Next, I would like to my family, especially my parents, Young Chon Kim and Lie Mom Pong and also my sister, Young Seek Ting for all the moral support given during the stressful periods. I would like to thank Ms. Angelina Gogh Lee Wing for the guidance of SPAS program. I would like to give special thank to my senior Sebastian Eng for guidance me in this study and sharing his experience, which has helped me to open my eyes and explore various possible. I would like to thank my friends, Low Yew Kong, Joshua Too, and Wang Huh In for their continuous support and wise counsel that I value and appreciate immeasurably.
I also would like to thank the principal of SMOKE Pie Yuan for giving me chance to distribute survey forms to students. I would like to express gratitude for all the participants of this study for their willingness to participate in this study and also for their patience during data collection. Last but not least, I would like to thank God and Jodie for making it all possible for me. To each and every one of you, thank you very much. Approval Form This research paper attached hereto, entitle “A Study of Internet Addiction among Students of Seakale Meghan Jennies Sebastian Pie Yuan,
Kampala” prepared and submitted by moving Shush Kin” in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the Bachelor of Social Science (Hon.) Psychology is hereby accepted. Supervisor Ms. Low Sew Kim Date: ABSTRACT There are many studies about internet use and internet addiction and it is one of the things that influence our daily life. This study examines the internet addiction in secondary school. The sample consisted of 120 students in Seakale Meghan Sebastian Jennies Pie Yuan Kampala, Appear. The study utilized an instrumental to measure the internet addiction; namely Internet Addiction Test (AT).
Demographic factors (age, gender and grade of level) were examined too. Data analysis included descriptive and inferential statistic (Chi-square and T-test). The result suggests that the level of internet addiction among SMOKE Pie Yuan is moderate and tends to minimal. Moreover, there is a significant of gender difference in internet addiction, t (118) = 2. 380, p = 0. 019. However, there is no significant association between internet addiction among the lower and upper secondary students of SMOKE Pie Yuan, Kampala, xx (1, n = 120) = 0. 306.
It is recommended that problem of internet diction should be aware to prevent growing of internet addiction. DECLARATION I declare that the material contain in this paper is the end result of my own work and that due acknowledgement has been given in the bibliography and references to ALL sources be they printed, electronic or personal. Name Student old : young Shush Kin : 0802518 Signed Date : 18th March 2011 TABLE OF CONTENT page ABSTRACT DECLARATION LIST OF TABLE LIST OF FIGURE CHAPTERS I INTRODUCTION Background of Study Statement of Problem Significant of Study Objective of Study Research Questions Hypothesis Definitions of Concepts II
LITERATURE REVIEW Level of Internet Addiction in Adolescent Gender Differences in Internet Addiction Theoretical Framework of Internet Addiction Symptom of Internet Addiction Causes of Internet Addiction Ill METHODOLOGY Research Design Subject Instrument Research Procedure Data Analysis IV FINDING AND ANALYSIS Hypothesis 1: Level of Internet Addiction Hypothesis 2: Gender Differences between Internet Addiction Hypothesis 3: Significant Association between Internet Addiction and the Lower 1 182020202021 21 232325 iii and Upper Secondary School Students. 7 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION Discussion Limitation of Study Recommendation for Future Study Conclusion 29 29 33 34 35 37 REFERENCES APPENDIX A APPENDIX B APPENDIX C APPENDIX D APPENDIX E APPENDIX F Questionnaire Journal Support for Questionnaire Overall Data Collection Result 1 Result 2 Result 3 43 46 54 57 58 59 LIST OF TABLE Page Table 4. 1 4. 2 4. 3 Descriptive Statistic for Internet Addiction among Gender Independent Sample Test for Internet Addiction among Gender Chi- square for Internet Addiction between Lower and Upper Secondary Students 4. Chi- square for Internet Addiction between Lower and Upper Secondary Students 28 27 25 26 LIST OF FIGURES Page Figure 2. 1 4. Conceptual Model of Internet Addiction Level of Internet Addiction among Students of SMOKE Pie Yuan, Kampala 23 16 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Background of Study Internet is being integrated as part of our everyday life because the usage of internet has been growing explosively worldwide. Homes, schools, colleges, libraries and internet cafes are the places which are more accessible to internet nowadays.
Completing schoolwork, playing online games, reading and writing emails and engaging in real time chatting are the common online activities. According to the National Center of Education Statistic relaying studies had shown that a large number of American children and adolescents with age around 5 to 17 years old have access to the internet and are exposed to the internet at a very early age (Mythic, Quo and Winslow, 2008). Young (2006) stated that internet is one of the things that influence our daily life because internet users more likely to spend their leisure time in the cyber community.
According to the Ministry of Information and Communication (2005), around 94. 8% of teenagers are using the internet and this propensity suggests that teenagers may insider the cyber space as a real rather than virtual space (as cited in Young, 2006). Again according to Young 2006, “the internet has Janis face”. It means that internet’s provide facility for people while on the other hand people might abuse the internet usage also. Based on OK et al. (2006) studies that internet and computer usage have become popular worldwide but also have negative impact on some individuals and on society at large.
According to Young (1996), addiction to the internet is the same as addiction to gambling, drugs, and alcohol. Wideband & Anchorman (2004) have explain that concept f addiction is quite hard to define because it depends on a substance or activity. The characteristic of dependence are overindulgence, tolerance, withdrawal, craving, and loss of control. The behavioral addiction has been grown and related to the use of machines such as playing video games, using computer, and playing amusement machines.
Behavioral addictions do not rely heavily on physiological mechanisms but most important the psychological explanations of addiction fore. Internet addiction has received increased attention due to the controversial nature and the possibility hat a new kind of compulsive activity is on the rise (Mythic, Quo & Winslow, 2008). According to Achebe, Kong & Lie (n. D. ), Internet addiction is a contemporary problem brought by easy access to computer and online information. On the other hand, internet addiction can be defined as an impulse disorder.
Furthermore, some of the characteristic of this problem are similar to those of pathological gambling. Arrack (1999) have conducted a study and found that people who are easily bored, lonely, shy, depressed and suffering from other addiction are people who are susceptible to internet addiction (as cited in Achebe, Kong & Lie, n. D. ). Achebe, Kong & Lie (n. D. ) have stated that, people who are addicted to internet can develop many types of disorder and one of the disorders that are common for the modern day is Internet Addiction Disorder (IDA).
Individuals who are suffering from IDA can exhibit symptoms such as drawbacks and face consequences that are similar to individual who are addicted to alcohol, gambling, shopping or other compulsive behaviors. The two major treatments available to help people in this disorder are: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CUB) and Motivational Enhancement Therapy (MET). Young (1998), had identified seven reasons for the IDA such as marital discontent, work related stress, financial problems, insecurity, anxiety, struggle in life, and limited social life (as cited as Achebe, Kong & Lie, n. D. ).
There are many studies about internet usage and internet addiction. Two researchers, Egger and Returnable have worked out a questionnaire to assess usage, feeling and experiences of internet use. When this questionnaire was posted, it and attracted 454 responses and 10% of hem were identified as addicted. While the other survey: Internet Usage Survey with 32-item true-false questionnaire had been posted by Brenner and received 563 responses. Besides that, Petri and Gun had conducted another online study with 27 questions about the participants’ internet use, attitudes, and beliefs and yielded 455 valid responses.
The result has shown that 46. 1% of them classifying themselves as addicted to the internet. Another two assessments are also completed by respondents which are Beck’s Depression Inventory and Essence’s Introversion/ Extroversion Scale. In these both assessment, it is found that the high internet usage and both depression and introversion indicating that those who consider themselves addicted to the internet were more likely to be depressed and introverted. Internet Addiction Test (AT) was posted by Young with 20-item. This is the latest version for Young and more systematically (Wideband & Anchorman, 2004).
According to American Psychiatric Association (1995), the term “addiction” does not appear in the most recent version of the (Diagnostic and Statistical Multicultural Edition) ADSM – IV (as cited as Achebe, Kong & Lie, n. . ). In additional, another study has mentioned that internet addiction is not a ADSM-IV diagnosis yet (Mythic, Quo and Winslow, 2008). However in 1998, Young have proposed a set of criteria for diagnosing internet addiction based on the ADSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling. Young have selected eight out of ten criteria that she felt that can applied most readily to internet use: 1.
Preoccupation of the internet. 2. A need for increase time spent online to achieve the same amount of satisfaction. 3. Repeated efforts to curtail internet use. 4. Feel irritability, depression, or mood ability when internet use is limited. 5. Staying online longer than anticipated. 6. Putting Job or relationship in Jeopardy to use internet. 7. Lying to others about how much time is spent online. 8. Using the internet as a means of regulating mood. Individuals fulfill five of the eight criteria would be considered as internet dependence (as cited in Yellowness & Marks, 2005).
According to Salaam & Hashish (2009), Internet usage in Malaysian began around 1992 and they started with simple browsing and e-mail experience and now turned into mechanism to creatively propagate information. Radio and television has overtaken by internet as a source of information and par with newspaper. In Malaysia, in order to break through the barrier of gender discrimination, disability, and find Job, the women internet users have used information and communications technology (ACT) to allow them to work from home.
Sanders (2005) stated that, the number of Malaysian Internet user has increased over the years reaching 51. 4% making Malaysia women a force to reckon with far as internet use is concern. Based on Hoffman et al. (2004), internet has exceeded the adoption rate that of earlier mass communication cosmologies by several magnitudes (as cited in Salaam & Hashish, 2009). However, according to Wong (2010), internet addiction is already a crisis in many developed countries. He believed this plague has infected youngsters in Malaysia and situation will be worsening by the day.
Wong has stated that, it is time for Health Ministry in Malaysia is to work with psychologists in considering an internet rehabilitation program because it’s help to bring addicts back into the real world. Statement of Problem As the usage of the internet is growing rapidly each year and internet addiction is becoming a problem among some users. Addicted persons may come from all walks of life and as a result there are suffering in the main aspect of everyday life in the situation such as school, family, work and relationship (Achebe, Kong & Lie, n. D. ). In 2007 it was declared that there were 6. Billion people in the world but 20% of them use internet, the increased rate has increased 265. 6% (Canaan, Gunter, Pekoes & Canaan, 2009). However, 1 1. 67 – 19. 8% of adolescents have developed an addiction to internet use. Indirectly, it impairs the individuals’ psychological wellbeing, peer and family interaction and of course academic reference (OK at al. , 2005). According to Mythic, Quo and Winslow (2008), Singapore is a multicultural city-state with a total resident population of Just over 3. 5 million people, the literacy rate of Singapore is 95. 4%.
Result show that 84% of the resident with age 10 to 14 years age have started to use the internet, while the internet use for the age of 15 to 59 is 64%. Besides that, 21% of Singapore with 60 years and older age group has used the internet. Furthermore, 78% of household in Singapore have at least one computer no matter is desktop or laptop at home and the 71% of household have access to the internet at home. The most important thing is 61% of the individuals are using the internet for leisure activities including playing/downloading games, listening to music or watching films.
According to Canaan, Gunter & Canaan (2009), among the 70. 6 billion populations in Turkey, 22. 5% of them use internet in 2007 and usage rate increased to 700% between the year of 2000 and 2007. However another study have showed that approximately 20 million internet users at the end of 2007 and the amount have increased to 26 million by September, 2008 in Turkey (Kickback, Oddballs & Collar, 2008). Based on Juju et al. (2008), Taiwan has established that 19. 8% of adolescents have internet addiction and they usually have problems with their daily routines, school performance, family relationship and mood.
As a conclusion, the studies of internet addiction have been found in many different countries such as western country, Turkey, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Korea, Singapore, and etc. However, this study in Malaysia is very limited and the levels of internet addiction among adolescent still in a question mark. Significant of Study. This study is very important to investigate the seriousness of internet addiction in the society nowadays especially for adolescent in secondary school. Internet is very useful for user to find information for their current work.
However presently internet is not only use for seeking information but being use to fills leisure time as well. If this phenomenon continues without any solution then internet addiction will become very serious and serious. So to investigate the seriousness of the internet addiction is the main thing to start so that this problem can be solve. Hence this study seeks to find out how serious internet addiction among school dent is. This study also will explain the negative consequences of internet addiction.
Besides that these studies also important to let the people who are involve to take care of it such as parents and teacher. Through this study, they may start to aware of this problem so that can try to control their children or student. This study can provide much information about internet addiction. This study can provide information on the symptoms of the internet addiction, the impact of internet addiction and also the effect of internet addiction. The important effect that needs to e investigating in this study is whether the internet addiction will affect the academic performance of student in secondary school.
However, According to Gong (2005), internet addiction is significantly and negatively related to students’ academic performance (as cited as Young, 2006). Besides that, academic performance of the students is impaired by the addiction to the use of the internet. Objectives of Study There are four objectives in this study. Firstly, the objective for this study is to find out the seriousness of the internet addiction among students from secondary school. SMOKE Pie Yuan Sampan’s students will be this study population.
The second purpose for this study is to investigate what is the level of internet addiction among them. Besides that this study also wants to investigate whether there is gender difference in internet addiction. The fourth objective in this study is to investigate where the in a difference on internet addiction between lower and upper secondary school students in SMOKE Pie Yuan Kampala. Research Questions 1 . What is the level of internet addiction among students of SMOKE Pie Yuan, Kampala? 2. Is there any difference between gender and internet addiction mongo students of SMOKE Pie Yuan, Kampala? . Is there any significant association between internet addiction and level of study lower and upper secondary school students among students of SMOKE Pie Yuan, Kampala? Hypothesis 1 . The level of internet addiction among students of SMOKE Pie Yuan, Kampala is high. 2. There is a difference between gender and internet addiction among students of SMOKE Pie Yuan, Kampala. 3. There is no significant association between internet addiction and level of study lower and upper secondary school students among students of SMOKE Pie Yuan, Kampala. Definition of Concept Addiction.
Souls, Shell, & Kleenex (2003) concluded that: Moseys Medical, Nursing & Allied Health Dictionary defines addiction as “compulsive, uncontrollable dependence on a substance, habit, or practice to such a degree that cessation causes severe emotional, mental, or physiologic reactions. ” According to Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine, “Addiction is a dependence, on a behavior or substance that a person is powerless to stop. ” Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary defines compulsion as “an irresistible impulse to perform an irrational act” and addiction as a “compulsive need for and use of a habit-forming substance.
The term addiction has been to some extent replaced by the word dependence for substance abuse (p. 64). Internet addiction. Based on Center for Internet Addiction Recovery, internet addiction is when an individual is having a compulsive behavior involving the internet interferes with normal functioning, and causes stress on the addicts, as well as their family, friends, and loved ones (Pad & Cunningham, 2010). According to Wolfe (2000), internet addiction is a creation of the media. While, Boogie (2004) stated that, internet addiction is a dysfunctional internet use pattern.
This honeymoon occurs when people spend much time online to the detriment of their social and financial well-being. Lower secondary school. Lower secondary school is a compulsory education for children between the age of 12 and 15. Most of the lower secondary schools are public schools, which are established by municipalities and operated by local boards of education under national guidelines and legislation (Smith, 1999). The first is ideology, it is actually classical, subject-centered and vocational. The curriculum design is subject-centered too.
However, for the preferred pedagogy it is object-focused with much use of textbooks and teacher-prepared worksheets, fewer opportunities for fieldwork. The teachers’ characteristics are specialist, trained principally (Tiburon & Williams, 1997). Upper secondary school. According to Lee (2002), Upper secondary education is start from Secondary Year Four and Secondary Year Five and is the demagnification of education or the universalistic of education in Malaysia. This demagnification of secondary education has brought about the transformation from an elitist to a universal or mass secondary education.
Furthermore, it is the intention of this paper that the widening of formal access to education may not lead to real access to education if effective measures are not put in place. In addition, access to education must lead to better equality and quality of education (as cited in -ran, 2010). CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW Level of Internet Addiction in Adolescent According to Plaint, Bernard and Coercible (2006), Internet addiction can be found at any age and in any social condition, but most of the research major attention has been focuses on adolescent because adolescent seem to be a critical period of addiction limitability.
The research of Van Rookie and Van den Joined (2007) had reported that, using internet has become one of the most popular leisure-time activities among adolescent in Western societies. Adolescents in Netherlands of ages between 11 to 15 use the internet for leisure activities and for adolescents aged 14 and older regard internet usage as an important leisure-time activity than watching TV (as cited as Van den Joined, Spenserian, Overrules, Van Rookie and Engel’s, 2009). According to Line, Line and Www (2009), older adolescents appear to be more dependent on the internet than younger adolescent. Recent studies have found that 19. % of adolescent in the world have internet addiction and furthermore, it is associated with hostility (OK, Yen, Lie, Hang, and Yen, 2009). The first widely “wired” generation now a day are preteens and teens and according to marketer (2004), the number of preteens and teens online in United State grew steadily from 26. 6 million in 2000 to 34. 3 million in 2003 and nearly manhole of all youngsters were online (as cited in Line & You, 2008). However a recent survey from Forrester Research (2005) had revealed that consumer between the age of 12 and 17 in North America were often online daily ND average almost 11 hours per week.
On the other hand, a survey by Taiwan Network Information Center (2008), should that the internet population in Taiwan has reached 15 million. Among them, internet user of the age under 20 accounted for about 2. 86 million. Furthermore, the two groups with the highest rates of internet usage were 12 to 15 years old which is 98% and 16 to 20 years old that is 95. 6% (as cited in Line & You, 2008). Based on Plaint, Bernard and Coercible (2006) research, 5. 4% of the sample was internet addiction and the sample included 275 students with the average of 16. 67 В± 1. 5 years and consisted of 52. 4% males and 47. 6% females.
This research also shown that in Italy, internet usage had a slower diffusion than in other countries. However, in another research from China Internet Network Information Center (2006) had shown that 123 million people had gone online, of which 14. 9% were teenagers below 18 years old and it has concluded that internet addiction is currently becoming a serious mental health problem among Chinese adolescents. Chou and Hoist reported that the incidence rate of Internet addiction among Taiwan college students was 5. 9%. Www and GHz unidentified 10. % of Chinese college students as addicted to Internet (as cited in Cacao, Us, Lie and Gao, 2007).
Based on Chem. et al. (2005), the majority of online gaming crime in Taiwan is theft (73. 7%) and fraud (20. 2) and their research found that the age of offenders is low with is 3. 3% between ages 15 to 20 years of age, 8. 3% are under 15 years old (as cited in Wan & Chou, 2007). According to Park, Kim and Choc (2008), there are more adolescent using the internet than any other age group in South Korea. Based on their research 97. 3% of South Korean adolescents between the age of 6 and 19 years used the internet in 2005. Moreover, a study have investigated the prevalence of Internet addiction among South Korean adolescents been made.
In this study 903 adolescents participated and 10. 7% of them scored high on the Internet Addiction Scale and these youths were considered at high risk for Internet addiction. This phenomenon occurs because South Korea is an internet-based society that provides numerous middle and high school adolescents with easy internet access and Internet addiction among South Korean is serious. Gender Differences in Internet Addiction One of the studies of Handmade (n. D. Showed the distribution of students among three levels of internet addiction. It showed that 75. % of female no sign of addiction compared to only 46. 6% of males. Besides that, less than 25% of females are addicted to the internet and more than 50% of male students are addicted. Moreover, about 18% of males are highly addicted to the internet but females only 6% are highly addicted. In other words, male students are more addicted to the internet than female students and the reason could be that male students enjoy more freedom than female students such as spend time outside the house and with friends, and visit internet fees, game networks and other places.
This freedom will make them more time surfing the internet and consequently become more vulnerable to internet addiction. Wearable, Lee & Captivity (2002) stated that numerous studies have shown on gender differences in the use of digital media and the type of service girls and boys prefer are different. Besides that, based on (Superhumanly et al. (2001); Buckram, Venerated, Huston, Lee, Captivity, & Wright (2003), in early teens, girls use the computer longer than boys, but for the late -teens this trends is reversed (as cited in Park 2009).
Gender differences in internet addiction can be explained by the types of content that interest men and women. Interactive online games characterized by power, dominance, control, and violence attract more men than women. As an example, Young (1998) observed that men tend to seek out dominant activities. Women, on the other hand, seek out close friendships and prefer anonymous communication in which they can hide their identity. Van Cochise & Widgeon (1997) have another study which showed that boys enjoy online games more than girls. This preference makes boys heavy users of the internet (as cited in Park 2009).