History and Systems of Psychology Ch. 2

The “clock” was a metaphor for the idea of a mechanistic universe (T or F)
T
“Determinism” is the view of the Universe where every act is determined by some later event (T or F)
F
Charles Babbage might be considered the first computer programmer in history (T or F)
T
a “doctrine” is a set of beliefs held by a religion, political party, or other group (T or F)
T
Descartes viewed humans as machines
T
Positivism is the idea that optimism is important in life (T or F)
F
A philosopher that promoted positivism is Auguste Comte (T or F)
T
If a body is a mechanical device, it must be subjected to the laws of physics (T or F)
T
“Psychologists” emerged from “philosophers” and “physiologists” (T or F)
T
Descartes believed that humans were born with no knowledge whatsoever (T or F)
F
A “secondary quality” of bbq is the smell (T or F)
T
Empiricism played a very important role in the development of scientific psychology (T or F)
T
The idea of “complex ideas” was John Locke’s idea (T or F)
T
“Complex ideas” are formed by the mechanism of “association” (T or F)
T
Tabula rasa means blank slate (T or F)
T
The theories of mechanism that invoke the movement of atoms to explain the universe were developed by ____.
Newton and Galileo
The Zeitgeist of 17th- to 19th-century Europe and of the United States was marked by ____.
Mechanism
Which of the following ideas has psychology borrowed from natural physics?
Effects are predictable and measurable
____ was the first successful demonstration of artificial intelligence.
Babbage’s calculating machine
What invention was considered the perfect metaphor for the “spirit of mechanism”?
the clock
The doctrine that explains phenomena on one level (such as complex ideas) in terms of phenomena on another level (such as simple ideas) is ____.
reductionism
According to the textbook, the dominant idea of the 17th century was ____.
mechanism
Who published a clear explanation of how the calculating machine functioned and pointed out its potential use and implications?
Lovelace
The doctrine that natural processes are mechanically determined and capable of explanation by the laws of physics and chemistry is ____.
mechanism
____ are mechanized figures that could almost perfectly duplicate the movements of living things.
Automata
_____ was the first successful demonstration of artificial intelligence
Babbage’s calculating machine
Which of the following statements best describes Descartes’ dualistic theory of human nature?
The mind and body mutually influence each other’s actions
The body will respond without any internal conscious intent to some external stimulus. This fact illustrates Descartes’ principle of ____.
indulatio reflexa
Which of the following is an example of a derived idea?
seeing a forest
According to Descartes, the pineal gland was the part of the brain ____.
where the mind and body interact
Derived ideas ____.
arise from the direct application of an external stimulus
Descartes makes a case that because the body is matter the laws of ____ apply.
mechanics
The response of salivation following the stimulus of food on the tongue is an illustration of Descartes’ __.
reflex action theory
Which of the following is a contribution of Rene Descartes to modern psychology?
– a mechanistic conception of the body. -the theory of reflex action. -mind-body interaction. -localization of mental function in the brain. (All of the choices are correct)
Descartes’ notion that we are born with certain perceptual processes is also a principle of which modern school of psychology?
Gestalt
Descartes theorized that we are born with knowledge of the axioms of geometry. Thus, these axioms are ____ ideas
innate
John Stuart Mill (JSM) differed from his father’s view of the mind by proposing: “Complex ideas emerge from combinations of simple ideas and possess characteristics not found in those elements.” JSM was concerned with mental ____.
Chemistry
John Stuart Mill’s metaphor of mental chemistry came to be known as ____.
creative synthesis
The idea that “the whole is greater than the sum of its parts” was the position of ____.
John Stuart Mill
The doctrine that recognizes only natural phenomena or facts that are objectively observable is ____.
materialism
What position did Locke take on the origin of ideas?
All ideas are acquired from experience ; no ideas are innate
Locke’s ____ marks the formal beginning of British empiricism.
An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
Both the term and concept of positivism represent the thought of ____.
Comte
According to Locke, the idea of an army or a navy would be an example of ____.
a complex idea
Which philosopher believed that the only things that humans know with certainty are those objects that are perceived?
George Berkeley
James Mill’s model says that all knowledge ____.
begins with sensations, and association create complex ideas
____, the most radically mechanistic of the British empiricists, claimed that the mind is a machine and that there is no freedom of the will, believing instead that the mind is totally a passive entity and all thought can be analyzed in terms of sensations.
James Mill
In eyewitness testimony, one swears that what one has observed accurately depicts reality. Because this “fact” has not been determined through the methods of science, it does not meet Comtes’ strictest application of ____.
positivism
The phenomenology of the humanistic school focuses on the individual’s unique experiences as they define the person’s reality. This idea is a direct descendant of ____.
Berkeley’s mentalism
Which of the following types of automata are NOT described in the book?
a singing mouse
While Hartley’s fundamental law of association was ____, he also proposed that ____ was necessary for associations to be formed.
contiguity; repetition