identifying themselves with a political party declined between 1960 and 1980. One of the reasons for this is
In the 1970s and 1980s, the Democratic party made reforms that unintentionally led to its becoming more fragmented. What was the original purpose of these reforms?
to make the Democratic party delegations more reflective of the population as a whole
Who are superdelegates?
powerful members of political parties and elected officials who become delegates without having to run in primaries or caucuses
All of the following were problems with political machines EXCEPT
they rarely delivered on their promises to help new immigrants
Which of the following features have encouraged the development of a two-party system in the United States?
the plurality system, the winner
Long-standing third parties, such as the Socialists, Libertarians, and Green parties, are examples of
All of the following statements are supported by the table above EXCEPT(political opinions)
a majority of Republican delegates believed there should be no legally recognized relationship among homosexuals couples
What is the major difference between a primary and a caucus?
Caucuses are meetings of party members, and primaries are elections
All of the following statements accurately describe American political parties EXCEPT
they adopt very similar policies in their platforms
In the 1824 elections, Jackson won more of the popula and electoral college vote, but he lost the election. Which of the following statements best explains why this occured?
When there is no majority winner in the electoral college, the House of Representatives decide the elections
In the 2008 presidential elections, several traditionally Republican states, including North Carolina and Virginia, voted for Barack Obama. If this trend continues over the next several elections, what will have occured?
Which term best describes a gathering of delegates of a single political party from across the country to choose candidates for president and vice president?
Which of the following statements explains why America is described as having a two-party system?
while third parties compete in elections, they rarely win
All of the following explain the proliferation of interest groups EXCEPT
interest groups often run candidates for office to give their supporters a voice in government
Throughout American history, which of the following conditions has led to an increase in interest groups’ activity?
the rise of professional societies, government policies, leaders
“Free riders” occur when interest groups fight for benefits to the public as a whole, such as consumer protection. How can interest groups prevent the free-rider problem?
by providing people an incentive to join the interest group, such as a subscription to a magazine
Environmentalists, women, and union members have worked over the years to advance their interests. What is the best description of these causes?
they are social movements that have spawned several related interest groups
Why are lobbyists useful to members of congress in considering legislation?
because members of congress are policy generalists and lobbyists are policy specialists with expert knowledge in their area
An interest group would use grassroots lobbying on all of the following issues EXCEPT
complex tax legislation affecting a few people
A group with more than fifty members, representing a corporation, labor union, or special interest that raises and spends campaign contributions on behalf of candidates or causes is a
political action committee
Interest groups do all of the following EXCEPT
run candidates for state and federal office
Which of the following are sources of funding for interest groups?
foundation, federal, contracts, direct-mail
Which of the following is a concern about the influence of lobbyists on government?
many lobbyists are formal federal officials who gave up their positions in government to work for interest groups
Sometimes interest groups pursue goals that will principally benefit nonmembers, such as raising money to provide housing for orphans. Such groups are known as
public interest lobbies
Which of the following is a restriction on the interaction between members of Congress and interest groups?
members of Congress may not accept gifts of any value from registered lobbyists
An interest group would use public pressure on all of the following issues EXCEPT
complex tax legislation affecting a few people
Which of the following best describes an earmark?
a provision in a law that provides a direct benefit to a client without being reviewed on the merits by all members of Congress
All of the following statements about political actions committees (PACs) are true EXCEPT
they can give an unlimited amount of soft money to political parties
How does American media differ from the media in most other countries?
Almost all American radio and television stations are privately owned
Broadcast journalism changed the media’s coverage of politics in all of the following ways EXCEPT
citizens get more detailed and specific information about programs and policies than they could get from the print media
When Gary Hart ran for the Democratic nomination in 1987, he told the press to go ahead and follow him, because “they would be bored.” The resulting sexual scandal that arose is an example of the media’s role as
a watchdog who closely scrutinizes candidates’ backgrounds and activities
Which of the following have to be proved in order for a public official to recover damages for libel?
made with malice, untrue, reckless disregard, cause harm
The government can use all of the following tools to encourage positive stories and constrain negative stories written by journalists EXCEPT
revoking the licenses of stations that give unfavorable coverage
Which of the following is the best example of a trail balloon?
an anonymous White House source makes a statement that is then reported on the news
Why is there more news coverage of the president than of congress or the courts?
because the president is one person and is viewed by the public as the center of government
What best explains the reason for bias in newspapers?
a newspaper’s bias tends to reflect the political views of its readers
Since the early 1970s, how has the relationship between the president and press changed?
it has become more adversarial, partly as a result of the Vietnam War and Watergate
Which of the following stories would most likely receive media coverage?
a story about a missing woman and her romantic relationship with a member of Congress
All of the following are examples of horse-race journalism EXCEPT
which candidate opposed off-shore drilling
Which of the following stories is most likely to receive widespread news coverage?
a widely prescribed drug may cause sudden, fatal heart attacks
A journalist refuses to give federal prosecutors information about a confidential information. May the journalist be jailed?
No. There is no federal shield law that protects journalism from revealing their sources in criminal prosecutions
The Internet has affected politics in all of the following ways EXCEPT
it contains less biased and more detailed information than the newspapers
The trends depicted in the figure above is troubling to many political scientists because
fewer people are reading newspapers, which are an important source of in-depth coverage about politics
All of the following make it difficult for Congress to make policy EXCEPT
congress operates through coalitions of several political parties, each of which represents different interests
How did the composition of Congress change between 1950 and 2011?
Although representation does not mirror the population as a whole, there are more minorities and women
What role does incumbency play in congressional elections?
incumbents are more likely to be reelected in the House of Representatives than in the Senate
During the 1960s and 1970s a conservative coalition was an important factors in Congress. Why is that coalition less important today?
Because many southern Democrats in Congress have been replaced by Republicans
The representational view of Congress is based on the assumption that members want to get reelected and therefore vote to please their constituents. Under what circumstances is a member of Congress most likely to vote according to this view?
when constituents have a clear view on some issue and the issue has attracted attention
Of the following members of Congress, who will most likely be chosen to head the House Appropiations Committee when the majority is Republican?
A congressional committee was created to investigate any intelligence failures that might have occured prior to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. What kind of committee does this represent?
How does the majority party influence committees in Congress?
committee chairs, the majority in committee, key committees
The House Rules Committee does all of the following EXCEPT
establishes the number of votes needed for a bill to pass in the House
A filibuster in the Senate can be used to talk a bill to death. A cloture vote can end a filibuster. Taken together, what is the impact of these practices?
neither political party can control the Senate unless it has at least sixty votes
All of the following are powers of the Senate EXCEPT
initiating all revenue bills
Incumbents have certain advantages over challengers. These include all of the following EXCEPT
the public’s generally positive view of Congress
Where does most of the work of Congress take place?
When is it most likely that Congress will override a presidential veto?
when the overwhelming majority of both houses of Congress is from the party opposite that of the president
Which of the following statements best describes the impact of divided government on Congress?
divided government occurs when the majority of one or both houses of Congress are from a party different from the president’s. This slows the passage of the most far- reaching and costly legislation.
The table above supports which of the following conclusions?(christian groups)
White Evangelicals are less likely to support same-sex marriage than the other groups shown
Which of the following statements best describes the gender gap?
Women are more likely than men to vote for a Democratic presidential candidate
The gender gap can be explained by major differences in policy views on all of the following issues EXCEPT
women vote at slightly lower rates than men
What is the effect of a social class on political attitudes?
working class people tend to describe themselves as liberals
Which of the following voters will most likely prefer a Republican candidate?
a southern white male business owner
The table above supports which of the following conclusions about the viewpoints of young adults?
the majority of 18-24 age believe that elected officials do not share their priorities
A conservative would support which of the following measures?
less government regulation, the death penalty
All of the following are characteristics of an accurate random sample EXCEPT
the sample must include at least 10 percent of the population
According to Wilson and DiIulio, “the framers of the constitution did not try to create a government that would do from day to day “what the people wants.” Which of the following serve as checks on public opinion?
federalism, an independent judiciary, separation of powers
A public opinion poll asks whether or not people agree with the following statement: “The federal government should see to it that all people have adequate housing.” Which of the following statements best describes the accuracy of the poll?
it will not be accurate because the statement is loaded
Most people believe there should be a limit on the number of terms to which members of Congress should be elected, but Congress has not approved term limits. Which of the following principles does this best illustrates?
sometimes government policies go against what the public wants
This question has been used over time to measure the job approval rating of the president: ” Do you approve or disapprove of the way ___ is handling his job as a president?” Which of the following statements best describes the accuracy of this poll?
the poll is accurate most of the time becaus the language used is neutral
What is political socialization?
the process by which people acquire their political values
Which of the following has the greatest impact on political socialization?
All of the following are true of political elites EXCEPT
they tend to have moderate political beliefs
Which of the following is the best explanation for lower voter turnout in the United States?
the burden of registering falls on the individual
The graph above supports which one of the following statements?
one fifth of voters register at their motor vehicle office
All of the following were used to keep blacks from voting EXCEPT
The electorate has expanded as a result of all of the following EXCEPT
state standards now govern almost every aspect of voter eligibility
What is the most accurate way of comparing voter turnout in the United States with voter turnout in other countries?
compare the turnout among the voting-age population
Which of the following citizens is most likely to vote?
a 70 age white college professor
Which is the best explanation for why Americans vote at lower rates than people abroad?
unlike most countries, we have a federal system, which means we elect more officials at more levels of government
What is the impact of religion on political participation?
being active in a religious organization increases the likelihood of charitable volunteer work as well as voting
Which of the following make it difficult to compare voter turnout rate in the nineteenth century with voter turnout today?
nineteenth century, fraud, voters, political machines
The photographer to the right best represents which time period?
the mid to late 1960s
How did voter turnout among young people (under 30) in 2008 compare with previous elections?
voter turnout has increased substantially, to above 60 percent
The table above supports which of the following statements?
citizens are more likely to register and vote as they age
Which of the following citizens is most likely to participate in politics?
a 70 female college professor
In the 2008 presidential election, voter turnout reached approximately 62 percent. Which of the following statements best describes this turnout rate?
it is the highest in recent decades but is still lower than turnout rates in most European countries
How do the number and frequency of elections in the United States differ from those in most other countries?
The United States hold more elections, and elections are more frequent because we have a federal system