Info Tech Exam 3

Accounting
tracks all financial activities and generates periodic financial statements
Marketing
advertises, promotes, and sells the product (or service)
Production
makes the product or service using raw materials and people to turn out finished goods
Human Resources
finds and hires people; handles such matters as sick leave, retirement benefits, evaluation, compensation, and professional development
Research
conducts product research and development; monitors and troubleshoots new products
Top Level Management
concerned with long range planning and forecasting
Middle Level Management
deals with control, planning, decision making, and implementing long-term goals
Supervisors
control operational matters, monitor day-to-day events, and supervise workers
Top Level Information Flow
primarily upward from within the organization and into the organization from the outside
Middle Level Information Flow
horizontal and vertical within departments
Supervisors Information Flow
primarily vertical
transaction processing system (TPS)
System that records day-to-day transactions, such as customer orders, bills, inventory levels, and production output. The TPS tracks operations and creates databases
Expert system (ES)
Computer program that provides advice to decision makers who would otherwise rely on human experts. It’s a type of artificial intelligence that uses a database to provide assistance to users.
management information system (MIS)
Computer-based information system that produces standardized reports in a summarized and structured form. Generally used to support middle managers
executive support systems (ESS)
assist top-level executives. An executive support system is similar to MIS or DSS but easier to use. ESSs are designed specifically fro top level decision makers.
decision support system (DSS)
Flexible analysis tool that helps managers make decisions about unstructured problems, such as effects of events and trends outside the organization
executive information system (EIS)
Sophisticated software that can draw together data from an organization’s databases in meaningful patterns and highly summarized forms
data processing system (DPS)
Transaction processing system that keeps track of routine operations and records these events in a database. Also called transaction processing system (TPS)
sales order processing
Activity that records the demands of customers for a company’s products or services
accounts payable
The activity that shows the money a company owes to its suppliers for the materials and services it has received
accounts receivable
The activity that shows what money has been received or is owed by customers
inventory
Material or products that a company has in stock.
inventory control system
A system that keeps records of the number of each kind of part or finished good in the warehouse.
purchasing
Buying of raw materials and services.
purchase order
A form that shows the name of the company supplying the material or service and what is being purchased.
payroll
Activity concerned with calculating employee paychecks.
general ledger
Activity that produces income statements and balance sheets based on all transactions of a company.
income statements
A statement that shows a company’s financial performance, income, expenses, and the difference between them for a specific time period.
balance sheets
Lists the overall financial condition of an organization.
periodic reports
Reports for a specific time period as to the health of the company or a particular department of the company.
exception reports
Report that calls attention to unusual events.
demand report
A demand report is produced on request. An example is a report on the numbers and types of jobs held by women and minorities done at the request of the government.
group decision report system (GDSS)
System used to support the collective work of a team addressing large problems.
user
Any individual who uses a computer. See end user.
System software
“Background” software that enables the application software to interact with the computer. System software consists of the operating system, utilities, device drivers, and language translators. It works with application software to handle the majority of technical details.
Data
Raw, unprocessed facts that are input to a computer system that will give compiled information when the computer processes those facts. Data is also defined as facts or observations about people, places, things, and events.
Internal data
Data from within an organization consisting principally of transactions from the transaction processing system.
external data
Data gathered from outside an organization. Examples are data provided by market research firms.
decision models
The decision model gives the decision support system its analytical capabilities. There are three types of models included in the decision model: tactical, operational, and strategic models.
strategic models
A decision model that assists top managers in long-range planning, such as stating company objectives or planning plant locations.
tactical models
A decision model that assists middle level managers to control the work of the organization, such as financial planning and sales promotion planning.
operational models
A decision model that helps lower level managers accomplish the organization’s day-to-day activities, such as evaluating and maintaining quality control.
information workers
Employee who creates, distributes, and communicates information.
data workers
Person involved with the distribution and communication of information, such as secretaries and clerks.
knowledge workers
Person involved in the creation of information, such as an engineer and a scientist.
Office automation systems (OAS)
System designed primarily to support data workers. It focuses on managing documents, communicating, and scheduling.
project managers
Software that enables users to plan, schedule, and control the people, resources, and costs needed to complete a project on time.
videoconferencing systems
Computer system that allows people located at various geographic locations to have in-person meetings.
knowledge work systems (KWS)
Specialized information system used to create information in a specific area of expertise.
computer aided manufacturing/design (CAM/CAD)
Knowledge work systems that run programs to integrate the design and manufacturing activities. CAD/CAM is widely used in manufacturing automobiles.
expert systems
Computer program that provides advice to decision makers who would otherwise rely on human experts. It’s a type of artificial intelligence that uses a database to provide assistance to users.
knowledge based systems
Programs duplicating human knowledge. A type of artificial intelligence that uses a database to provide assistance to users.
knowledge base
A system that uses a database containing specific facts, rules to relate these facts, and user input to formulate recommendations and decisions.
Information systems managers
Oversees the work of programmers, computer specialists, systems analysts, and other computer professionals.
Character
A single letter, number, or special character, such as a punctuation mark or $.
Field
Each column of information within a record is called a field. A field contains related information on a specific item like employee names within a company department.
Record
Each row of information in a database is a record. Each record contains fields of data about some specific item, like employee name, address, phone, and so forth. A record represents a collection of attributes describing an entity.
Table
The list of records in a database. Tables make up the basic structure of a database. Their columns display field data and their rows display records. See field and record.
Database
A collection of related information, like employee names, addresses, and phone numbers. It is organized so that a computer program can quickly select the desired pieces of information and display them for you.
key field(primary key)
The common field by which tables in a database are related to each other. This field uniquely identifies the record. For example, in university databases, a key field is the Social Security number. Also known as primary key.
batch processing
Processing performed all at once on data that has been collected over time.
real-time processing(online processing)
Or online processing. Occurs when data is processed at the same time a transaction occurs.
Data Redundancy
A common database problem in which data is duplicated and stored in different files.
data integrity
Database characteristics relating to the consistency and accuracy of data
database management system(DBMS)
To organize, manage, and retrieve data. DBMS programs have five subsystems: DBMS engine, data definition, data manipulation, applications generation, and data administration. An example of a database management system is Microsoft Access. See Database manager.
DBMS engine
Provides a bridge between the logical view of data and the physical view of data.
Data definition subsystem
This system defines the logical structure of the database by using a data dictionary.
data dictionary/schema
Dictionary containing a description of the structure of data in a database.
Data manipulation subsystem
Provides tools to maintain and analyze data.
query-by-example
A specific tool in database management that shows a blank record and lets you specify the information needed, like the fields and values of the topic you are looking to obtain.
structured query language (SQL)
A program control language used to create sophisticated database applications for requesting information from a database.
application generation subsystem
Provides tools to create data entry forms and specialized programming languages that interface or work with common languages, such as C or Visual Basic.
Data administration subsystem
Helps manage the overall database, including maintaining security, providing disaster recovery support, and monitoring the overall performance of database operations.
database administrators(DBAs)
Uses database management software to determine the most efficient way to organize and access data.
processing rights
Refers to which people have access to what kind of data.
database models
Defines rules and standards for all data in a database. There are five database models: hierarchical, network, relational, multidimensional, and object-oriented. For example, Access uses the relational data model.
hierarchical database
Database in which fields or records are structured in nodes. Organized in the shape of a pyramid, and each node is linked directly to the nodes beneath it. Also called one-to-many relationship.
nodes
Any device connected to a network. For example, a node is a computer, printer, or data storage device and each device has its own address on the network. Also, within hierarchical databases, fields or records are structured in nodes.
parent node
Node one level above the node being considered in a hierarchical database or network. Each entry has one parent node, although a parent may have several child nodes. Also called one-to- many relationship.
child node
A node one level below the node being considered in a hierarchical database or network. See
parent node.
one-to-many relationship
In a hierarchical database, each entry has one parent node, and a parent may have several child nodes.
network database
Database with a hierarchical arrangement of nodes, except that each child node may have more than one parent node. Also called many-to-many relationship.
many to many relationship
In a network database, each child node may have more than one parent node and vice versa.
pointers
For a monitor, a pointer is typically displayed as an arrow and controlled by a mouse. For a database, a pointer is a connection between a parent node and a child node in a hierarchical database.
relational database
A widely used database structure in which data is organized into related tables. Each table is made up of rows called records and columns called fields. Each record contains fields of data about a specific item.
relations
A table in a relational database in which data elements are stored in rows and columns.
common data item
In a relational database, all related tables must have a common data item or key field.
multidimensional databases
Data can be viewed as a cube having three or more sides consisting of cells. Each side of the cube is considered a dimension of the data; thus, complex relationships between data can be represented and efficiently analyzed. Sometimes called a data cube and designed for analyzing large groups of records.
data cube
A multidimensional data model. Also see multidimensional database.
object-oriented databases
A more flexible type of database that stores data as well as instructions to manipulate data and is able to handle unstructured data such as photographs, audio, and video. Object-oriented databases organize data using objects, classes, entities, attributes, and methods.
classes
In an object-oriented database, classes are similar objects grouped together.
objects
An element, such as a text box, that can be added to a workbook, which can be selected, sized, and moved. For example, if a chart (object) in an Excel workbook file (source file) is linked to a word document (destination file), the chart appears in the word document. In this manner, the object contains both data and instructions to manipulate the data.
attributes
A data field represents an attribute (description or characteristic) of some entity (person, place, thing, or object). For example, an employee is an entity with many attributes, including his or her last name, address, phone, etc.
methods
In an object-oriented database, description of how the data is to be manipulated.
individual (microcomputer) database
Collection of integrated records used mainly by just one person. Also called microcomputer database.
company database
Also called shared database. Stored on a mainframe, users throughout the company have access to the database through their microcomputers linked by a network.
distributed database
Database that can be made accessible through a variety of communications networks, which allow portions of the database to be located in different places.
commercial databases
Enormous database an organization develops to cover certain particular objects. Access to this type of database is usually offered for a fee or subscription. Also known as data bank and informational utility.
data warehouses
Data collected from a variety of internal and external databases and stored in a database called a data warehouse. Data mining is then used to search these databases.
Database Uses : Strategic and Security Uses
data mining
Technique of searching data warehouses for related information and patterns.
database administrators
Uses database management software to determine the most efficient way to organize and access data.
firewalls
Security hardware and software. All communications into and out of an organization pass through a special security computer, called a proxy server, to protect all systems against external threats.
System analysis and Designs
six phase problem solving procedure for examining and improving an information system
Preliminary investigation
the information problems or needs are identified
System analysis
the present system is studied in depth. New requirements are specified. Three steps; gather data, analyze the data, and document systems analysis
Systems design
a new or alternative information system is designed. Three tasks designing alternative systems, selecting the best system, and writing a systems design report
Systems development
New hardware and software are acquired, developed, and tested
Systems Implementation
the new information system is installed, and people are trained to use it
Systems maintenance
In this ongoing phase, the system is periodically evaluated and updated as needed
Conversion steps
Direct approach, parallel approach, pilot approach, phased approach
Direct approach
abandoning the old system and starting a new system, can be very risky and not recommended
Parallel approach
running the old and new side by side until the new system proves its worth; very low risk; however very expensive; not generally recommended
Pilot approach
converting only one part of the organization to the new system until the new system proves its worth; less expensive but riskier than parallel conversion; recommended for situations with many people performing different operations
Phased approach
gradually implementing the new system to the entire organization ; less risky but more expensive than parallel conversion; recommended for situation with many people performing different operations
Prototyping
to build a model or prototype that can be modified before the actual system is installed
rapid applications development
Involves the use of powerful development software and specialized teams as an alternative to the systems development life cycle approach. Time for development is shorter and quality of the completed systems development time is better, although cost is greater.
Make or Buy
The act of choosing between manufacturing a product in-house or purchasing it from an external supplier. In a make-or-buy decision, the two most important factors to consider are cost and availability of production capacity.
SDLC
SDLC stands for Software Development Life Cycle. A Software Development Life Cycle is essentially a series of steps, or phases, that provide a model for the development and lifecycle management of an application or piece of software.
Step 1: Program specification
Programming step in which objectives, output, input, and processing requirements are determined.
Step 2: Program Design
Creating a solution using programming techniques, such as top-down program design, pseudocode, flowcharts, logic structures, object-oriented programming, and CASE tools.
Step 3: Program Code (Coding)
Actual writing of a computer program, using a programming language.
Step 4: Program Test (Debugging)
Programmer’s word for testing and then eliminating errors in a program. Programming errors are of two types: syntax and logic errors.
Step 5: Program Documentation
Written description of the purpose and process of a program. Documentation is written within the program itself and in printed documents. Programmers will find themselves frustrated without adequate documentation, especially when it comes time to update or modify the program.
Step 6: Program Maintenance
Activity of updating software to correct errors, improve usability, standardize, and adjust to organizational changes.
Computer-aided software engineering tools(CASE)
A type of software development tool that helps provide some automation and assistance in program design, coding, and testing.
Object-oriented programming (OOP)
Methodology in which a program is organized into self-contained, reusable modules called objects. Each object contains both the data and processing operations necessary to perform a task.
1st Generation of Programming: Machine Languages
Language in which data is represented in 1s and 0s. Most languages have to be translated into machine language for the computer to process the data. Either a compiler or an interpreter performs this translation.
2nd Generation of Programming : Assembly Languages
A step up from machine language, using names instead of numbers. These languages use abbreviations or mnemonics, such as ADD, that are automatically converted to the appropriate sequence of 1s and 0s.
3rd Generation of Programming: High-Level Procedural Languages
Programming language designed to focus on procedures and how a program will accomplish a specific task. Also known as 3GLs or third-generation languages.
C++
4th Generation of Programming: Task-Oriented Languages
Programming language that is nonprocedural and focuses on specifying what the program is to accomplish. Also known as 4GLs or very high level languages.
service>17 log
5th Generation of Programming: Problem and Constraint Languages
Computer language that incorporates the concept of artificial intelligence to allow direct human communication.
Patient symptoms like sneezing, coughing, and aching.