Internet

Internet backbone
a collection of large national and international networks, most of which are owned by commercial, educational, or government organizations; they have the fastest high speed connections; examples are Verizon, AT&T, and Sprint
ISP
internet service providers
IXP
internet exchange point; typical ones is made up of one or more network switches to which ISP’s connect
POP
point of presence; a bank of modems, servers, routers, and switches through which many users can connect to an ISP simultaneously
Client/server model
majority of internet communications; clients are devices such as computers, tablets, and smartphones that use browsers to request services such as web pages; servers are deployed on the networks that make up the Internet
Protocol
set of rules for exchanging electronic information; rules of the road
Circuit switching
a dedicated connection remains active for the duration of the transmission; been used since the early days of the telephone for establishing communication; connections remains active for duration of transmission and is important when order of receiving information is critical
Packet switching
the communications methodology that makes computer communication efficient; does not require a dedicated communications circuit to be maintained; data is broken into smaller chunks called packets
What information does a packet contain
they vary, depending on the protocol being followed, but at a minimum, they must contain an address to which the packet is being sent, the address from where the packet originates, reassembly instructions, if the original data is split between packets, and that data that is being transmitted
TCP/IP
transmission control protocol/internet protocol that consists of many interrelated protocols; the IP is responsible for sending the information from one computer to another, the TCP prepares data for transmission and provides for error checking and resending lost data
HTTP
hypertext transfer protocol was created especially for the transfer of hypertext documents across the internet; hypertext documents have text is linked to other documents or media
FTP
SMTP
simple mail transfer protocol is responsible for sending emails along the internet to its destination; it is part of the internet protocol suite, is a client/server application, passes through several email servers; was designed to handle text messages
DHCP
dynamic host configuration protocol, it belongs to the TCP/IP protocol suite. which takes a pool of IP addresses and shares them with hosts of the network of an as needed basis server assigns each user an ip address for the duration of the session; it also assigns an IP address to your computer
15. Dynamic addressing
IP address is temporarily assigned from an available pool of IP addresses, which is more common; is normally handles by the DHCP which belongs to the TCPIP; provides a more secure environment by keeping hackers out of computer systems
16. Static addressing
means that the IP address for a computer never changes and is pst likely assigned manually by a network administrator or an ISP
17.How does my computer know the IP address of another computer?
18.DNS server
domain name server that functions like a phone book for the internet
19.Root DNS server
knows locations of DNS servers that contain master listings for TLD