Free Sample: Information Technology paper example for writing essay

Information Technology - Essay Example

Introduction IT or Information technology is a term that encompasses all forms of technology used to create, store, exchange, and use information in its various forms of business data, voice conversations, still images, motion pictures, multimedia presentations, and other forms, including those not yet conceived. It’s a convenient term for including both telephony and computer technology in the same word. It is the technology that Is driving what has often been called “the Information revolution. ” The term Is commonly used as a synonym for computers and computer networks. T It also encompasses other information distribution technologies such as television and telephones Humans have been storing, retrieving, manipulating and communicating information since the Sumerians in Mesopotamia developed writing in about 3000 BC,but the term information technology in its modern sense first appeared in a 1958 article published in the Harvard Business Review; authors Harold J. Alleviate and Thomas L. Whistle commented that “the new technology does not yet have a single established name.

We shall call It Information technology (IT). ” Their definition insists of three categories: techniques for processing, the application of statistical and mathematical methods to decision-making and the simulation of higher-order thinking through computer programs. Four distinct phases of IT development: pre-mechanical (3000 BC – 1450 AD) Mechanical (1450-1840) Electromechanical (1840-1940) Electronic (1940-present) The recent advances of Information Technology are becoming central to the process of social-economic development.

Information Technology offers new way of exchanging information, and transacting business, changes the nature of the uncial and other service sectors provides efficient means of using the human and Institutional capabilities of countries In both the public and private sectors. The world is rapidly moving towards knowledge based economic structures and information societies, which comprise of networks of individuals, firms and countries that are linked electronically and in interdependent relationship.

In an increasingly globalize economy, information technology is one of the key determinants of competitiveness of growth of firm and countries. Affects of Technology….. Technology affects almost every aspect of our lives. Just look around you and you’ll e how wired we are. Thanks to the Internet, virtually anything you desire can be delivered to your door In a matter of days.

Personal Information is more accessible lose sleep waiting for their teenage daughter to come home they can Just call her cell phone, or send an unobtrusive text, to check up but as much as our personal lives have changed, the business world has revolutionized almost beyond recognition in the past few decades. Technology and I mean the advances in communication and information technology has changed the face and the pace of business. As communication and information travels faster and faster, the world seems smaller ND smaller, and this has large implications for the way we conduct business.

Storing important in files on a computer rather than in drawers, for instance, has made information easily accessible. Using e-mail allows businesses to communicate and send these files quickly to remote locations outside of an office. Many argue technology has blurred the line between professional and private lives. Wireless Internet, cell phones and BlackBerries have made it easy to work from home or for that matter, from the beach. The fact that it’s easy to work from the beach compels people to do so. On the flip side, people also feel compelled to use Internet access at work for personal reasons.

In this way, technology allows workaholics to work and slackers to slack. How has technology changed the way we conduct business? Businesses have been at the forefront of technology for ages. Whatever can speed production will draw in more business. As computers emerged in the 20th century, they promised a new age of information technology. But in order to reap the benefits, businesses needed to adapt and change their infrastructure. For example, American Airlines started using a computerized flight booking system, and Bank of America kook on an automated check-processing system.

Obviously, now, most business is conducted over personal computers or communication devices. Computers offer companies a way to organize dense databases, personal schedules and various other forms of essential information. As information travels faster and faster and more reliably, barriers of distance disappear, and businesses are realizing how easy it is to outsource Jobs overseas. Outsourcing refers to the practice of hiring employees who work outside the company or remotely and even halfway across the world.

Companies can outsource duties such as computer programming and telephone customer service. They can even outsource fast-food restaurant service don’t be surprised if you’re putting in your hamburger order with a fast-food employee working in a different country entirely. Outsourcing is a controversial practice, and many believe that U. S. Companies who take part are hurting the Job market in their route, saving companies between 30 and 70 percent Another technology that’s starting to revolutionize business is actually not very new it’s Just cheaper these days.

Radio frequency identification (RIFF) technology is infiltrating and changing business significantly in a few ways. Microchips that store information (such as a number equivalent of a barded and even an up-to-date history of the chip’s travels) can be attached to product, and this helps companies keep track of their inventory. Some businesses have even begun to use RIFF chip implants in humans to tighten security. An access control reader detects the chip’s signal and permits the employee access to the door.

But many people are concerned about privacy issues if this were to become widespread practice. Handheld devices like BlackBerries have become wildly popular for businesses because they let users check and send email from anywhere, and browse the Internet. Safe Large Investment and Risk For Example, the Internet enables airlines to provide online flight booking, banks to offer online account management and bill pay and allows any company to sell any product online. In general, the Internet has proven to be an inexpensive way to reach more customers.

Nowadays, if you can’t find a business online, or if it has an outdated, ugly Web site, it looks downright unprofessional. Many businesses have succeeded in using the Internet as their primary, or sometimes only, medium. Small businesses, too, have become easier to start up using the Internet. If you’re a stay-at- mom mom who makes a killer batch of cookies, you can easily sell them over the Internet and ship them to your customers. But, it’s not always as simple as it sounds. Any business conducted online must consider security, privacy or even copyright issues.

Copyright issues would include making sure your business doesn’t use someone else’s original work (such as a logo, for instance) or even making sure no one else is profiting from your business’s creative work. One of the biggest ways the Internet has changed business is through targeted advertising. Using Google, companies can specify the keywords that will drive certain customers to their ad. For instance, if you were to plug the word “baking” into Google, you might click on a page from epicures. Com.

That epicures page will have Google ads from sponsors who sell baking-related products. A company that sells rolling pins can pay to have its ads show up for people who search for specific words, like “baking,” “pies” or “dough. ” It makes good business sense people who search for “baking” on Google will be much more likely to click on a rolling pin ad than the average person. Yes, it is possible for the individual entrepreneur, SEEM and even large transnational reparations to operate in a global market without large investment or risk.

It is a global collection of networks, both big and small. These networks connect together in many different ways to form the single entity. Historically, IT automated, integrated and re-engineered operational processes. That reduced costs, increased scale and transformed operational practices. Today, most companies feel’ digital as they have automated processes, computers, information and data warehouses. A study of more than 2,200 companies indicated that digital technology supports an average 58% of heir business processes. What are the benefits of technology for a business?

There are many, but most fall under a few categories: Reach more potential customers, develop a business relationship with potential customers Streamline operations, reduce costs, improve efficiency, maximize profit, minimize waste, devote talent to core business instead of overhead Provide better service to customers Support better relationships with key partners Allow customers to better guide the business Established businesses outside the technology industry typically spend between h recent and 10 percent of their annual revenue on technology spending, depending mostly on the industry.

Free Sample: Information Technology paper example for writing essay

Information Technology - Essay Example

All electric power systems are in MS, including luminaries, signals, ramp meters, flashers, cameras, message signs, all lighting, tunnel lighting, and loop detectors. A key feature of the ‘MS is the Roadway Feature Viewer. The ‘MS Roadway Feature Viewer provides a convenient way for supervisors to scrutinize information about a roadway. For example, supervisors can easily see the locations of assets along the roadway and either view information about work being performed on an asset or create a work order for the asset.

In addition, they can view the location of work being performed on a portion of he roadway and have access to information about the roadway itself, such as the number of lanes or speed limit. The system is not integrated with other asset management systems. 3. 2 Florida Roadway Characteristics Inventory System The Florida Roadway Characteristics Inventory (RCA) System is a computerized database of physical and administrative data related to the roadway networks that are either maintained by or are of special interest 6 to the Florida DOT [Florida DOT, 2005].

The system also contains other data as required for special Federal and state reporting obligations. Some of the specific items that the RCA database includes are roadway signs, traffic signals, pavement markings and treatments, guardrails, and barriers. The system currently tracks assets in the Department of Maintenance and Traffic Operations Control, including roadway lighting, structural supports, and detectors. The system is integrated into the central system. FOOT has populated the database with all available data for the RCA system. The database is updated daily when the department obtains new or modified information.

The RCA database resides on the department mainframe computer yester, and it is maintained by department computer personnel from the district and central offices. 3. 3 Maryland Highway Management Information System The Maryland SHAH manages a number of databases operated by various divisions to inventory and report on the assets under their Jurisdiction rather than maintaining a single, integrated, computerized database for all roadway characteristics. These databases are integrated as necessary through a shared route system based on the roadway inventory used for internal and Federal reporting requirements.

The route system uses a standard key and mile points relating each of the ancillary systems to maintained by the database management section of the Highway Information Services Division is the main data source for roadway information [FAA, 2005]. Data are collected by inventory crews and integrated with data supplied by local county governments. The information gathered and maintained by the system is used for reporting and mapping within and outside Maryland SHAH and for developing and maintaining GIS Roadway Route System that runs an Oracle database.

By facilitating the reporting and map display of their data on a graphical roadway map, the GIS Roadway Route System serves as an integrating function for databases maintained y the agency’s Bridge, Pavement, Signal Operations, Accident Reporting, and Project Planning Divisions. The WHIM master file contains records to store each intersecting feature by route number and mile point. Features include, but are not limited to, intersecting routes, municipal and county boundaries, bridges, cultural features, some private roads, and road ends and CUL-De-sacs.

The Universe file contains roadway section data designated by route number, beginning mile point, and section length to support internal reporting and Highway Performance Monitoring System (HAMS) requirements. Data such as median width and type, number of lanes, holder type and width, pavement type, annual average daily traffic (ADD) and other characteristics are maintained. 7 3. 4 North Carolina Maintenance Management System The North Carolina DOT maintenance management system was developed to help plan, schedule, execute and manage individual maintenance programs [North Carolina DOT, 2003].

It describes the condition of assets based on extrapolations from random sampling. It develops an annual plan both ideal and constrained and it also creates an inventory of assets, facilitates the accounting processes and schedules daily maintenance work. The system is a PC-based, three-tiered system tit workstation access, an application server, and a mainframe Oracle server. The vision is to tie together the pavement maintenance, bridge management, and maintenance management systems and eventually add traffic signal management to allow a comprehensive assessment of needs down to the project level. . 5 New Mexico Road Feature Inventory and Highway Maintenance Management Systems The New Mexico Road Feature Inventory System (RIFF) maintains a video based system wherein each lane is recorded at 50-Ft intervals with a video image width of 120-Ft and all the asset data is imported to an Oracle database along with the video to rate an extensive database on the entire New Mexico roadway system to ease maintenance and limit legal liability by documenting safety assets [FAA, 2005].

Of the seven safety hardware asset categories, only lighting and traffic detectors are not included in the RIFF system. This is because lighting in New Mexico is maintained by local governments, not the State Highway and Transportation Department (SHED). Nonetheless, the video can easily pick up the roadway lighting information as well. The State is eliminating the use of magnetic detectors and making a transition to the use of video technology. The quality control is achieved at 95 percent accuracy and the system is integrated into the central system.

The New Mexico Highway Maintenance Management System (HAMS) is a proprietary database which is separate from the RIFF system and it is a collection of highway information on labor, The HAMS is not integrated with any other highway asset management systems. One purpose of the HAMS is to help New Mexico SHED use its resources in the most efficient manner to maintain the roadways in the best possible condition by guiding the field personnel in managing maintenance operations effectively.

New Mexico is en of the few States that owns the source code for its HAMS, which allows the State to maintain the software internally without licensing or other maintenance fees. Following the demonstrated success in New Mexico, a number of other States including Georgia, South Carolina, and Tennessee have implemented an HAMS. The future plans for the New Mexico SHED included merging of the two databases.

The New Mexico SHED recognizes the importance of coordinating, integration, planning with the Information Technology (IT) Department and it plans for central coordination for applications and development of any future software. 3. 6 Tennessee Road Information Management System The Tennessee Road Information Management System (TRIMS) is developed to improve cost-effective and efficient asset management [Tennessee, 2002]. The TRIMS Oracle database contains information on each public road in Tennessee.

The [email protected] interface allows users to query inventory data, digital photographs, road mileage, documents, digital plans, and scanned documents. The TRIMS also has a graphic interface, which offers map-based queries and displays information on maps, providing a more effective tool for planners and engineers. The system is in SE by field staff to plan and execute work and by office staff to manage needed maintenance and develop analyses in support of budget requests.

The Tennessee DOT has developed an internal guide to the TRIMS system to familiarize users with the TRIMS hardware, network, operating systems, database, and intranet/lenient connections. The TRIMS features information pertaining to accidents, city boundaries, county boundaries, elevation alignments, geometric, horizontal alignment, maintenance features, maintenance inventory, railroad crossings, rivers, road history, road segments, road descriptions, route features, state boundaries, structures, reface conditions, traffic, urban boundaries and vertical alignments.