Intelligence Is an overall capacity to think rationally, act purposefully and deal effectively with the environment ; Individuals’ ability to understand complex Ideas, to adapt effectively to the environment, to learn from experience, to engage In various forms of reasoning, to overcome obstacles by careful thoughts (Baron, 2001) Defining Intelligence Psychometric intelligence: measured by intelligence tests.
Practical intelligence: ability to deal with everyday situations Emotional intelligence: coping with the emotional demands of self and others Creativity: innovating, creating novel ideas Pl] [pick Superman’s G Factor British psychologist Charles Superman (1863-1945) described a concept he referred to as general Intelligence, or the g factor. After using a technique known as factor analysis to examine a number of mental aptitude tests, Superman concluded that scores on these tests were remarkably similar.
People who performed well on one cognitive test tended to perform well on other tests, while those who scored badly on one test tended to score badly on others. He concluded that intelligence is general cognitive ability that could be measured and numerically expressed. Chattel’s Theory of Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence: Intelligence consists of two factors: I) Fluid intelligence – Inherited abilities to think and reason II) Crystallized Intelligence – specific factors or the skills and knowledge to solve problems. Fluid intelligence Is the ability to find meaning In confusion and solve new problems.
It Is the ability to draw Inferences and understand the relationships of various concepts, Independent and experience. It should not be equated with memory or knowledge, but it does rely on accessing information from long-term memory. The two “forms” of intelligence are believed to be separate neural and mental systems. Both Fluid intelligence and Crystallized intelligence combine to make up general intelligence. [pick] [pick] Gardener’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences: According to Howard Gardner, there are different types of intelligences and they contribute to making us different.
The different types of intelligences are: Musical Intelligence – This area has to do with rhythm, music, and hearing. Those who have a high level of musical-rhythmic intelligence display greater sensitivity to sounds, rhythms, tones, and music. They are able sing, play musical instruments, and compose music. Spatial Intelligence – this has to do with vision and spatial judgments. People with strong visual-spatial intelligence are typically very good at visualizing and mentally manipulating objects.
Verbal-Linguistic – This type of intelligence has to do with words, spoken or written. People with verbal-linguistic intelligence display a facility with words and languages. They are typically good at reading, writing, telling stories and memorizing words and dates. Logical – Mathematical – This intelligence deals with logic, abstractions, deductive seasoning and numbers. People with this type of intelligence have the tendency to program computers and play chess well. Interpersonal Intelligence – This intelligence deals with interaction with others.
People in this category are usually extroverts and are characterized by their sensitivity to others’ moods, feelings, temperaments and motivations, and their ability to cooperate in order to work as part of a group. Interpersonal Intelligence – This type of intelligence has to do with introspective typically introverts and prefer to work alone. They are usually highly self-aware and palpable of understanding their own emotions, goals and motivations. They often have an affinity for thought-based pursuits such as philosophy. Bodily-Kinesthesia -This area has to do with movement and doing.
In this category, people are generally adept at physical activities such as sports or dance and often prefer activities which utilize movement. They may enjoy acting or performing, and in general they are good at building and making things. Naturalistic- This area has to do with nature, nurturing and relating information to one’s natural surroundings. This is the eighth and newest of the intelligences, added o the theory in 1999, and is not as widely accepted as the original seven. Existential – Some proponents of multiple intelligence theory proposed spiritual or religious intelligence as a possible additional type.
Gardner did not want to commit to a spiritual intelligence, but suggested that an “existential” intelligence may be useful. This however, is often linked with spiritual intelligence. Spiritual – This involves the ability to think in abstract spiritual terms and to put oneself in a spiritual frame of mind. Sternberg Trichina Theory of Intelligence: This states that intelligence is based on three processes: 1) A continental / analytical process – the ability to acquire new information. People with this type of skill analyze problems well.
They, however, cannot develop ideas well. 2) A experiential / creative process – the ability to adapt creatively and effectively. People with this kind of intelligence ‘bring something new to the table’. They are not Just chocked full of knowledge, but can creatively apply the knowledge. 3) A contextual / practical process – the ability to select the environment that best suits you. People with this kind of knowledge are said to be ‘street smart’. They have a Emotional intelligence refers to the ability to understand and control emotional responses.
It has four components or branches to it: 1) Perceiving emotion: This is the ability to detect and decipher emotions in oneself and others. In many cases, this might involve understanding nonverbal signals such as body language and facial expressions. 2) Using emotions: This is the ability to harness one’s emotion in the service of thinking and problem solving. It involves using emotions to promote thinking and cognitive activity. Emotions help prioritize what we pay attention and react to; we respond emotionally to things that garner our attention. ) Understanding emotions: This is the ability to comprehend the complex relationships among emotions. For example, the relationship between grief and anger or how two people can have different emotional reactions to the same event. 4) Managing emotions: This is the ability to regulate one’s own emotions and influence those of others. The ability to manage emotions effectively is a key part of emotional intelligence. Regulating emotions, responding appropriately and espousing to the emotions of others are all important aspect of emotional management.