History Notes Part II

what statement best describes changing population patterns between 1860 and 1890?
most new immigrants to the US settled in cities
what invention was not due to the building boom in the late 1800s?
carriage
what led critics to complain about the types of stories covered in newspapers in the late 1800s?
yellow journalism
how did the population increase during the building boom in the late 1800s affect city life?
skyscrapers were built to conserve space
the chinese exclusion act
was a law to prevent a national group from the US (1st)
what had the strongest effect on the growth of public education after the Civil war?
compulsory education laws
what belongs to the list of remedies that reforms used to solve city problems
stricter city laws
how did the immigrants adapt to life in the US
by acculturating
in the late 1800s, what was the most appealing form of entertainment to immigrants?
vaudeville
what would a nativist agree with?
immigrants steal jobs from people who were born in this country
what provided community centers that offered services to the poor?
settlement houses
how did the building boom affect city life?
traffic congestion became a major problem.
muckrakers fought corruption by?
arousing public opinion
what was one effect of corruption on city government
bribery became a common way of doing business.
what is a pull factor?
factors that attract you to a new country
what were three pull factors associated with American immigration in the late 1800s?
1. Industrial jobs
2. California gold rush of 1849
3. Land opportunities
what is a push factor?
factors that make you want to leave the country that you are currently in
what were three push factors associated with American immigration in the late 1800s?
1. religious persecution/primogeniture
2. pogroms: organized attacks on jewish villages
3. Irish potato famine
what was the name of the west coast equivalent of Ellis island?
Angel Island
started central park
Frederick law olmsted
started trolleys
Frank Sprague
started basketball
james naismith
started ragtime
scott joplin
wrote “how the other half lives”
Jacob Riis
wrote “the jungle”
upton sinclair
wrote “the history of standard oil”
ida tarbell
started the salvation army
william booth
the city where the first subway was built
Boston, Massachussetts
Name the city where the first steel frame skyscraper was built
chicago, illinois
who drew political cartoons making fun of corrupt NYC mayer
Thomas Nast
what amendment cerated the first federal income tax
16th amendment
what amendment allowed the voters to choose US senators directly
17th amendment
what were four services the Hull houses provided for poor immigrants?
1. recreational activities
2. education
3. housing services
4. doctors and first aid services
what were the four major progressive political reforms?
1. referendum: voters have the right to put a bill on the ballot and vote it into law.
2. recall: people decide to remove elected officials from office
3. initiative: people can propose a bill put on by the legislative branch and in return they speak their mind about it
4. primary: elect representative for a specific political party
what organization first recognized a practical use for the Wright brothers’ best known invention?
united states military
what statement best exemplifies the impact of technology on economics in the late 1800s?
wages for workers declined as more factories used new machines to produce goods
what advance made a network of railroad lines possible?
a standard gauge
what was not a factor in the growth of huge steel empires after the CW?
the development of less-polluting manufacturing process
who laid an underwater cable that transmitted telegraph messages from North America to Europe?
cyrus field
what was not a problem that led workers to form labor unions?
high unemployment rates
what practice led many farmers to join the populist party?
railroad owners used rebates and pools to keep prices artificially high
what strategy did John D. Rockefeller use to strengthen standard oil?
forced Railroads to give him rebates
Catholics
The group that first settled the colony of Maryland to escape persecution in England.
The primary reason that England passed the Navigation Act.
To tighten its control over colonial trade
Africans
The following group enjoyed the least freedom in the English colonies.
The following was a result of the Southern Colonies’ reliance on slave labor in the 1700’s.
The number of enslaved Africans dramatically increased
How was Pennsylvania founded?
King Charles II granted land to William Penn
who were the Puritans?
The following group left England because they believed the nation had fallen on “evil times”.
Eight English nobles set up the colony of South Carolina. Is this statement TRUE or FALSE?
True
what was the The Great Awakening?
The following was a religious movement that helped spread democratic feelings in the colonies.
How were class differences among the people in the colonies reflected in the education of children?
Children of wealthy families could afford to attend private schools
One result of the rivalry between the Netherlands and England.
New Netherland became New York
Why did the Puritans leave England for Massachusetts?
To build a society based on biblical teachings
Pennsylvania
Which colony was founded by a Quaker as a model of religious freedom and peace?
How was Benjamin Franklin a model of the Enlightenment spirit?
He used reason to improve the world around him
A new colony was made up of lands that the Duke of York gave to friends.
New Jersey
Why did the Calvert family found the colony of Maryland?
To allow Catholics to practice their religion freely
What was the purpose of colonial New England town meetings?
To discuss important community issues
At first, this was an obstacle to growing rice in the Carolinas.
English laws
One difference between slaves and indentured servants in 1700s colonial society.
Indentured servants received “freedom” dues for their work, and slaves were treated as property
Why did people follow Roger Williams from Massachusetts to Rhode Island?
They wanted greater religious freedom
List ten things Significant about Ben Franklin.
He invented the Franklin Stove, He invented the Lightning Rod, He invented swim flippers, He invented the bifocals, He started the 1st Hospital, He started the 1st insurance company, He started the 1st Fire Department, He started the 1st weekly newspaper, He wrote the Poor Richards Almanac, and he signed the Declaration of Independence.
What was the final battle of the Revolutionary War?
Yorktown
What crucial mistake did British General Cornwallis make that led to the defeat of the British army?
He disregarded an order and retreated to Yorktown Peninsula
When Richard Henry Lee said that he was now “convinced of the necessity of separation,” what was he describing?
Thomas Paine’s Common Sense
What step marked the colonists’ final decision regarding their relationship with Britain?
Congress voted to approve the Declaration of Independence
How can you restate the main idea of the Declaration of Independence?
Everyone has the right to life and liberty
What was one of the strengths that was significant t the Continental Army’s ultimate victory?
Military strategy based on the local geography
What is not one of the terms of the Treaty of Paris?
Canada was returned to France
Why did fighting break out at Lexington and Concord in April 1775?
British troops tried to seize colonists’ arms and ammunition
Which was was NOT one of the ways Britain punished Massachusetts after the Boston Tea Party?
Parliament passed the Tea Act
“Boston harbor is a teapot tonight! The Mohawks are come!” -To what historical event does this quotation refer?
The Boston Tea Party
“Boston harbor is a teapot tonight! The Mohawks are come!” -What clue about the colonists’ intentions is revealed in this quotation?
The colonists planned to destroy British property
Why did the colonists say “The Mohawks are come”?
Colonists disguised as Mohawks dumped tea into Boston Harbor
“Boston harbor is a teapot tonight! The Mohawks are come!” -What was the goal of the colonists quoted above?
To protest the effect of the Tea Act of 1773 on colonial tea merchants
Which organization first recognized a practical use for the Wright brothers’ best-known invention?
The United States military
Which advance made a network of railroad lines possible?
A standard gauge
What was NOT a factor in the growth of huge steel empires after the Civil War?
The development of a less-pollution manufacturing process
Who laid an underwater cable that transmitted telegraph messages from North America to Europe?
Cyrus Field
What practice led many small farmers to join the Populist party?
Railroad owners used rebates and pools to keep prices artificially high
A statement that explains how railroad rebates worked.
Railroad owners gave secret discounts to their biggest costumers.
The following inventions were developed by Thomas Edison.
Motion picture projector, electric power plant, and the phonograph
What was the most important effect of Henry Ford’s method of automobile production?
Millions of Americans could afford automobiles
Thomas Edison was known as the wizard of Menlo Park because he?
Systematized the process of creating inventions
John D. Rockefeller would MOST likely agree with what statement?
Competition in the market place creates waste and inefficiency
Which trait of American business leaders did NOT contribute to their creation of huge steel empires in the late 1800s?
Generosity
The telegraph, the transatlantic telegraph cable, and the telephone were important to businesses after 1850 because why?
The filled a need that other inventions of the day could not
Who benefited MOST from completion of the transatlantic cable?
Businesses that shipped products to Britain
What statement BEST explains how banks contributed to the growth of the economy in the years after the Civil War?
Banks lent millions of dollars to corporations
Who, along with Henry Ford, devised the theory of scientific management?
Frederic Taylor
What is Fordism?
Combining mass production with mass consumption
Did the Brown vs. Board of Education end legal segregation in the U.S.?
False, It only ended segregation in schools
What statement BEST describes changing population patterns between 1860 and 1890?
Most new immigrants to the United States settled in cities
What was the relationship between factory work and the interest in sports in the late 1800s?
As factory work intensified, workers sought sports as a means of relaxation
What invention was NOT due to the building boon in the late 1800s?
The carriage
What led critics to complain about the types of stories covered in newspapers in the late 1800s?
Yellow journalism
The Chinese Exclusion Act was?
The first law to prevent a national group from entering the United States
What had one of the strongest effects on the growth of public education after the Civil War?
Compulsory Education Laws
What belongs in a list of remedies that reformers used to solve city problems?
Professional fire companies
What describes a main theme found in realist writing in the late 1800s?
The problems of the poor
What did compulsory education laws require?
Children must attend school
What was amnesty?
A government pardon
What were black codes?
Laws that severley limited the rights of freedmen
What was a poll tax?
Fee paid to vote
What was segregation?
Legal separation of races
What was a freeman?
Former slave
What was a carpetbagger?
A term for a northerner who went to the South after the Civil War
What was a sharecropper?
A person who rented and farmed a piece of land
What was scalawag?
A term for a white southern Republican
Why did conflict erupt shortly after the assassination of President Lincoln?
Republicans disapproved of President Johnson’s Reconstruction plan
Why did southern states agree to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment?
Ratification of the amendment helped their states win presidential approval to rejoin the Union
What was a result of southern Conservative resistance to Reconstruction?
Violence toward African Americans increased
What helped bring about the end of Reconstruction?
Stories of corruption in Grant’s administration
Why did Reconstruction governments increase taxes after the Civil War?
To cover the costs of rebuilding the South
What required freedmen to know certain sections of the Constitution in order to vote?
Literary tests
What early Reconstruction measure directly contributed to the education of former slaves?
The Freedman’s Bureau
Why did the black codes infuriate Republican representatives?
They thought that the black codes deprived African Americans of equal opportunities
What list identifies the new forces in southern politics after the Civil War?
Scalawags, white conservatives, white southern Republicans
Congress rebelled against President Johnson’s Reconstruction plan because they thought what?
That it was too lenient
What did the Amnesty Act do?
It restored the vote to most white southerners
How did southern Conservatives resist Reconstruction?
They resorted to violence against African Americans and white Republicans
Why did sharecroppers become trapped in a cycle of poverty?
They did not earn enough cash to pay their debts
what is the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation?
FDIC insures individual deposits up to $5000 ($100,000 today)
what was The Indian New Deal?
Its laws gave Native Americans more control over their own affairs.
what was the Wagner Act?
Workers gained the legal right to collective bargaining.
what was the IMMEDIATE cause of the Crash of 1929?
Investors who were unable to repay loans tried to sell stocks
when and what was “Black Tuesday”?
October 29, 1929; the day the stock market crashed. Lead to the Panic of 1929
who were the “Brain trust”?
Group of expert policy advisers who worked with FDR in the 1930s to end the great depression
what is amnesty?
a government pardon
what was the “black code”?
law severely limiting rights of freedmen
what is a poll tax?
fee paid to vote
what is segregation?
legal separation of races
what is a freedman?
former slave
what is a carpetbagger?
term for northerner who went to the South after the Civil War
who is a sharecropper?
person who rented and farmed a piece of land
who is a scalawag?
term for a white southern Republican
This event BEST summarizes early Recontruction efforts…
Lincoln signed a bill establishing the Freedman’s Bureau
Radical Republicans gained power in Congress by…
joining forces with moderate Republicans to reduce the power of southern Democrats.
how MOST freedmen met basic needs after the Civil War ended…
they returned to the land where they had worked as slaves.
_______ required freedmen to know certain sections of the Constitution in order to vote?
Literacy Tests (for freedmen)
what is Martial Law?
rule by the army instead of by the elected government
what is habeas corpus?
right to a hearing before being jailed
what is inflation?
rise in prices and decrease in the value of money
battle of fredericksburg?
an 1862 civil war battle in virginia; one of the union’s worst defeats
battle of shiloh?
Held in Shiloh, Tennessee was the bloodiest of the Civil War.
battle of chancellorsville?
Confederate Victory; May 1, 1863; Stonewall Jackson died due to Friendly fire
What is the moon made of?
spare ribs; heck!